Ivumburamatsiko ku mushinga w’Uruganda rw’Ingufu za Nucléaire mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 2 Nyakanga 2020 saa 05:45
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Kuva mu mpera za 2018, nibwo mu matwi y’Abanyarwanda hatangiye kuzamo ibijyanye n’ingufu za nucléaire kurusha mbere, kuko aribwo u Rwanda rwatangiye imikoranire n’u Burusiya igamije gushyira mu Rwanda Ikigo gikora Ubushakashatsi ku ikoreshwa ry’izi ngufu bizanageza ku ruganda rwazo rwitezweho kugira uruhare mu kongera amashanyarazi.

Muri iyi nkuru ntituri bugaruke ku bimaze igihe bikorwa muri uru rugendo, ahubwo turibanda cyane ku byiza n’ibibi by’izi ngufu, uko zabyazwa umusaruro, umutekano wazo n’ibindi. Turagaruka ku buhamya bw’abantu bamwe bazi neza ibyazo nk’abasuye inganda zizitunganya, ababaye mu bice izi ngufu zateyemo ibibazo n’ibindi.

Ikigo cy’u Burusiya gishinzwe Ingufu, Rosatom, nicyo kiri gufasha u Rwanda mu bikorwa bigamije kubaka Ikigo cy’Ubushakashatsi ku ikoreshwa ry’Ingufu za Nucléaire.

Iki kigo ntabwo biremezwa neza aho kizubakwa, ariko amasezerano yasinyiwe i Sochi ku wa 24 Ukwakira 2019 IGIHE ifitiye kopi agaragaza ko Ikigo cy’Ubushakashatsi ku Ngufu za Nucléaire zikoreshwa ku mpamvu z’amahoro kizubakwa mu Rwanda kizaba kirimo n’icyo umuntu yagereranya na laboratwari nto ishobora gutanga amashanyarazi angana na MW 10. Ibyo kubaka uruganda runini ntabwo bisobanurwa muri aya masezerano.

Ingufu za Nucléaire zikora zite?

Ingufu za Nucléaire zishobora kwifashishwa mu bintu byinshi nko mu gutanga amashanyarazi, mu buvuzi cyane ubw’indwara zikomeye nka kanseri kuko imirasire yazo ariyo yifashishwa mu kuyishiririza, mu bijyanye n’umutekano kuko nko mu byuma bisaka arizo zikoreshwa cyangwa se mu gukora intwaro.

Dufashe urugero nko ku mashanyarazi, kugira ngo ingufu za nucléaire zitange amashanyarazi, hakoreshwa ubutare bwa Uranium. Ni ubutare ubusanzwe bunakoreshwa mu ikorwa ry’intwaro za kirimbuzi ari nayo mpamvu ahanini iyo umuntu yumvise ingufu za nucléaire abanza kwikanga mbere ya byose.

Icyo gihe rero, bafata ya Uranium bakayitunganya intima (atome) zayo zikitandukanya ku buryo zitanga ubushyuhe (ibizwi mu gifaransa nka fission nucléaire), iyo imaze gutanga ubushyuhe nibwo bifashisha bagashyushya amazi akavamo umwuka, wa mwuka akaba ariwo bayobora mu mashini ugatanga amashanyarazi.

Ugiye kureba uko bikorwa ni kimwe n’uko nk’i Gishoma (i Rusizi) bifashisha Nyiramugengeri mu gukora amashyanyarazi. Ni inzira ni imwe.

Aho Uranium itandukaniye na Nyiramugengeri ni uko yo bisaba nke kugira ngo umuriro uboneke, mu gihe indi yo bisaba toni ibihumbi. Urugero rworoshye, nk’uruganda rwa Gishoma ku munsi umwe rukoresha toni 450 za Nyiramugengeri, uribaza ubwinshi bwazo, kandi ejo n’ejo bundi zizaba zashize burundu. Bikanajyana n’uko ari ibintu bitwikwa imyotsi igatumuka bikangiza ikirere. Izo toni zingana gutyo zitanga umuriro ungana na MW 15.

Kuri Uranium ho biratandukanye cyane. Kuko mu Rwanda tutayifite bisaba kujya kuyigura hanze. Mu Ugushyingo 2018 igiciro cyayo cyarazamutse cyane ku isoko nyuma y’aho u Bushinwa bugabanyije iyo bwashyiraga ku isoko.

Icyo gihe inusu yayo [kimwe cya kabiri cy’ikilo] yaguraga $28.75 [asaga ibihumbi 27 Frw), cyari igiciro kiri hejuru kuva muri Werurwe 2016.

