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Sobanukirwa imiterere y’umusoro ku mutungo utimukanwa muri Kigali

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 19 Ukuboza 2020 saa 01:21
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Mu mwaka wa 2018, Leta yavuguruye Itegeko rigenga umutungo utimukanwa mu Rwanda, riteganya ko umutungo utimukanwa (ubutaka n’inzu) uzajya wishyurirwa umusoro, aho kuba amahoro nk’uko byahozeho kuva mu 2012, ubwo byemezwaga n’Iteka rya Perezida. Mu Itegeko rishya, ibiciro byishyurwa ku misoro y’ubutaka kuri meterokare imwe byarazamuwe, bivanwa hagati y’amafaranga 0 Frw kugera kuri 80Frw, bishyirwa hagati ya 0 Frw na 300 Frw.

Mu kugena agaciro k’umusoro uzajya wishyurwa n’umudugudu runaka, hashingiwe ku ngingo eshatu, zirimo icyo ubutaka bugenewe gukoreshwa, urwego rw’iterambere ruri muri uwo mudugudu ndetse n’ibikorwaremezo biri mu mudugudu.

Icyo ubutaka bwagenewe gukoresha kiboneka mu gishushanyo mbonera cy’Umujyi wa Kigali giherutse kwemezwa, mu gihe iyo harebwa ibikorwaremezo biri mu mudugudu, hitabwa cyane kuri bitatu by’ingenzi, ari byo imihanda ikoze neza (kaburimbo cyangwa yubakishijwe amabuye) inyura mu mudugudu, ndetse n’intera iri hagati y’ibibanza biri mu mudugudu n’isoko y’amazi cyangwa amashanyarazi.

Ibi bivuze ko uko ubutaka buri mu midugudu iri hafi y’ibyo bikorwaremezo, ni ko agaciro k’umusoro uwo mudugudu ugenewe kwishyura kazamuka.

Muri rusange rero, imidugudu myinshi mu Mujyi wa Kigali ibasha kugera ku mashanyarazi ndetse n’amazi, n’ubwo atari yose, bisobanuye ko itandukaniro rinini mu kugena umusoro wa buri mudugudu ryashingiye ahanini ku ntera iri hagati y’uwo mudugudu n’umuhanda ukoze neza, uko umudugudu uwegera, ni na ko ugira agaciro kanini.

Hashingiwe rero kuri iyo ntera, imidugudu yashyizwe mu byiciro bitatu. Icyiciro cya mbere cyitwa ‘Igicumbi cy’iterambere’, kikaba kigizwe n’imidugudu nibura y’aho hagati ya 61% na 100% by’ibibanza biyituyemo bigera ku muhanda ukoze neza.

Iki cyiciro kandi na cyo kigizwe n’ibindi bice bibiri, aho icya mbere kigizwe n’aho ibibanza biri hagati ya 61% na 70% bigera ku muhanda ukoze neza, mu gihe icya kabiri kigizwe n’aho ibibanza biri hagati ya 71% na 100% bigera ku muhanda ukoze neza.

Ku bijyanye n’amazi n’amashanyarazi, ibibanza byose biri mu mudugudu uri mu cyiciro ‘cy‘Igicumbi cy’iterambere’ bigomba kuba biri muri metero ijana uvuye ku isoko y’amazi ndetse n’ahaturuka amashanyarazi.

Muri rusange, icyiciro ‘cy’igicumbi cy’iterambere’ kirimo imidugudu ingana na 16% gusa by’igize Umujyi wa Kigali, kikaba cyishyura amafaranga ari hagati ya 200 Frw na 220 Frw kuri meterokare imwe.

Icyiciro cya kabiri, ari na cyo kirimo imidugudu ituyemo umubare munini w’abanyamujyi, cyitwa ‘santere iciriritse y’umujyi’, kikaba kigizwe n’imidugudu y’aho ibibanza biri hagati ya 0% na 60% bikora ku muhanda ukoze neza. Muri iki cyiciro kandi, ibibanza byose, bigomba kuba bituye munsi ya metero ijana uvuye ku isoko y’amazi n’amashanyarazi.

