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Kuki bayita Football kandi ikinishwa intoki?Ibyo wamenya kuri American Football

Yanditswe na Blaise Mukwende Nziza
Kuya 30 March 2022 saa 03:57
Yasuwe :

Ni kenshi uzahura n’abantu mukaganira ku mikino itandukanye mwagera kuri American Football impaka zikavuka. Mu gusobanukirwa neza uyu mukino, kimwe mu bigora kumvikana ni uburyo witwa Football [umupira w’amaguru] ariko wakwitegereza abawukina ukabona barakoresha intoki.

Ni umukino umenyerewe muri Shampiyona ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika izwi nka National Football League (NFL) igizwe n’amakipe 32. Ukaba umwe mu ikunzwe cyane muri iki gihugu.

American Football ni umukino wamamaye cyane muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, ufite inkomoko ku mupira w’amaguru na Rugby. Umukino wa mbere wakinwe ku wa 6 Ugushyingo 1869, hagati y’amakipe abiri y’abanyeshuri ba Rutgers na Princeton, bakoresheje amategeko yagengaga umupira w’amaguru icyo gihe.

Ni umukino ukinwa n’abakinnyi 11 kuri buri ruhande ukinirwa mu kibuga cy’urukirampende gifite amazamu kuri buri mpera zacyo.

Gukina American Football hakoreshejwe intoki bifitanye isano n’ivuka ry’umukino wa Rugby wabayeho mu 1823 ubwo abanyeshuri bo mu Bwongereza bakinaga umupira bakoresheje amaguru maze umunyeshuri witwa William Webb Ellis agahitamo gutangira kuwuhererekanya n’intoki igitekerezo cy’umukino mushya kibaho gutyo.

Ibi ariko ntabwo byatumye izina rihinduka ahubwo wakomeje kwitwa umukino w’amaguru. Nubwo wamamaye muri Amerika na Canada, byasabye imyaka 46 nyuma y’ivuka ryawo kugira ngo ukinirweyo ubwo rwambikanaga hagati ya Kaminuza za Rutgers na Princeton tariki 6 Ugushyingo 1869.

Icyakora icyo gihe amategeko amwe n’amwe y’uyu mukino yasaga nk’aya Rugby mbere y’uko aza guhindurwa bigizwemo uruhare na Walter Camp ufatwa nka ‘Se wa American Football.’

Amwe muri ayo mategeko yahuzaga umukino wa American Football na Rugby, Walter yagize uruhare mu guhindura harimo kugabanya umubare w’abakinnyi mu kibuga wari 15 ugashyirwa kuri 11. Iryo tegeko ryatangiye kubahirizwa mu 1880.

Irindi tegeko rya karundura Walter yazanye muri American Football ni uburyo umukino ukinirwa kuri ‘line of scrimmage’, umurongo wo gutangiriraho umukino uba uri hagati mu kibuga.

Muri Rugby uyu murongo abakinnyi b’impande zose bawuhuriraho basunikana mu gikundi barwana no gucakira umupira uba washyizwe hagati ariko muri American Football umupira uhabwa ikipe ifite uburenganzira bwo gutangiza umukino akaba ari yo itangiza umukino binyuze mu guhererekanya umupira.

Ikibuga

Umukino wa American Football ukinirwa mu kibuga cyubatse hanze giteye nk’icy’umupira w’amaguru. Iki kibuga gipima metero 91 z’uburebure na metero 48 z’ubugari ariko iyo hashyizweho ibice bibiri biherereye ku musozo wa buri kibuga bizwi nka ‘end zone’ gihita kingana na metero 109.

Ikindi kandi ni uko buri herezo ry’ikibuga haba hari amazamu yifashishwa mu gutera penaliti. Iyo penaliti itewe ica hagati y’aya mazamu angana na metero 11 zose.

Imyanya y’abakinnyi

Buri kipe iba ihagarariwe n’abakinnyi 11 mu kibuga bafite imyanya itandukanye ari yo; Quarterback, uyu ni umukinnyi utanga imipira kuri bagenzi be kugira ngo batsinde amanota. Indi nshingano akunda guhabwa ni ugucigatira umupira ku kibuga kugira ngo uterwe ishoti neza n’umu Placekicker.

Running Back, umukinnyi wirukankana umupira awugeza mu kibuga cyo gutsindiramo. Fullback, ni umukinnyi uri inyuma y’umu- quarterback ushinzwe kurinda ikipe ye abakinnyi bashaka guca mu rihumye ngo batsinze muri make ni nka myugariro.

