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Nyampinga wa Gihanga, uwatowe n’Abadage: Amateka y’abakobwa b’ubwiza n’umutima mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 15 February 2022 saa 07:05
Yasuwe :

Kuri ubu, hirya no hino mu Rwanda, ibintu birashyushye, nk’ibisanzwe muri Gashyantare ya buri mwaka. Irushanwa ryo guhitamo umukobwa uhiga abandi mu bwiza, ubumenyi n’umuco ”Nyampinga w’u Rwanda” rirarimbanyije.

Hari benshi bibwira ko umuco wo gutora ba Nyampinga mu Rwanda, ari uwa vuba cyangwa se ari umuhahano nk’ibindi byose twahashye mu mahanga, nyamara nk’uko tubitekererezwa mu mateka y’u Rwanda, umuco wo kugira abari bahiga abandi mu bwiza, ubwema, ubushongore n’ubukaka, wabayeho kuva kera.

Ikigenda kibitandukanya ni inyito zabyo bitewe n’intera igihugu kigezeho cyiyubaka.

Nyampinga ni izina rusange ry’abari b’u Rwanda, ari byo bishatse kuvuga ”Umwari w’umutima”, naho abagore bagahabwa izina rya “Mutimawurugo”.

Umugenzo wo gutoranya abakobwa bahiga abandi mu bwiza mu Rwanda, ku ikubitiro wahanzwe na Gihanga ahasaga mu 1100, ubwo yari akubutse mu masezerano y’i Nkotsi na Bikara yashyizeho umushinga wo kuba igihugu gisangiwe.

Mu gutegura umushinga wo kubaka u Rwanda cyane cyane mu gisata cyo guhuza ibihugu 29 byari bibumbiye hamwe u Rwanda, yateguye igenamigambi rizamufasha.

Igenamigambi rya mbere ryari iryo guhuza ibihugu akoresheje ububanyi n’amahanga amukikije. Intwaro yifashishije mu bubanyi n’amahanga mu mugambi w’ihuzabihugu, zageraga kuri eshatu. Imwe muri yo yari iyo guhuza ibihugu akoresheje gushyingirana, abakobwa b’i Rwanda bagashyingirwa mu bindi bihugu, abo mu bindi bihugu, na bo bagashyingirwa i Rwanda.

Gihanga yaciye iteka rikomeye ryo kwita ku burezi bw’umwana w’umukobwa kuva bakimutwita, mu gihe avutse kugeza abaye umwangavu no mu gihe cyo kumushyingira akubaka urwe rugo. Ni ho havuye umugenzo uzwi na benshi mu bagore bo hambere, bitaga ” Kurera inda”, aho bagiraga imiti banywa, kugira ngo umwana batwite atazavukana umuze n’uburame buke.

Kuva ubwo, imigenzereze yo kwita ku bwiza bw’umukobwa w’i Rwanda, birenga kuba uburezi busanzwe bwo mu muryango, biba igishyitsi cya Politiki y’ububanyi n’amahanga, u Rwanda rwubakiyeho mu kunywanisha ibihugu no kubihuza bikaba igihugu kimwe.

Gihanga yashyizeho umuhango wo gutegura abakobwa bahiga abandi mu bwiza bazajya bashyingirwa mu mahanga nka Politiki yahisemo mu kunywanisha u Rwanda n’ibindi bihugu. Ahasaga mu 1120, ni bwo yashyizeho umurongo ngenderwaho wo gutora abakobwa bazahiga abandi mu bwiza, ariko bakaba umwihariko w’abagombaga kuvamo abagore b’ibwami bazabyarira u Rwanda umwami.

Hatoranyijwe imiryango ine yagombaga kujya ivamo abakobwa bahiga abandi mu bwiza n’ubwenge, bazabyarirwa u Rwanda umwami. Iyo miryango ni yo yahawe izina ry’Ibibanda (Ababyarabami) ariyo Abasinga, Abega, Abaha n’Abakono.

