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U Rwanda rwinjiye mu mikoranire iganisha ku kubyaza ingufu za nucléaire amashanyarazi

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 12 September 2023 saa 12:26
Yasuwe :

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yasinyanye amasezerano na Sosiyete Dual Fluid Energy Inc yanditswe mu Budage no muri Canada, kugira ngo ikore igerageza ku ikoranabuhanga ryaganisha ku kuba mu Rwanda hatangira gutunganyirizwa amashanyarazi akomoka ku ngufu za nucléaire.

Dual Fluid ni Sosiyete ikomoka mu Budage, ariko mu 2021 yanditswe i Vancouver kugira ngo ibashe koroherwa no gukora bitewe n’uko Canada ifite uburyo bworohereza ibigo bikora “reactor” nto zifashishwa mu gutunganya amashanyarazi.

Iyi sosiyete igiye gukorera mu Rwanda igerageza rya “nuclear reactor”, icyo umuntu yagereranya n’umutima w’uruganda rutunganya ingufu za nucléaire kuko arirwo rukorerwamo ibintu byose bishoboka.

Kugira ngo amashanyarazi aturutse kuri nucléaire aboneke hifashishwa ubutare bwa Uranium. Icyo gihe, bafata ya Uranium bakayitunganya intima (atome) zayo zikitandukanya ku buryo zitanga ubushyuhe (ibizwi mu gifaransa nka fission nucléaire), iyo imaze gutanga ubushyuhe nibwo bifashisha bagashyushya amazi akavamo umwuka, wa mwuka akaba ariwo bayobora mu mashini ugatanga amashanyarazi.

Aho hashyuhirizwa amazi ni yo “nuclear reactor”, ari nayo Dual Fluid Energy Inc igiye gukora igerageza ryayo mu Rwanda.

Iyi “reactor” igiye gukorerwa mu Rwanda byitezwe ko izaba ikora mu 2026, ndetse igerageza ry’iryo koranabuhanga rigomba kuba ryarangiye mu 2028.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yemeye guha Dual Fluid ubutaka n’ibindi bikorwaremezo bikenewe kugira ngo iyo “reactor” yubakwe.

Izakorwa ntizaba igomba gukoreshwa mu gutanga umuriro, ahubwo ni nto umuntu yagereranya n’uko firigo iba ingana, igomba kuzareberwaho uko niharamuka hubatswe inini izajya ikora.

Umuyobozi w’Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Ingufu za Atomike, Dr Fidel Ndahayo ati “Ni ikoranabuhanga rishya ku buryo u Rwanda ruzaba ruri mu bihugu bya mbere ruyisobanukiwe kurusha abandi kuko izaba yarakorewe hano.”

Minisitiri w’Ibikorwaremezo, Dr Ernest Nsabimana, yavuze ko iyo urebye uko Isi igenda itera imbere, ndetse n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere, hakenewe ubundi buryo bwo gushakwa ibisubizo.

Ati “Isi iragenda ihinduka, igenda uhura n’ibibazo byinshi, ari ibikomoka kuri peteroli aho bicukurwa, ejo bundi bishobora gushira hakavuka ibindi bibazo. Hari ibindi duhura nabyo cyane cyane imihindagurikire y’ibihe, ibyo byose iyo ubireba ubona ko mu myaka iri imbere hashobora kuzavuka ibibazo by’ingufu.”

“Ikindi na none ushobora kureba ni iterambere ry’Igihugu,uyu munsi tugeze niba tuvuga ko mu myaka 50 hari icyerekezo dufite tuzaba tumaze kugira inganda zingana gute? Ibyo byose nibyo igihugu kireba noneho kigatangira gutegura muri iyo myaka iri imbere uko bizagenda.”

Biteganyijwe ko uyu mushinga ugomba gutangirira mu magerageza hakabanza kurebwa uko bikora, byibura iryo gerageza rikarangira mu 2028, nyuma y’aho hagatangira umushinga nyirizina.

Minisitiri Dr Ernest Nsabimana yakomeje avuga ko aya masezerano adakuraho ayo u Rwanda rusanzwe rufitanye n’u Burusiya nayo ari mu murongo wo kubyaza ingufu za nucléaire amashanyarazi.