Dufate urugero kuri garama imwe ya Uranium, ishobora gutanga MW 1 ku munsi, ni ukuvuga ngo ni ingufu zingana n’izatangwa na toni eshatu z’amakara. Ubaye utunganyije ikilo kimwe cya Uranium, wabona umuriro ungana na MW 1000, ni umuriro mu Rwanda tutaranagira no mu bitekerezo.

Impamvu iroroshye kuko ubu dufite MW 226, kandi ku munsi izikenerwa ntizirenga MW 150 kandi nabwo ni muri cya gihe usanga abantu bose bacanye nko mu masaha y’umugoroba.

Ugereranyije n’izindi ngufu, ntabwo iza nucléaire zangiza ikirere nk’uko bigenda kuri Nyiramugengeri kuko zitohereza mu kirere imyuka ihumanya ya CO2. Ntabwo kandi ahashyirwa uru ruganda hagomba kuba ari ahantu hanini ugereranyije n’ahashyirwa nk’imirasire y’izuba.

Gigawatt imwe y’ingufu za nucléaire irinda ko igihugu cyakohereza mu kirere umwuka uhumanya wa CO2 ungana na toni miliyoni icyenda, bingana n’uwakoherezwa mu kirere n’imodoka miliyoni ebyiri, bityo kuyikoresha bizatuma u Rwanda rugera ku ntego rwihaye yo kugabanya imyuka yangiza ikirere.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’Umuryango ushinzwe Ikoreshwa rya Nucléaire ku Isi, World Nuclear Association, bwagaragaje ko ikoreshwa ry’izi ngufu rigabanya toni 29 z’umwuka uhumanya wa CO2 kuri Gigawatt mu isaha (GWh).

Umwe mu baganiriye na IGIHE wasuye rumwe mu nganda zitunganya izi ngufu yagize ati “Aho nagiye muri Pologne, ntiwamenya ko ari n’uruganda rwa nucléaire, iyo uri kurebera kure ubona ari nk’akazu k’ibyatsi. Ho rero mu kwirinda ibibazo, bubatse munsi y’ubutaka. Iyo winjiye mu ruganda, umanuka hasi mu kuzimu, ni ho ibintu byose bikorerwa.”

Minisitiri w’Ibidukikije, Dr Mujawamariya Jeanne D’Arc, yabwiye IGIHE ko ibiganiro bikiri ku ntambwe ya mbere, ariko ko uru ruganda aricyo gisubizo cyonyine u Rwanda rufite cyatuma ruca ukubiri n’ibibazo by’ibura ry’amashanyarazi.

Ati “Byatuma duca ukubiri n’ibura ry’amashanyarazi, gukomeza kugura ibikoresho by’ibanze bituma tuvura kanseri, bizatuma duca ukubiri n’iyangirika ry’umusaruro uturuka ku buhinzi kuko tuzashobora kujya tuwubika igihe kirekire, twifashishije ingufu za nucléaire."

Uku niko intima za Uranium zitunganwa, ibizwi mu butabire nka fission nucléaire

Kuki ingufu za nucléaire zakangaranyije Abanyarwanda?

Ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za nucléaire risaba kwitwararika cyane kuko iyo uruganda rwubatse nabi rushobora gutera impanuka, icyo gihe igihugu gito nk’icyacu gishobora guhinduka umuyonga.

Ibi biterwa n’ubumara bwa Uranium. Urugero rworoshye, nk’igisasu cy’ibilo bitageze kuri 30 cyatewe mu Buyapani mu Mujyi wa Hiroshima cyahitanye abantu ibihumbi 140.

Uwaganiriye na IGIHE agendeye ku ruganda yasuye muri Pologne yakomeje agira ati “Oya rwose, uko nabibonye biriya bintu biteye ubwoba, byonyine bisaba ubwirinzi buhambaye. Uba usanga abantu bakoramo bambaye hose kurusha n’uko aba bavura Coronavirus baba bambaye. Gusa ariko na none inyungu zabyo ni nyinshi, ubwirinzi bukozwe neza nta kibazo kirimo.”

Mu 1986, muri Ukraine mu Mujyi wa Chernobyl habereye impanuka ikomeye yatewe n’iturika y’uruganda rwa nucléaire, abantu barenga 50 bahise bapfa ariko ingaruka ntizagarukiye aho kuko n’ubu ibibazo byatewe n’iturika ry’urwo ruganda zikiriho. Habarwa ko abantu ibihumbi bine bazapfa bitewe n’ingaruka zatewe n’iri turika.

Icyo gihe icyaturitse ni cya gice twabonye haruguru cy’amazi ashyushywa agatanga umwuka ari nawo ubyara amashanyarazi. Hari abantu barwaye indwara zikomeye zo kwangirika uruhu, abandi bagira ibibazo bituma baruka, abandi bangirika imisokoro ku buryo byabaviriyemo kanseri.

