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Miliyari zisaga 250 Frw zakoreshejwe mu myaka 13: Uko VUP yatanze umusanzu mu kugabanya ubukene

Yanditswe na Ntabareshya Jean de Dieu
Kuya 28 May 2022 saa 01:26
Yasuwe :

Gahunda ya VUP yatangijwe mu 2008 ifite intego yo kurandura ubukene bukabije ndetse no kugabanya igipimo cy’ubukene, imaze gushorwamo asaga miliyari 250 Frw zimaze guhindura ubuzima bwa benshi mu banyarwanda.

Ibi bikaba bijyanye neza n’imwe mu nkingi z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye zigamije iterambere rirambye (Sustainable Development Goals) yo kurandura ubukene bukabije mu 2030, ariko u Rwanda rwo rukaba rwariyemeje kubigeraho mu mwaka wa 2024 nk’uko byateganyijwe muri Gahunda ya Guverinoma y’Imyaka Irindwi NST1.

Gahunda ya VUP yagobotse imiryango ikennye mu buryo bunyuranye binyuze mu gutanga imirimo ku bashoboye gukora bahabwaga imirimo ihemberwa, gutanga inguzanyo ziciriritse zo gutangiza imishinga mito mu rwego rwo kwiteza imbere, ndetse n’inkunga y’ingoboka ku bageze mu za bukuru batagishoboye gukora kugira ngo babashe kubona ibyangombwa nkenerwa mu buzima bwa buri munsi.

Gahunda ya VUP yagiye yaguka ku buryo ubu ibonekamo inkunga y’ingoboka ku bana n’abagore batwite bo miryango y’amikoro make kugira ngo barindwe imirire mibi n’igwingira.

Iyi gahunda ibonekamo kandi inkingi y’imirimo y’amaboko yoroheje ku bagize imiryango ifite imbaraga nke zo gukora cyangwa bafite imbogamizi zo kwitabira imirimo y’amaboko isanzwe.

Abagenerwabikorwa ba VUP muri izi nkingi zinyuranye bunganirwa kandi binyuze muri gahunda yo guhabwa amatungo magufi, kwigishwa imyuga ku rubyiruko, guhugurwa kuri serivisi z’amafaranga n’ibindi hagamijwe kubafasha kwikura mu bukene.

Imiterere y’inkingi za VUP

Kimwe mu bintu byibanzweho cyane kwari ugufasha abaturage kwikenura bakava mu bukene bukabije dore ko mu 2008 bwari ku gipimo cyo hejuru aho abari mu bukene bukabije bageraga kuri 36% by’abaturage bose.

Muri iyi gahunda hatanzwe inkunga y’ingoboka ihabwa imiryango itishoboye iri mu cyiciro cya mbere cy’Ubudehe idafite umuntu ushoboye gukora (Direct Support). Ni inkunga yagiriyeho gufasha ingo ziri mu bukene bukabije kandi binagoye kubona iby’ibanze nkenerwa mu buzima nko kurya, kwambara, kwivuza, icumbi n’ibindi.

Abagenerabikorwa b’inkunga y’ingoboka ya VUP batoranywa binyuze mu Nteko z’Abaturage, urutonde rw’abagenerwabikorwa rukemezwa n’Inama Njyanama y’Umurenge.

Iyi nkunga yatangiye itangwa ku baturage bagera kuri 6850 mu mirenge 30 yari yatoranyijwe mu 2009, ariko kuri ubu yari igeze ku bantu bagera kuri 99 454 mu mirenge yose y’Igihugu.

Inkunga y’ingoboka ibarwa hagendewe ku mubare w’abagize urugo, aho urugo rugizwe n’umuntu umwe rugenerwa 7,500 Frw urugizwe n’abantu babiri rukagenerwa 12,000 Frw, urugizwe na batatu ruhabwa 15,000 Frw, urugo rugizwe n’abantu bane ruhabwa 18,000 Frw, mu gihe urugizwe n’abantu batanu cyangwa barenzeho ruhabwa 21,000 Frw buri kwezi.

Inkingi y'imirimo y'amaboko ni imwe mu zagize uruhare rukomeye mu guteza imbere abatishoboye

Imirimo y’amaboko

Mu nkingi y’imirimo y’amaboko harimo ibyiciro bibiri birimo imirimo y’amaboko yoroheje (Expanded Public Works) n’imirimo y’amaboko isanzwe (Classic Public Works).

Mu nkingi y’imirimo isanzwe ifite intego yo gutanga imirimo igamije korohereza ingo ziri mu bukene bukabije zinjiza amafaranga atuma zibasha kubona iby’ibanze nkenerwa mu buzima.