Iki cyiciro na cyo kirimo ibice bibiri, igice cya mbere kikagirwa n’imidugudu y’aho ibibanza biri hagati ya 0% na 30% bikora ku muhanda ukoze neza, mu gice igice cya kabiri kigizwe n’imidugudu y’aho ibibanza biyirimo bigera ku muhanda ku kigero kiri hagati ya 31% na 60%.

Muri iki cyiciro cya ‘Santere Iciriritse y’Umujyi’ harimo imidugudu ingana na 53% by’iri mu mujyi wa Kigali.

Icyiciro cya gatatu cyo cyitwa ‘Santere zo mu Nkengero’ kikaba kigizwe n’imidugudu y’aho ibibanza byose bidakora ku muhanda ukoze neza, mbega abantu bagera aho batuye banyuze ‘mu tuyira biremeye’. Muri iyi midugudu, kugera ku mazi meza n’amashanyarazi bitwara metero ziri hejuru y’ijana.

Habarurwa ko 30% by’imidugudu yose igize Umujyi wa Kigali iri muri iki cyiciro.

Ni iki cyashingiwe hakorwa izi mpinduka?

Nyuma y’uko ibi byiciro byose bimaze kwemezwa, hari abaturage bumvikanye bavuga ko batumva impamvu ibiciro by’ubutaka batuyeho byazamuwe, hakaba n’abumvikanye bavuga ko babona iri zamuka ari akarengane kuko ubutaka bwabo batabucuruza ku buryo bakwishyura imisoro ku nyungu.

Mu kiganiro cyihariye na IGIHE, Umuyobozi Mukuru Ushinzwe Iterambere ry’Ubukungu mu Mujyi wa Kigali, Jean Rubangutsangabo, yavuze ko kwishyura umusoro ku butaka bidaterwa n’icyo ubukoreraho, ahubwo biterwa n’uko ubufite nk’umutungo, hanyuma ingano y’umusoro akaba ari yo iterwa n’icyo ubukoreraho.

Uyu muyobozi kandi yasobanuye ko kwishyuza umusoro ku butaka “atari umwihariko w’u Rwanda gusa”, kandi ko iyo ugereranyije imisoro ku butaka mu Rwanda no mu bindi bihugu biri mu Karere k’Afurika y’Iburasirazuba (EAC), “ubona ko u Rwanda ruri mu bihugu bifite imisoro mito ku butaka”.

Kimwe n’indi misoro yose, Rubangutsangabo yavuze ko imisoro y’ubutaka “igenewe gufasha inzego z’ibanza kubona ubushobozi bwo gukomeza gushyira mu bikorwa ingamba z’iterambere”, asobanura ko mu gihe cyo kugena umusoro, hanarebwa ku bushobozi bw’abaturage ku buryo umusoro udashobora kubaremerera.

Indi mpamvu yasobanuye yateye iri zamuka harimo “iterambere ry’Umujyi wa Kigali muri rusange”, aho wamaze kugezwamo ibikorwaremezo byinshi kuruta uko byari bimeze mu 2012, ubwo ubutaka bwatangirwa amahoro gusa, aho gusorerwa.

Yavuze ko iri zamuka rigaragarira mu kuzamuka kw’agaciro k’ubutaka mu Mujyi wa Kigali, aho ku mpuzandengo, agaciro k’ubutaka kikubye hagati y’inshuro eshanu n’esheshatu.

Mu itohoza ryakozwe na IGIHE, hari aho twasanze agaciro k’ubutaka karazamutseho inshuro zirenga 10, nk’ahazwi nka Norvège mu Karere ka Nyarugenge, igiciro cy’ubutaka cyavuye ku mafaranga 500.000 Frw mu 2011, kigera ku mafaranga ashobora no kurenga miliyoni 10 Frw magingo aya.