IGIHE yabashije kubona Umunyarwanda wari i Kiev muri Ukraine ku wa 26 Mata 1986 ubwo iyo mpanuka yabaga. Ntiyifuje ko amazina ye agaragara muri iyi nkuru. Yari yaragiye kwiga ubwo iyo mpanuka yabaga.

Ati “Ntabwo twari twemerewe kwinjira mu nzu winjiranye ikote n’inkweto, niba uvuye hanze, byasabaga ko ibyo wambaye ubisiga kugira ngo utinjirana ubumara mu nzu.”

“Byabaye ngombwa ko imodoka zijya zisuka amazi ahantu hose mu muhanda, bagasukura inzu inshuro nyinshi, ahantu hose mu nzu, gusukura ikintu cyose [...] byari biteye ubwoba.”

Umwuka wavuye muri Ukraine ntiwangije ako gace gusa, kuko wageze no mu bihugu bihana imbibi, ku buryo hari ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu 2005 bukagaragaza ko hari abagizweho ingaruka n’iryo turika ry’uruganda, ku buryo nk’umubyeyi abyara umwana utuzuye cyangwa udafite ingingo zimwe na zimwe.

Dr Mujawamariya we avuga ko impanuka y’uru ruganda ari kimwe n’uko uruganda rw’amashanyarazi rusanzwe rushobora guturika mu gihe habayeho ikosa rya muntu mu myubakire cyangwa se igikoresho cyakoreshejwe kidakwiriye.

Ati “Impanuka ni nk’uko n’abakoresha ingufu zisanzwe bagira impanuka. Ni nk’uko umuntu ashobora gutwikwa n’amazi y’amashyuza, ni nk’uko abantu bamwe bateka kuri gaz imyaka 20 undi akayicanaho umunsi umwe igahita imutwika. Ntabwo wavuga ngo nucléaire ni impanuka, ntabwo ari kirimbuzi ahubwo ni igisubizo.”

Akomeza asobanura ko na gaz methane iri mu Kivu ishobora guteza ibibazo bikomeye mu gihe yaba itabyazwa umusaruro kuko byaba bisa “nko kwicanira ikirunga”.

IGIHE ifite amakuru ko amasezerano u Rwanda rwasinye agena ko mu gihe iyo mpanuka yabaho rwahabwa impozamarira ya miliyoni eshanu z’amadolari ya Amerika bigendanye n’amasezerano ya Vienne agena ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za nucléaire.

Mu bihugu bitandukanye ku Isi, abantu bari guhabwa akazi ko kugenzura imikorere y’inganda za nucléaire bashyirirwaho amabwiriza akomeye, harimo no kuba baba batagomba kuba banywa inzoga.

Ahari uruganda rutunganya izi ngufu, haba hari ikintu gisa n'ikigega aricyo byinshi mu bikorwa bikorerwamo

Ni he hashobora kubakwa uru ruganda?

Minisitiri Dr Mujawamariya yabwiye IGIHE ko inyigo igomba kugaragaza aho uru ruganda rwakubakwa itarakorwa ariko ubu aricyo kigiye gukurikiraho.

Ati “Ntabwo ibyo biragerwaho. Ni abahanga baza baba abacu, baba ab’ibihugu turi gukorana, bakaza bagasura mu gihugu hose aho babona haba hagendanye n’ibikorwa by’uruganda rushingiye kuri nucléaire.”

Umwe mu bantu basobanukiwe imikorere y’ingufu za nucléaire, yabwiye IGIHE ko ahantu hubakwa uruganda rw’izi ngufu hagomba kuba hegereye umugezi ku buryo amazi ava mu ruganda, ya yandi aba yashongeshejwe, ashobora kuyoborwa mu mugezi agatemba.

Ibi binajyana n’uko aho rwubatse haba ari ahantu kure y’abaturage. Ati “Buri gihe biba byiza iyo zigiye kure y’abaturage, ikindi hakaba haboneka amazi ku buryo akoreshwa n’uruganda ashobora kuyoborwa ku mugezi agatemba.”

Ugendeye kuri icyo, atanga urugero rw’uko rushobora kubakwa nka hafi y’umugezi w’Akanyaru cyangwa se uwa Nyabarongo kugira ngo amazi avuyemo abashe gukomeza mu mugezi agende.

Uyu mushinga watangiye kuvugwa mu 2018 ubwo u Rwanda n'u Burusiya byasinyanaga amasezerano yo kubaka mu Rwanda Ikigo cy'Ubushakashatsi kuri izi ngufu

Bisaba angahe?