Ati “Amasezerano y’u Burusiya nayo arakomeje cyane cyane ko aba ari amasezerano yo kubyaza ingufu za nucléaire amashanyarazi ariko mu rwego rw’amahoro. Hari Ushobora kubyumva akagira ngo tugiye mu bisasu, oya ibi biri mu rwego rw’amahoro.”

Dual Fluid ni sosiyete nshya mu bijyanye no gutunganya ingufu za nucléaire gusa ifite umwihariko wo kuba ifite ikoranabuhanga rigezweho kurusha izindi sosiyete, kuko yo ikoresha ikoranabuhanga ry’icyiciro cya gatanu.

Ingufu “reactor” ikora zishobora gukora umuriro w’amashanyarazi, umwuka wa hydrogène n’andi mavuta akoreshwa mu binyabiziga adahumanya ikirere.

Gigawatt imwe y’ingufu za nucléaire irinda ko igihugu cyakohereza mu kirere umwuka uhumanya wa CO2 ungana na toni miliyoni icyenda, bingana n’uwakoherezwa mu kirere n’imodoka miliyoni ebyiri, bityo kuyikoresha bizatuma u Rwanda rugera ku ntego rwihaye yo kugabanya imyuka yangiza ikirere.

Uko izo “reactors” zikora

Magingo aya, ikoranabuhanga rikoreshwa mu gutunganya ingufu za nucléaire rikomeje kuvugururwa umunsi ku wundi. Bisaba ibintu bibiri kugira ngo umuriro ukomoka kuri nucléaire uboneke, amazi ndetse na Uranium.

Intima (atome) ya Uranium ni yo itunganywa igatandukanywa hakoreshejwe ubushyuhe (ibizwi mu gifaransa nka fission nucléaire), iyo imaze gutanga ubushyuhe nibwo bwifashishwa hashyushwa amazi akavamo umwuka, wa mwuka akaba ariwo uyoborwa mu mashini ugatanga amashanyarazi.

Ubu ikoranabuhanga riboneka ku Isi mu gutunganya Uranium ivamo amashanyarazi, rikoresha nibura 1% gusa byayo, isigaye ingana na 99% ikaba imyanda.

Ubusanzwe ingufu za nucleaire ntizangiza ikirere, kandi bishoboka ko ibizikomokaho bishobora kugabanywa mu ngano, kugira ngo ibivuye muri reactor byitabweho.

Iki kigo cyo mu Budage cyakoze icyiciro cya gatanu [Generation IV] gitunganya ingufu za nucleaire gikemura ibi bibazo ku buryo ingufu ziboneka mu buryo bwizewe kandi na reactor ikaba yoroshye gukorwa ntinatange imyanda myinshi.

Iri koranabuhanga riri mu bice bibiri. Igice kimwe, kirekura amazi ikindi kikarekura ubushyuhe. Ayo mazi akoreshwa aba ashobora kugira ubushyuhe bungana na 1000° C, ari nacyo gipimo cyo hejuru cy’ubushyuhe.

Reactor zisanzwe ziba zishobora gutanga ubushyuhe bungana na 320°C.

Kuba habonetse ubushyuhe bwo hejuru kuri icyo kigero, ni ingenzi mu gukora amashanyarazi yifuzwa kuko ingufu nyinshi ziba zibumbiye ahantu hato. Mu magambo yumvikana, ni nk’uko waba ufite moteri ifite ingufu nyinshi ariko iri mu modoka nto, iba ishobora kugenda ahantu kure ikoresheje lisansi nke.

Ibyo bivuze ko n’ingufu z’amashanyarazi ziboneka muri ubwo buryo, ziba zihendutse bitandukanye n’uko byagenda hakoreshejwe irindi koranabuhanga.

Nka reactor nto ya Dual Fluid ifite ubushobozi bwo gutanga umuriro ungana na 300MW ikora neza ku kigero cyikubye inshuro umunani ugereranyije na reactor zisanzwe muri iki gihe.

Minisitiri Nsabimana Ernest ubwo yakurikiraga isinywa ry'amasezerano hagati y'Umuyobozi w’Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Ingufu za Atomike, Dr Fidel Ndahayo n'umwe mu bayobozi ba Dual Fluid Energy Inc

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