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Imvano y’amafaranga atuma FDLR ikomeza ibikorwa by’iterabwoba

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 9 Mutarama 2023 saa 08:42
Yasuwe :

Muri raporo iherutse gushyikirizwa Akanama k’Umuryango w’Abibumbye gashinzwe umutekano, Itsinda ry’Impuguke zashyizweho na LONI zagaragaje ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi by’umutwe wa FDLR, uburyo ukorana n’inzego zo hejuru mu gisirikare cya Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo n’uko bafatanya mu kurwanya umutwe wa M23.

Imwe mu ngingo ikunda gutindwaho iyo hagarukwa ku mutwe wa FDLR, ni uburyo wakomeje gukwirakwiza ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside, nk’umutwe washizwe n’abagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda, mu 1994.

Nyamara uruhande rudatindwaho ni uburyo FDLR yakomeje kubaho, kandi inkeke iteye ku mutekano w’u Rwanda n’abaturage ba RDC ntizihinduke, nubwo hageragejwe uburyo bwinshi bwo kuyihashya.

Imiryango y’ingenga mpuzampahanga itandukanye ikorera muri Congo yerekana ko hari ubucuruzi bwagutse bukorwa n’uyu mutwe ufatanyije n’abasirikare ndetse abapolisi ba Congo, udasize n’abanyepolitike ubundi bakabaye barwanya uyu mutwe.

FDLR mu bucuruzi bw’amakara

Ikigo Pole Institute gikorera muri RDC, giheruka gusohora raporo ku buryo imitwe yo mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo ibonamo amafaranga ikoresha, yasohotse muri Mata 2022.

Icyo gice kibarizwamo imitwe myishi yitwaje intwaro, kuko mu 132 yabarwaga mu 2017, nibura 72 yabarwaga mu Ntara ya Kivu y’Amajyaruguru yonyine.

Raporo igira iti "Amakara acibwa muri Pariki y’Igihugu ya Virunga agize isoko nini y’amafaranga ya FDLR, kuva batakaza ibirombe bagenzuraga muri Walikale na Masisi kubera igitutu cy’ingabo za FARDC n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro ya Mai Mai."

Iyo raporo igaragaza ko FDLR ifite ibirindiro muri teritwari za Rutshuru na Nyiragongo, mu byanya bibungabunzwe bya Pariki y’Igihugu ya Virunga, no mu mashyamba ya Rutshuru mu duce twa Bwito, Binza, Bukoma na Busanza.

Kuba mu mashyamba nk’ayo, bituma FDLR yibanda mu guca amakara, ubundi ikagurisha muri Goma.

Emmanuel de Merode uyobota Ikigo gishinzwe gucunga Pariki ya Virunga kiyoborwa (ICNN) yemeje ko FDLR ivana inyungu mu bikorwa bitemewe bikorerwa muri iyi pariki, aribyo uburobyi butemewe no gutwika amakara.

Avuga kandi ko FDLR ivana inyungu nini mu kugurisha amakara muri Goma ituwe n‘abaturage basaga miliyoni, 97% batagira amashanyarazi, kandi FDLR igabana inyungu n’indi mitwe nka Mai Mai ndetse n’abasirikari ba Congo (FARDC).

Nibura ngo Goma mu mwaka ikoresha toni 150,000 z’amakara, nubwo indi mibare ivuga ko zishobora kuba ziri hagati ya toni 60,000 na 90,000. Nazo si nke.

Muri ayo makara yose, nibura 95% byaje kugaragara ko aturuka muri Pariki y’Igihugu ya Virunga, ahagenzurwa na FDLR. Ni mu mashyamba asarurwa mu bice bya Nyamulagira, Kahunga na Nyamitwitwi.

Amakara ni imari ikomeye mu mujyi wa Goma

Abarwanyi ba FDLR ariko sibo bikorera aya makara bayajyana ku isoko, ahubwo bubatse ubucuruzi burimo abantu benshi, buri wese akabonaho umugabane we.

Muri urwo ruhererekane harimo abarwanyi ba FDLR ubwabo, abasirikare n’abapolisi ba Congo (PNC), abatwara ayo makara, abayacuruza n’abandi.

Isesengura ry’imibare ryagaragajwe na Pole Institute yerekana ko nibura mu mwaka, ubucuruzi bw’amakara muri Goma bushobora kwinjiza $45,000,000.

Raporo ikomeza iti "Nibura ku mwaka wose, FDLR n’abayihagarariye bakira $20,000,000; ni ukuvuga $11,671,809.4 muri FDLR na $8,215,157.2 ku bayihagarariye."

Gusoresha abaturage

Umutwe wa FDLR washyize ingufu mu gusoresha abaturange mu duce yigaruriye, aho usanga ivana amafaraga menshi mu bikorwa by’ubuhinzi n’ubwikorezi.

Raporo ya Pole Insitute ikomeza iti "Ayo mafaranga arimo agenewe gukodesha cyangwa imisoro yakwa kugira ngo abaturage b’abahizi bemererwe kugera mu miriya yera bahinge, batunganye imirima cyangwa babashe gusarura."

Kandi aya makuru yemezwa n’abarwanyi ba bari ba FDLR haberutswe gufatirwa mu mirwano ikomeje guhuza M23 n’Ingabo za Congo (FARDC) zifatanyije n’imitwe irimo ya FDLR.