Abahabwa akazi k’imirimo y’amaboko muri gahunda ya VUP batoranywa buri mwaka binyuze mu Nteko Rusange z’abaturage ku rwego rw’Umudugudu, gusa rukemezwa n’Inama njyanama y’Umurenge.

Igihembo ku mubyizi kigenwa hashingiwe ku ngano y’igihembo nyakabyizi abona ku munsi mu gace umushinga wa VUP uherereyemo. Bivuze ko niba umukozi wa nyakabyizi ahembwa 1000 Frw muri Nyaruguru, ari nayo uwakoze muri gahunda ya VUP azahembwa.

Inkingi y’imirimo y’amaboko yoroheje nayo iri mu bice bibiri; harimo imirimo yerekeye kwita ku gutunganya imihanda (Flexible Roads Maintenance), ndetse na serivisi z’amarero cyangwa se ingo mbonezamikurire (Home Based Early Childhood Development services).

Muri iyi nkingi y’imirimo y’amaboko (Public works) hamaze gukoreshwamo amafaranga asaga miliyari 123 Frw kandi wari umaze kugezwa mu turere tugera kuri 300 mu gihugu.

Abahawe akazi muri iyo nkingi kandi byahinduye n’imibereho y’abagenerwabikorwa kuko bamwe babashije kwigurira amatungo bakanakora n’ibindi bikorwa by’iterambere.

Ubusanzwe aka kazi gatangwa ku miryango itishoboye ibarirwa mu cyiciro cya mbere cy’Ubudehe, ariko ifite umuntu nibura ushoboye gukora ariko afite n’izindi nshingano zo kwita ku bagize umuryango barimo nk’ufite ubumuga, uburwayi budakira cyangwa abana bakiri bato, kandi bigaragara ko nta handi akura.

Inguzanyo ziciriritse

Muri gahunda ya VUP harimo kandi inkingi yo gutanga inguzanyo ziciriritse zitangwa ku miryango itishoboye, ariko bikaba bigaragara ko bamwe mu bagize umuryango bafite ubushobozi bwo kuba bakwiteza imbere binyuze mu mishinga mito ibyara inyungu.

Abagenerwabikorwa b’iyi nkingi basabwa gutegura imishinga mito n’icicirirtse ariko ibyara inyungu ku buryo bafashwa mu guhabwa igishoro mu buryo bw’inguzanyo ku nyungu ntoya cyane kugira ngo babashe kwiteza imbere.

Uretse kwigisha abaturage gukorana n’ibigo by’imari nk’Umurenge SACCO n’ibindi, banahugurwa kandi ku micungire y’imari n’uburyo bwo gushora amafaranga mu mishinga iciriritse ibyara inyungu yabafasha kwikura mu bukene.

Abahabwa inguzanyo za VUP batoranywa mu ngo zikennye ariko bashobora gukora, by’umwihariko abari mu matsinda, amakoperative, ndetse n’abantu ku giti cyabo, kandi muri iyi gahunda abagore n’abakobwa bitabwaho by’umwihariko mu rwego rwo kubateza imbere.

Muri iyi nkingi yatangiye mu mwaka wa 2009/2010 hatanzwe inguzanyo 14,604 mu mirenge 60 yari yatoranyijwe, aho icyo gihe hatanzwe 4,318,748,749 Frw ku bantu 53410.

Mu 2020/2021 hatanzwe inguzanyo z’asaga miliyari 14 Frw mu mirenge 406 mu gihugu. Kugeza ubu hamaze gutangwa hafi miliyari 70 Frw muri iki cyiciro.

Gahunda ya VUP yagize uruhare rukomeye mu guteza imbere ubukungu bw'igihugu

Izindi gahunda zashamikiyeho

Mu rwego rwo kwihutisha gahunda yo kurandura ubukene bukabije no kugabanya ku buryo bugaragara igipimo cy’ubukene mu miryango y’Abanyarwanda no guteza imbere imibereho myiza yabo.

Muri VUP hashyizweho kandi uburyo bwo kurwanya imirire mibi n’igwingira mu bana bari munsi y’imyaka itatu bo mu miryango ifite amikoro adahagije. Ibi bikorwa hatangwa inkunga y’ingoboka yihariye ku babyeyi n’abana bo muri icyo cyiciro, kuva umubyeyi agisama kugeza igihe umwana yujuje imyaka ibiri.

Muri iki cyiciro hitabwa ku bagore batwite ariko bagaragaza imirire mibi. Abagenerwabikorwa b’iyi gahunda bahabwa 22,500 Frw mu ntangiriro ya buri gihembwe (kigizwe n’amezi atatu), ni ukuvuga inkunga ingana na 7,500 Frw buri kwezi.

