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Imyuka y’imodoka no gutekesha inkwi n’amakara byihariye 80% mu guhumanya ikirere cy’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Prudence Kwizera
Kuya 24 Mata 2021 saa 02:34
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Abashakashatsi bo mu mushinga upima imihindagurikire y’ibihe mu Rwanda witwa ‘Rwanda Climate Change‘, bagaragaje ko imyuka isohorwa n’imodoka ndetse n’imyotsi ikomoka ku gutekesha inkwi n’amakara, bigize 80% by’imyanda yanduza umwuka mu kirere cy’u Rwanda.

Kuva mu 2012 mu Rwanda hatangiye gukorera umushinga upima imihindagurikire y’ibihe witwa ‘Rwanda Climate Change‘ hagamijwe kumenya uko ikirere cy’u Rwanda gihumanywa n’imyuka yanduye kugira ngo hafatwe ingamba zo gukumira ingaruka zayo hakiri kare.

Uwo mushinga ukorera muri Minisiteri y’Uburezi washyizweho ku bufatanye bwa Leta y’u Rwanda na Kaminuza yigisha iby’Ikoranabuhanga muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Hashyizwe ibyuma n’imashini kabuhariwe ku musozi wa Mugogo ufite ubutumburuke bwa metero 2540, uherereye mu Kagari Rukondo mu Murenge wa Kintobo mu Karere ka Nyabihu.

Izindi zashyizwe mu Mujyi wa Kigali mu nyubako ya Kaminuza y’u Rwanda Ishami rya Nyarugenge mu ishuri ry’ubumenyi n’ikoranabuhanga, zifasha mu gupima ibipimo bitandukanye by’umwuka unyura mu kirere cy’u Rwanda.

Izo mashini zibafasha kubona ibipimo by’umwaka unyura mu kirere cy’ibihugu bya Afurika y’Iburasirazuba n’iyo Hagati (East and Central African region).

Dr Gasore Jimmy ushinzwe ibijyanye n’ubumenyi na tekinike muri uwo mushinga, yavuze ko ugamije gusobanukirwa no gutanga umusanzu ku bibazo u Rwanda n’Isi bifite mu bijyanye no guhumana k’umwuka, imihindagurikire y’ikirere ndetse n’iyangirika ry’akayunguruzo k’imirasire y’izuba [Ozone].

Yavuze ko iyo bamaze kubona ibipimo by’uko umwuka umeze, babimenyesha inzego z’ubuyobozi zigafata ibyemezo.

Ati “Ibipimo dufata bigira akamaro kenshi; aka mbere ni ukumenyesha inzego zibishinzwe cyane cyane izishinzwe kurengera ibidukikije, hakabaho no kujya inama ku nzego zifata ibyemezo aho bashyira imbaraga mu kurwanya imyuka yanduza ikirere.”

Akomeza avuga ko mu gihe bamaze bafata ibipimo, muri rusange basanze imyuka iva mu modoka ndetse n’imyotsi ikomoka ku gutekesha inkwi n’amakara bifite uruhare runini mu kwanduza ikirere cy’u Rwanda.

Ati “N’ubwo bihinduka bigendanye n’amasaha, umunsi cyangwa igihembwe, tugereranyije nka 40% ni imodoka, 40% ni ibicanwa, iyindi 20% igahindagurika.”

Dr Gasore yakomeje avuga ko imyuka yanduza ikirere ikunze kuboneka ku bwinshi mu gihe cy’impeshyi hava izuba ryinshi, ikagabanuka mu gihe cy’itumba hagwa imvura kuko iyo iguye isukura ikirere.

Umuhuzabikorwa w’uwo mushinga, Ndikubwimana Jean de Dieu, yavuze ko inama yatanga kuri Leta y’u Rwanda ari uko yashyira ingufu mu gukumira imyuka bituruka mu modoka n’imyotsi ikomoka ku nkwi n’amakara.