Hari uwitwa Wide receiver, umukinnyi uba uri mu mbibi z’ikibuga z’ikipe ahanganye na yo kugira ngo yakire umupira wo gutsinda amanota. Tight End, ni umukinnyi usatira ariko yegeranye cyane n’uwugarira w’ikipe ahanganye na yo.

Offensive tacle na Offensive guard, imyanya ifite inshingano zimwe zo kurinda umu-Quarterback kugira ngo adateshwa umupira igihe awufite. Defensive tackle, umukinnyi wugarira, Centre, umukinnyi utangiza umukino atanga umupira k’umu-quarterback na Placekicker (kicker), umukinnyi utera penaliti.

Uko American Football ikinwa

American Football ikinwa mu duce, ‘quarters’, tune tugizwe n’iminota 15 buri kamwe, bisobanuye ko umukino wose umara iminota 60. Iyo iyi minota irangiye amakipe anganya amanota hongerwaho akandi gace kangana n’iminota 10.

Umupira ukinwa uba upima ibiro hagat 5,4 na 5,8 mu gihe indeshyo y’ubuhagarike bwawo uba ari santimetero 28 na 29 naho mu mpande ukangana na santimetero hagati ya 16-17.

Gusatira bikorwa umukinnyi yirukankana umupira mu ntoki mu gihe kugarira bikinwa umukinnyi aterura agashyira hasi uwo bahanganye ushaka gusatira ikibuga cye.

Bitewe n’imvune zigaragara muri uyu mukino, abakinnyi bakina bambaye uturindamutwe "Casque’ mu mutwe n’ibindi bikoresho by’ubwirinzi mu rutugu, amatako, amavi, n’imirundi.

Umukino utangirira k’umurongo ugabanya ikibuga uzwi nka, “line of scrimmage”. Abakinnyi b’impande zombi baba bunamye barebana mbere y’uko umukinnyi w’ikipe itangiza umukino acisha umupira munsi y’amaguru ye ugasamwa n’umu-Quarterback uhita awuterera abasatirizi.

Ikipe yemerewe kugumana umupira igihe icyo ari cyo cyose itarakwa umupira n’iyo bahanganye nubwo ku rundi ruhande iba itemerewe kurenza inshuro zo gukina ‘plays’ enye kubera ko iyo ziyigereyeho itaratsinda amanota, umupira uhabwa ikipe bahanganye igakomereza umukino ku murongo wahagarikiweho.

Amanota azwi nka ‘touchdown’, bayatsinda iyo umukinnyi w’ikipe iri gusatira yirukankanye umupira akagera ku musozo w’ikibuga cy’ikipe bahanganye bityo bikavamo amanota arindwi hagahita hatangwa n’amahirwe ya penaliti ibara amanota atatu.

Umupira uba watanzwe mbere y’uko amanota y’ikipe atsindwa uzwi nka passing touchdown’ isobanuye umupira watanzwe mbere yo gutsinda amanota y’ikipe.

Umwe mu mwihariko uyu mukino wa American Football ufite ni uko abatoza baganira na bagenzi babo babungirije hifashishijwe ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga mu gihe umukino uri kuba bitewe n’uko baba bagiye bari ahantu hatandukanye ku kibuga.

Uyu mukino ubarizwa muri National Football League (NFL) ikinwa kuva muri Nzeri buri mwaka kugeza muri Gashyantare aho hakinwa umukino uruta iyindi yose uzwi nka ‘Super Bowl.’

Muri Shampiyona z’imikino itandukanye ku Isi, National Football League niyo kuri ubu yinjiza amafaranga menshi ku mwaka. Yunguka angana na Miliyari 15 z’amadolari.

Aaron Rodgers ni we mukinnyi uhembwa menshi nyuma yo gusinya amasezerano y’imyaka itatu muri Green Bay Packers afite agaciro ka miliyoni 150$.

Witwa American Football ariko ukinishwa intoki
Bisaba imbaraga nyinshi cyane kuko ni umukino ubamo n'imvune nyinshi
Umupira ukinwa muri NFL urihariye
Amazamu yifashishwa muri American Football
Umurongo w'umutuku uri muri 50 uzwi nka Line of Scrimmage ni wo utangirirwaho umukino
Umukinnyi ufite umupira azwi nka Center awucisha munsi y'amaguru ye akawutanga
Uyu yari amaze gutsinda amanota azwi nka ‘touchdown’

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