“Kuyubaka birahenze ariko kutagira ingufu biraduhenda kurusha.” Ni ko Dr Mujawamariya abisobanura nubwo atazi neza igiciro.

Kubaka uru ruganda bikorwa mu byiciro kandi bishobora gutwara imyaka iri hagati y’itatu n’itanu. Igiciro kijyana n’ubushobozi ushaka ko uruganda rugomba kuba rufite.

Imibare igaragazwa n’ibigo byubaka izi nganda igaragaza ko kilowatt imwe yubakirwa $5,500 kugera $8,100. (Megawatt imwe ingana na kilowatt 1000), naho mu gihe nk’urushobora gutanga amashanyarazi angana na MW 1,100 rwo rubarirwa hagati ya miliyari 6 z’amadolari n’icyenda z’amadolari (ni hagati ya miliyari ibihumbi 5.7 na miliyari ibihumbi 8.5 Frw).

Afurika y’Epfo iherutse gushaka kwagura uruganda rwayo rw’izi ngufu kugira ngo rugire ubushobozi bwa 9.6GW, isanga bizayisaba nibura miliyari ziri hagati ya 34 na 84 z’amadolari.

Nubwo kubaka uru ruganda bihenda, ntabwo bigoye kurwitaho ugereranyije n’ibigenda ku zindi nganda zitanga ingufu z’amashanyarazi cyangwa izitunganya gaz.

Iyi ni yo nzira ikoreshwa kugira ngo izi ngufu zitange amashanyarazi, uhereye ku ruhande rw'iburyo aho amazi ashyushywa ukageza aho ahuzwa n'ingufu za nucléaire agatanga amashanyarazi

Mu Ukwakira 2019, Ikigo cya Leta y’u Burusiya gishinzwe ingufu, Rosatom, cyabeshyuje amakuru yacicikanye ku mbuga nkoranyambaga ko u Rwanda ruteganya gushora miliyari igihumbi z’amadolari mu mushinga wo kubaka uruganda rw’ingufu za nucléaire.

Icyo gihe umuntu witwa James Hall yifashishije urukuta rwa Twitter yandika ko miliyari igihumbi z’amadolari ariko gaciro k’umushinga w’u Rwanda n’u Burusiya wo kubaka mu gihugu uruganda rw’ingufu za nucléaire.

Uwahoze ari Umuyobozi wa Rosatom muri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara, Viktor Polikarpov, yavuze ko iby’uko u Rwanda rugiye gushora miliyari z’amadolari mu kubaka uru ruganda atari byo, ko ndetse igiciro kidashobora kuganirwaho n’amasezerano atarasinywa.

Ati “ Kuvuga ku giciro ni ibintu byaba bije imburagihe, nibura ugomba kugira umushinga. Ugomba gusinya amasezerano y’imikoranire hagati ya za Guverinoma ajyanye no kubaka uruganda rw’ingufu za nucléaire, ntayo dufite ubu.’’

“Turi kuganira n’u Rwanda ku bijyanye no gutanga amahugurwa, mu gutegura ibikorwaremezo n’ibindi; ntabwo twigeze tuganira ku bijyanye n’agaciro k’uruganda rw’ingufu za nucléaire. Ni ibihuha kandi ndashaka kwamagana ibi bihuha ntaho bihuriye n’ukuri. Ntushobora kuvuga ku giciro udafite umushinga.’’

Abajijwe ku byo bateganya gukorera mu Rwanda n’igihe bizakorerwa, yasubije ko bizaterwa na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda, ariko ko kuri ubu hasinywe amasezerano ibisigaye ari urugendo rurerure rusaba byinshi mu kwitegura.

Yavuze ko ibihugu kugira ngo bitangize uru ruganda, bisaba ko byubahiriza amabwiriza agenga ibijyanye n’ingufu za kirimbuzi ashyirwaho n’umuryango ubishinzwe (International Atomic Energy Agency).

Ati “Ku Rwanda kuko ari igihugu gishya, tugomba gutangirira ku bintu bito, urugero nk’Ikigo cy’Ubushakashatsi ku ngufu za nucléaire ku buryo abantu bazifashisha nko mu kuvura kanseri kuko ari ikibazo gikomeye muri Afurika, baha amahugurwa abantu babo […] uyu ni umushinga watangira wenda nko mu myaka itanu. ’’

U Rwanda rwohereje mu Burusiya abantu bagiye kwihugura ku ikoreshwa ry’ingufu za nucléaire. Ubu aba mbere bari kurangiza umwaka wa mbere w’ururimi kuko amasomo azatangwa mu Kirusiya. Bamwe bazigayo imyaka itanu, abandi itandatu, hari n’abaziga itatu. Abariyo ubu barenga 70.


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