Adjudant Uwamungu Innocent wakoraga mu bunyamabanga bwa Général Pacifique Ntawunguka alias Omega, uyobora ishami rya gisirikare rya FDLR-FOCA, yatanze ubuhamya ko FDLR itunzwe no guhinga ndetse no gusoresha abaturage.

Undi ni Niyonzima Jean Damascene wavuye mu Rwanda mu 1994, ahunze. Avuga ko yari yungirije Burugumesitiri Nyakamwe Antoine wayoboye Komini Kinyami muri Byumba. We yagize ati “FDLR ikoresha abantu ku ngufu mu bikorwa byo guhinga kandi mu gihe cy’isarura abaturage bagenda bariha ibishyimbo, ibigori…"

Umuturange usanzwe utuye mu bice biyoborwa na FDLR ashobora kwakwa hagati ya $0.30 na $5 nk’umusoro wa FDLR. Naho Iyo bigeze ku bayobozi n’abakire, raporo ivuga ko “n’abanyapolitiki bavuga rikijyana baha amafaranga FDLR kugira ngo bizere umutekano wabo."

Ku rundi ruhande, no kugira ngo wa mukire abashe kwidegembya, agomba kugira amafaranga aha FDLR.

Raporo ivuga ko nk’umunyapolitiki urimo kwiyamamaza cyangwa ibindi bikorwa bye, agakenera kunyura muri Pariki y’Igihugu ya Virunga muri Kalengera, muri Bwisha cyangwa Tongo muri Bwito, byonyine imodoka ze zishobora kwishyuzwa atari munsi ya $2500 agomba guhabwa FDLR.

Raporo ivuga ko ubirenzeho ngo ashobora guterwa igico, akaba yanahasiga ubuzima.

Raporo y’Itsinda ry’impuguke kuri Congo ishimangira ko ingabo z‘icyo ndetse na Leta ubwayo, barekeye imitwe nka FDLR ibikorwa byo gusoresha. Ibi byereka ko Leta ititeguye gufata inshingano zayo harimo kurinda abaturange.

FDLR mu bwikorezi

Uretse gusoresha abaturage, uyu mutwe unagira n’abantu benshi bakorana mu bijyaye na moto zitwara abagenzi cyangwa amakamyo atwara imizigo.

Mu bice bya Rutshuru, FDLR yashyizeho umusoro wakwa ku bwikorezi bw’ibicuruzwa bitandukaye binyura mu gace igenzura.

Raporo ya MONUSCO yo muri 2014 ivuga ko umushoferi ashobora kwishyura amadolari ari hagati ya 25-300, bitewe n’umuzigo yikoreye.

Raporo ya Pole Instutite yo yemeza ko FDLR ifite imodoka zo mu bwoko bwa Fuso zikorera amakara na moto zikoreshwa mu gutwara abantu.

Abazikoresha ngo aba ari abanye-Congo bahawe akazi, bakabakorera.

Raporo iti "Iyo abashoferi bahawe akazi barenze ku masezerano bagiranye, bahita babica."

FUSO zikoreshwa cyane mu gutunda amakara n'ibindi bicuruzwa, bivugwa ko harimo n'iza FDLR

Ibindi Bikorwa FDLR ikuramo amafaranga

Umutwe wa FDLR kandi uzwiho gucukura no gukora umucuruzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro muri Lubero nk’uko MONUSCO ibyemeza.

Raporo ya MONUSCO yerekana ko FDLR icuruza imbaho, urumogi ndetse n’amafi. Ibi bikorwa byose bikaba byinjiriza FDLR amafaranga arenga miliyoni $71 ku mwaka, ni ukuvuga arenga miliyari 76 Frw.

Iyo ni isoko ihoraho y’amafaranga, atuma uyu mutwe uhorana ubushobozi bwo guhungabanya umutekano no kujujubya abaturage.

Gutsinda FDLR

Impunguke zivuga ko ingeng bitekerezo ya FDLR iteye ikibazo ku mutekano w’u Rwanda ndetse n’akarere kose.

Byongeye, kwemerera uyu mutwe wa FDLR gukorera amafaranga mu buryo bweruye biwubashisha kugura intwaro ndetse no gukurura abandi barwanyi.

FDLR cyo kimwe n’indi mitwe y’iterabwoba, inkomoko ihoraho y’umutungo ni yo ituma kuwurwanya bigorana, kuko ukomeza kubaho, kugeza uyifungiye amazi n’umuriro.

Raporo ya Pole Institute itanga imyanzuro irimo ko kugira ngo FDLR itsindwe, bisaba ko hongerwa abasirikare n’abapolisi mu burasirazuba bwa RDC, kandi hagafungwa amayira yinjirizamo amafaranga.

Ibyo ngo byakorwa binyuze mu gukora igenzura no guhagarika imisoro abaturage bakwa n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro, ndetse hagakurikiranwa inkomoko y’amakara akoreshwa muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru, hakanagenzurwa ibijyanye n’ubucuruzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro.

Ni mu gihe raporo y’Itsinda ry’impuguke kuri Congo yo isaba Leta y’icyo gihugu kurekera aho gufasha no kwifatanya n’imitwe ikorera muri burazirazuba bwacyo, irimo na FDLR.

Igice kinini cy'amakara akoreshwa i Goma gituruka muri Pariki y'Igihugu ya Virunga, igenzurwa ku gice kimwe na FDLR
FDLR igenzura igice kinini cya Pariki y'Igihugu ya Virunga, ndetse iheruka kuhicira ambasaderi w'u Butaliyani i Kinshasa, Luca Attanasioka

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