Iyo miryango ni yo yazengurukwagamo n’Abiru bashakamo abakobwa bazaba Ababyarabami b’u Rwanda. Mu bakobwa batoranyaga muri iyo miryango ni bo batorwagamo umukobwa uhiga abandi mu bwiza n’ubwema, ubushongore n’ubukaka, ari na we wahawe izina ry’umugore w’Ingabwa. Bishaka kuvuga umugore uzashyigikira u Rwanda, akazaba umugabekazi uzafatanya n’umuhungu we kugenga igihugu.

Ahasaga mu wa 1213, ku ngoma y’Umwami Ndoba yashyizeho ikindi cyiciro cy’abakobwa bahiga abandi mu bwiza, ari bo bitwaga ”Imirerwa”. Mu gihe umwami w’u Rwanda yahabwaga umugore w’Ingabwa uzabyarira u Rwanda umwami, yashoboraga no gushakiraho n’abandi bagore mu rwego rwo kugira ubwiru buhisha uzaba umugabekazi.

Abandi bagore b’ibwami bungirizaga umugore w’ingabwa, batoranywaga mu gihugu n’Abiru cyangwa se Abatware batwaraga imisozi y’i Rwanda. Bakamenyeshwa ko umwami ashaka abagore, bityo buri mutware wese akaba asabwa kuzana ibwami umukobwa wese uzwiho guhiga abandi mu bwiza, umwami akazahitamo abo ashaka akabagira abagore.

Abo bakobwa batoranywaga hirya no hino mu gihugu, ni bo bahabwaga izina ry’Imirerwa. Bisobanuye abakobwa barezwe neza, bagahiga abandi mu bwiza no mu bwenge.

Itandukaniro ry’Imirerwa n’Umugore w’Ingabwa, ni iry’uko yatoranywaga mu Banyarwandakazi bose hatitawe mu miryango bakomokamo, mu gihe umugore w’Ingabwa we yavaga mu miryango y’Ibibanda (Abega, Abasinga, Abaha n’Abakono).

Imirerwa iyo yageraga ibwami, yatoranywagamo abagore b’umwami bane, batanu cyangwa se barenga, abasigaye badatoranyijwemo abagore b’ibwami, ni bo bitwaga “Ibyendajuru”.

Ibyendajuru, ni byo byavagamo abaja b’abagore b’ibwami, bakanashingwa imirimo yose yo mu rugo cyane cyane ijyanye n’ibiribwa n’ibinyobwa.

Imirerwa wayisobanura nk’ibisonga bya Nyampinga w’u Rwanda kuri ubu kuko ni bo babaga bungirije umugore w’ingabwa nk’umukuru mu bagore b’umwami uzabyarira umwami umuzungura w’ingoma. Ibyendajuru byo byasobanurwaga nka ba bakobwa bagiye mu irushanwa rya guhatanira ikamba rya Nyampinga, ariko ntibabashe guhiga abandi.

Ibyendajuru mu mateka y’u Rwanda byashyingirwaga ibikomangoma hakaba n’aho umwami yagiraga uwo yishimira mu bagaragu be cyangwa se abatware be, akamushyingira umwe muri abo. Abasigaye ntibashakaga abagabo mu minsi yo kubaho kwa byo.

Hari n’imiryango ikomeye mu Rwanda yacaga mu gikari ikajya ibwami gusaba abakobwa babo ngo bajye kubashyingira ahandi mu gihe batatoranyijwe nk’abagore b’umwami.

Nyirarumaga ni we waciye agahigo katigeze kagirwa n’umwe mu bakobwa bahiga abandi mu bwiza b’i Rwanda, aho yatoranyijwe mu Mirerwa yagombaga kungiriza Nyabacuzi ba Kibogora w’Umukonokazi mu bagore b’ibwami, ariko bikarangira atabigezeho, kugeza ubwo yagiye mu Byendajuru.

Ku bw’ibitangaza byamubayeho, uwari Icyendajuru Nyirarumaga, yaje kuba umugabekazi w’ingoboka wa Ruganzu Ndoli, kuko nyina Nyabacuzi yari yaraguye mu Miko y’Abakobwa mu bihe byo kurwanira ingoma kwa bene Yuhi Gahima.