Rubangutsangabo yavuze ko ibi biciro bishya by’imisoro bigamije kujyanishwa n’agaciro k’ubutaka kazamutse, ahanini bitewe n’uko ibikorwaremezo byinshi byagejejwe mu bice byinshi by’Umujyi wa Kigali.

Yagize ati “Amategeko avugururwa kugira ngo ajyane n’igihe. Dufate nk’urugero nko mu 2012, ubwo ibipimo [byari bisanzweho] byemezwaga. Ushingiye ku gaciro k’ubutaka, ukareba n’iterambere ryari ririho icyo gihe, ubona ko ibiciro by’icyo gihe byari bikwiye”.

“Ariko rero nyuma y’imyaka itandatu cyangwa irindwi, ubona ko hari byinshi cyane byahindutse mu bijyanye n’ubutaka. Iyi misoro rero igamije no gufasha muri gahunda y’imikoreshereze myiza y’ubutaka”.

Bitewe n’uko iterambere rirushaho kwegerezwa abaturage umunsi ku munsi, Rubangutsangabo yavuze ko ibi biciro atari ntakuka, ahubwo ko Inama Njyanama y’Akarere, ari na yo yemeza ibi biciro, izajya iterana buri mwaka igashyiraho ibiciro bishya, bishingiye ku iterambere ryagezweho mu gace runaka mu mwaka uzajya uba urangiye.

Kuki Leta yongeje umusoro mu bihe bya Coronavirus?

Benshi mu binubira iri tegeko rishya bavuga ko leta itakagombye kuba yarashyizeho ibiciro bishya mu gihe igihugu kiri mu bihe bikomeye by’ubukungu cyatewe n’ingaruka z’icyorezo cya Coronavirus kimaze umwaka kiyogoza abatuye Isi.

Ni mu gihe kandi itangira ry’amashuri riherutse, na ryo ryatwaye amafaranga atari macye, byose bikagaragazwa nk’impamvu leta itakabaye ishyiraho ibi biciro bishya.

Rubangutsangabo avuga ko icyemezo cyo gushyiraho ibiciro bishya by’umusoro w’ubutaka atari bwo kigifatwa, kuko kimaze imyaka ibiri cyemejwe.

Yagize ati “ku bijyanye na Coronavirus, ntabwo izi mpinduka zabaye muri ibi bihe bya Coronavirus kuko iri tegeko ryakozwe muri 2018. Iki rero cyari giteganyijwe cy’uko ritangira gushyirwa mu bikorwa, usibye ko nyine cyahuriranye na Coronavirus”.

Uyu muyobozi agira inama abumva batazashobora kwishyura uyu musoro, akavuga ko iri tegeko rigena ko umuntu utazabasha kwishyura umusoro, yandikira Ibiro Bikuru by’Umusoro n’Amahoro mu Rwanda (RRA) akabamenyesha impamvu yumva atazashobora kwishyura imisoro, hanyuma zigasuzumwa ndetse basanga ari ngombwa uwo muntu agasonerwa.

Ku bumva bararenganye ku buryo banifuza ko ibiciro by’ubutaka bwabo byongera gusubirwamo bundi bushya, Rubangutsangabo avuga ko “ibi biciro byiganywe ubushishozi” ku buryo kubisubiramo bigoye. Yongeyeho ariko ko ibi biciro bizajya bivugururwa buri mwaka, ku buryo “uko amakuru azagenda atugeraho, ni na ko tuzagenda duhindura ibi biciro”.

Ni he igishushanyo mbonera gishya cy’Umujyi wa Kigali gihuriye n’uyu musoro?

Mu minsi ishize, Umujyi wa Kigali wasohoye Igishushanyo mbonera kizashingirwaho mu kugena ibikorerwa muri uyu mujyi mu gihe cy’imyaka 30 iri imbere.