Ati “Kugeza ubu yashyira imbaraga mu kurwanya imyuka ituruka mu modoka kubera ko ni zo zisohora imyuka myinshi ihumanya ikirere ndetse no kugabanya gukoresha inkwi n’amakara mu gucana, kuko kugeza ubu umubare munini w’Abanyarwanda baracyateka bakoresheje inkwi n’amakara.”

Yatanze inama ko mu kugabanya imyuka ituruka mu modoka, u Rwanda rwashyiraho amategeko akumira imodoka zishaje zinjizwa mu gihugu ndetse n’ufite imodoka ishaje akajya ayisorera kugira ngo bamuce intege ayireke ntikomeza kwanduza ikirere.

Ikindi ni ugushishikariza abaturage gukoresha imodoka zitwara abantu muri rusange aho kugira ngo buri wese yumve yatunga imodoka ye bwite, kuko zaba nyinshi mu gihugu.

Avuga kandi ko abantu bashobora gukoresha amagare mu ngendo bakora kuko u Rwanda atari igihugu kikini ndetse hakongerwa n’ingufu mu kuzana mu Rwanda moto zikoresha amashanyarazi.

Ndikubwimana yavuze ko mu kugabanya gutekesha inkwi n’amakara kuko bisohora imyotsi yanduza ikirere, hakwiye gushyirwa ingufu mu gutoza abaturage gutekesha gaz ariko bakagabanyirizwa n’igiciro cyayo kugira ngo boroherwe no kuyigondera. Ikindi ni ugukoresha imbabura zirondereza ibicanwa.

Umusaruro umaze gutangwa n’uwo mushinga

Ndikubwimana yavuze ko umushinga ujya gutangira abantu bari bajijukiwe n’ibijyanye n’ubumenyi bw’ikirere mu Rwanda bari bake ndetse n’ubushakashatsi bwakorwaga bwari buke.

Yakomeje avuga ko uwo mushinga umaze gutanga umusaruro mu bice bitatu birimo uburezi, ubushakashatsi no kongerera abantu ubumenyi n’ubushobozi.

Ati “Kugeza ubu abanyeshuri 20 barangije bakora mu bigo bitandukanye birimo Meteo Rwanda, REMA ndetse n’ahandi bakenewe. 13 nabo barenda kurangiza ndetse na 15 batangiye umwaka wa mbere.”

Yavuze ko mu cyiciro cy’ubushakashaysi, hari butatu bwakozwe butangazwa mu bitangazamakuru bya siyansi ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

Hari kandi n’ubundi bwakozwe n’Abanyarwanda barimo Dr Gasore Jimmy bumuhesha impamyabushobozi y’ikirenga.

Abanyeshuri ba Kaminuza nabo bakoresha izo mashini kabuhariwe mu kwimenyereza umwuga no gukora ubushakashatsi ndetse no kwandika ibitabo bibemerera gusoza icyiciro barimo.

Mu cyiciro cyo kongerera abantu ubumenyi n’ubushobozi, izo mashini zikenerwa n’abarimu bigisha muri za Kaminuza kugira ngo bakore ubushakashatsi ndetse bigishe n’abanyeshuri.
Ati “Hari amahugurwa rero yagiye ategurwa agahuza abarimu ba Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Meteo Rwanda na REMA. Ayo mahugurwa yabongereye ubushobozi ku buryo bashobora gukoresha ibi byuma mu bushakashatsi bakora, kugira ngo ubushakashatsi butere imbere muri iki cyiciro cy’ihindagurika ry’ikirere.”

Ikindi cyagezweho mu bushakashatsi bukorwa n’icyo kigo ni uko ku bufatanye n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cyo kubungabunga ibidukikije (REMA) hashyizweho uburyo bwo gupima ibipimo byinshi mu gihugu mu mijyi no mu byaro byerekana uko umwuka uhagaze buri kanya kandi buri Munyarwanda wese akaba ashobora kuyabona binyuze mu itangazamakuru n’ahandi.