Nyampinga watowe n’Abadage mu wa 1910

Nyuma y’imyaka 16 Abadage binjiye mu Rwanda, ni bwo batangije isura nshya yo gutoranya umukobwa uhiga abandi mu bwiza, aho ari bo baserukaga imbere y’inama nkemurampaka bagatoranyamo uhiga abandi.

N’ubwo amateka atigeze agaragaza amazina y’abahataniye uwo mwanya, Umusizi akaba n’Umwanditsi w’Ibitabo bivuga ku mateka y’u Rwanda, Nsanzabera Jean De Dieu, mu gitabo cye yise ‘Imizi y’u Rwanda’ yagaragaje ko abakoloni b’Abadage ari bo batoye bwa mbere abakobwa b’Abanyarwandakazi barusha abandi ubwiza mu wa 1910.

Nta mazina y’aba bakobwa cyangwa se andi makuru atomoye atangwa, gusa hari ifoto iriho abakobwa babiri batowe nk’abarusha abandi uburanga. Ayo mafoto yagiye agaragazwa hirya no hino ku Isi, yerekanye uburanga bw’abakobwa bahigaga abandi mu bwiza muri uwo mwaka n’insokozo y’icyo gihe yitwaga “Ibibonane”.

Abakobwa batowe nk'abahiga abandi mu bwiza mu 1910 insokozo yabo yitwaga 'Ibibonane'

Nyuma y’aho Abadage batsindiwe n’Ababiligi mu Ntambara ya Mbere y’Isi yose, umugenzo wo gutoranya umukobwa uhiga abandi mu bwiza mu Rwanda, wabaye usubitswe.

Mu 1991 ni bwo wasubukuwe nabwo ugenda biguru ntege. Icyo gihe Nubuhoro Jeanne ni we watowe mu bakobwa bahiga abandi, aba Nyampinga w’u Rwanda muri uwo mwaka.

Nubuhoro Jeanne atorwa yigaga muri Groupe Scolaire Notre Dame du Bon conseil Byumba. Icyo gihe itorwa rya Nyampinga w’u Rwanda ryabereye mu birori bihebuje byasorejwe muri Hotel Méridien.

Nubuhoro Jeanne wishwe muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu wa 1994, bivugwa ko yitabiriye amarushanwa ya Nyampinga w’u Burundi mu wa 1992 ubwo yari mu buhungiro atorwa mu bisonga.

Uwera Dalila na we yatowe nka Nyampinga w’u Rwanda mu 1994. Uyu mukobwa yatowe mu Ukuboza 1993 ariko agomba kwitwa Nyampinga w’u Rwanda mu 1994.

MC Lion Imanzi wari wayoboye uyu muhango, yabwiye IGIHE ko Uwera yagaragiwe n’uwitwa Umuhoza Sandra n’undi witwa Mukorundore (ni ryo zina yibuka gusa).

Uwera yahembwe ibihumbi 50 Frw, imyambaro, amasabune n’ibindi byari byatanzwe n’abaterankunga.

Uwo mugenzo wongeye guhabwa agaciro nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, aho mu 2009, hongeye gutorwa Nyampinga w’u Rwanda ikamba ryegukanwa na Bahati Grace.

Hashize imyaka itatu irushanwa ritaba, ryongera mu 2012, ikamba ryegukanwa na Mutesi Kayibanda Aurore. Kuva ubwo mu wa 2012, iryo rushanwa ryiyungikanyije ubudahagarara, rikaba rimaze gutsindirwa n’abakobwa 11 (2009-2021).

Nubuhoro Jeanne wabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 1991
Uwera Dalila wabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 1994
Bahati Grace hagati ni we wambitswe ikamba rya Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 2009 nyuma y'imyaka 15 iryo rushanwa ritaba
Mutesi Aurore Kayibanda wabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 2012
Akiwacu Colombe yabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 2014
Kundwa Doriane yabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 2015
Mutesi Jolly yabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu mwaka wa 2016
Iradukunda Elsa yabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 2017
Iradukunda Liliane wabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 2018
Nimwiza Meghan yambitswe ikamba mu mwaka wa 2019
Nishimwe Naomie yabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 2020
Ingabire Grace wabaye Nyampinga w'u Rwanda mu 2021

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