Hari kandi gahunda zitandukanye zifasha abatishoboye kwikura mu bukene nko kwigisha imyuga urubyiruko rwo mu miryango itishoboye, rugahabwa amahugurwa arufasha kwiteza imbere nk’ay’ubudozi, ububaji n’ibindi. Kuva iyi gahunda yatangira hamaze guhugurwa abagera ku 8,625 batanzweho asaga 1,792,000,002 Frw.

Muri gahunda ya VUP kandi hongewemo ibyerekeye gushyigikira abagenerwabikorwa mu mitungo ibyara inyungu hagamijwe kongera inkomoko y’aho imiryango ikura iby’ibanze nkenerwa mu buzima. Ibi bikorwa binyuze mu guhabwa amatungo magufi nk’ihene, inkoko, inkwavu, ingurube n’andi no gutanga ibikoresho byo kwiteza imbere cyane ku bari mu buhinzi n’ubworozi. Aha naho hamaze gushorwamo asaga miliyari 4,5 Frw.

Nubwo gahunda ya VUP imaze kugendaho amafaranga angana atyo mu guhangana n’ubukene bukabije, kuri ubu bugeze kuri 16% (nk’uko bigaragazwa n’ubushakashatsi ku mibereho y’ingo buzwi nka EICV5, bukorwa n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare) mu gihe hifuzwa ko bwaba bwashyizweho iherezo muri 2024.

Kugira ngo iyi ntego igerweho abanyarwanda cyane cyane abo mu miryango igenerwa inkunga basabwa gukomeza guharanira kwiteza imbere bahereye ku mahirwe bahabwa kugira ngo nabo bagire uruhare mu iterambere ryabo n’igihugu muri rusange.

Byari kugenda bite iyo VUP itabaho

Hashize imyaka 13 gahunda ya VUP itangijwe mu Rwanda nk’imwe mu nkingi y’imbaturabukungu ya mbere (EDPRS1). Ni gahunda yatangijwe ifite intumbero yo guhangana n’ubukene no gufasha abaturage kubwivanamo.

VUP ni imwe mu nkingi zifashishwa muri gahunda y’igihugu y’imyaka 7 igamije impinduka mu bukungu, imibereho myiza n’imiyoborere myiza (NST1).

Abaturage bagobotswe mu ngeri zitandukanye za gahunda ya VUP igamije gukura abantu mu bukene, imibereho yabo yahindutse ku buryo bugararara.

Iyi gahunda igusha neza kuri imwe mu ntego z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye zigamije iterambere rirambye yo kurandura ubukene bukabije bitarenze mu 2030, ariko u Rwanda rukaba rwifuza kubigeraho mu 2024.

Kuba ubukene bukabije bwari ku gipimo cyo hejuru mu 2008 hari hakenewe gahunda n’ingamba zikomeye zo gufasha abaturage guhangana no kwikura mu bukene.

Urugendo rwo gukura abari mu bukene bukabije bari ku gipimo cya 38% bakagera kuri 16% bari uyu munsi ntabwo rworoshye nkuko umuntu yabitekereza kuko byasabye imyaka isaga 13 kugira ngo bigerweho binyuze muri gahunda zitandukanye zo guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’umuturage.

Ibi kandi byanongereye icyizere cyo kubaho ku banyarwanda kiva ku myaka 44 mu 2000 ubu kigeze ku myaka 68.

Kuba iyi gahunda ya VUP yaritaye cyane ku baturage bari mu cyiciro cya mbere n’icya kabiri cy’ubudehe byatumye Abanyarwanda batangira no kugira umuco wo kwishakamo igisubizo kirambye mu rwego rwo kwiteza imbere.

VUP kandi yatumye abanyarwanda barushaho gutinyuka batangira gukorana n’ibigo by’imari bahereye ku Umurenge Sacco zibegereye kandi byagiye binafasha mu guhindura umuco wo kwizigama ku banyarwanda.

Uretse guteza imbere no guhindura imibereho myiza y’abaturage ariko ibi byanahinduye uko ibice bimwe na bimwe byagaragaraga binyuze mu kubaka imihanda, gucukura imirwanyasuri, guca amaterasi y’indinganire n’ibindi byagize uruhare mu kurwanya isuri no kongera umusaruro w’imbere mu gihugu.

Ingengo y’imari ishyirwa muri VUP yagiye yiyongera buri mwaka, yavuye kuri miliyari 8 Frw mu 2008 VUP igitangira, ubu ikaba yari igeze kuri miliyari 67 Frw mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2021/2022 mu rwego rwo kugera ku bagenerwa bikorwa benshi mu kurandura burundu ubukene mu Rwanda.

Bamwe bahisemo korora amatungo magufi mu rwego rwo kwiteza imbere

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