Byatumye kandi isura y’u Rwanda ku rwego mpuzamahanga iba nziza kurushaho kuko ibipimo u Rwanda rutanga bigenderwaho n’ibihugu bitandukanye by’amahanga kuko biba byizewe ku rwego rwo hejuru.

Ndikubwimana yavuze ko ibipimo bagiye bereka inzego z’ubuyobozi byagiye bituma hafatwa ingamba zigamije kugabanya imyuka yanduza ikirere, bituma indwara nyinshi zifata imyanya y’ubuhumekereo zigabanuka mu Rwanda.

Zimwe mu ngamba zafashwe mu Rwanda harimo kubungabunga amashyamba, gukoresha imodoka rusange zitwara abantu hagabanywa imodoka nyinshi zigenda mu muhanda, kuzana moto zikoreshwa n’amashanyarazi, gutekesha gaz n’izindi.

Umukozi wa Minisiteri y’Uburezi, Habineza Theobard, avuga ko ari umwe mu musaruro w’uwo mushinga kuko wamwubakiye ubushobozi umwongerera n’ubumenyi.

Ati “Muri gahunda yashyizweho y’icyiciro cya gatatu cya Kaminuza ni ho nagize amahirwe yo kongereramo ubumenyi bwanjye. Ubu nabashije kuzamura urwego aho noneho nshobora gufata bya bipimo dufata hano nkabibyazamo amakuru ashobora gusakazwa mu baturage biciye mu nzego z’ibishinzwe.”

Imishini zatanzwe na MIT harimo iyitwa ‘Medusa’ ifite agaciro kangana n’ibihumbi 180 by’amadorali ipima imyuka igera kuri 50; hakaba n’izindi mashini ebyiri zitwa Picarro G2401 na ‘Picarro G5202’ zifite agaciro k’ibihumbi 30 by’amadolari.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ihemba abakozi batandatu bakora mu mushinga kandi buri mwaka iteganya miliyoni zigera kuri 30 Frw zishobora kwifashishwa mu gusana icyuma cyangiritse cyangwa kugisimbuza

Kugeza ubu muri Afurika ibigo bipima imihindagurikire y’ibihe biri ku rwego mpuzamahanga ni bibiri gusa; kimwe kiri mu Rwanda ikindi kiri muri Afrika y’Epfo.

Inyigo iheruka gukorwa n’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima, OMS, ku bijyanye n’ubuziranenge bw’umwuka yagaragaje ko abaturage bangana na 92% baba mu duce tubonekamo ihumana ry’ikirere ryo ku rwego rwo hejuru.

Imibare igaragaza ko buri mwaka ku Isi abantu miliyoni zirindwi bicwa n’indwara zituruka ku guhumana kw’ikirere.

Imashini zashyizwe ku musozi wa Mugogo zifashishwa mu gupima umwuka wo mu kirere cy'u Rwanda
Hashyizwe imashini kabuhariwe ku musozi wa Mugogo uherereye mu Murenge wa Kintobo mu Karere ka Nyabihu zifasha gufata ibipimo
Haboneka imashini kabuhariwe mu gupima umwuka no kumenya ibiwanduza
Imwe mu mashini zikoreshwa mu gufata ibipimo by'umwaka unyura mu kirere cy'u Rwanda
Zimwe mu mashini zikorershwa mu kigo gipima imihindagurikire y’ibihe
Dr Gasore Jimmy yavuze ko imyuka y’imodoka no gutekesha inkwi n’amakara byihariye 80% mu guhumanya ikirere mu Rwanda
Umuhuzabikorwa w’uwo mushinga, Ndikubwimana Jean de Dieu, yavuze ko leta ikwiye gushyira ingufu mu gukumira imyuka ituruka mu modoka n’imyotsi ikomoka ku nkwi n’amakara
Umukozi wa Minisiteri y’Uburezi, Habineza Theobard, yavuze uyu mushinga wamwongereye ubushobozi n'ubumenyi

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