Umujyi uvuga ko iri tegeko rishya ry’imisoro rizuzanya n’igishushanyo mbonerwa. Hagati aho, bavuga ko umusoro uzajya wishyurwa uzajya uba ujyanye n’icyangombwa cy’ubutaka umuntu afite, aho kuba igiteganywa kuzakorerwa kuri ubwo butaka.

Impamvu ni uko igishushanyo mbonera kizashyirwa mu bikorwa mu myaka myinshi, kandi aya mavugurura akazajya aba buri mwaka, bityo ko mu gihe atarahindurwa, umuntu azajya yishyurira icyo ubutaka bwe buri gukoreshwa muri icyo gihe.

Nk’urugero, umuturage ufite icyangombwa cy’ubutaka kigaragaza ko buhingwaho, ariko wenda Igishushanyo kigaragaza ko mu myaka nka 20 iri imbere ubwo butaka buzaba bwubatseho uruganda, azajya yishyura umusoro ugenewe ubutaka buhingwaho aho kuba uburiho uruganda.

Rubangutsangabo agira abantu inama yo “gukomeza kwishyura imisoro kabone n’ubwo batahabwa uburenganzira bwo gukoresha ubutaka bwabo ibyo bashaka” magingo aya bitewe n’ibiteganywa n’igishushanyo mbonera, kugira ngo umunsi icyo gishushanyo mbonera kizaba kiri gushyirwa mu bikorwa, na bo “bazahabwe ingurane ibakwiriye”.

Umusoro ku nyubako

Iri tegeko rigena n’umusoro uzajya ucibwa ku nyubako zitandukanye, gusa “inyubako imwe umuntu yubatse igenewe guturwamo n’umuryango we isonewe umusoro ku nyubako”.

Usibye izo nyubako, izindi ziri mu byiciro bitatu by’ingenzi. Icya mbere ni icy’inyubako zigenewe guturwamo, (nka apartment), zizajya zishyura umusoro ingana na 1% by’agaciro kayo ku mwaka. Gusa uyu musoro ukazatangira kwishyura mu myaka ine uhereye igihe iri tegeko ryemerejwe, bivuze ko uzatangira kwishyurwa ku kugero cya 1% muri 2022.

Mu mwaka wa mbere w’iri tegeko, izi nyubako zishyujwe 0.25% by’agaciro kazo, mu mwaka wa kabiri, ari wo turimo, izi nyubako ziri kwishyura 0.50%, bikazaba 0.75% mu mwaka utaha bigere kuri 1% mu mwaka wa kane, ari na cyo giciro kizakomeza kwishyurwa nyuma yaho.

Ikindi cyiciro kigizwe n’inyubako z’ubucuruzi. Izo na zo zizishyura umusoro mu byiciro, aho mu mwaka ushize zishyujwe 0.2% by’agaciro kazo, uyu mwaka zikaba ziri kwishyura 0.3% by’agaciro kazo. Mu mwaka utaha izi nyubako zizishyura 0.4% mu gihe mu mwaka wa nyuma, wa 2022, igiciro cy’umusoro kuri izi nyubako kizagera kuri 0.5%, ari na cyo giciro kizakomeza kwishyurwa nyuma yaho.

Ku cyiciro cy’amazu yagenewe inganda, yose akazishyura 0.1% by’agaciro kayo.

Ubuyobozi bw’Umujyi wa Kigali buburira abinangira kuzubahiriza iyishyurwa ry’uyu musoro, bukavuga ko hari ibihano biteganyijwe birimo amande angana na 40% by’umusoro azakatwa umuntu utazamenyekanisha umusoro. Nyuma y’aho, umuntu akazajya akatwa 10% y’ubukererwe azagenda yiyongera kugeza ubwo umuntu ashobora no kwamburwa umutungo we.

Umuyobozi Mukuru Ushinzwe Iterambere ry’ubukungu mu Umujyi wa Kigali, Jean Rubangutsangabo, yasobanuye ko ibiciro bishya by'imisoro ku mutungo utimukanwa bizajya bihindurwa buri mwaka

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