Imyaka 61 irirenze PARMEHUTU ivutse! Ikivumbikisho mu mateka ashaririye y’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Uwimana Abraham
Kuya 19 Ukwakira 2020 saa 07:19
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Ku wa 19 Ukwakira mu 1959, nibwo hashinzwe Ishyaka rya PARMEHUTU (Le Parti du Mouvement de l’Emancipation Hutu), rifatwa nk’iryatangije icengezamatwara ryagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Ishingwa rya PARMEHUTU rifite imizi muri Kamena 1957, ubwo Kayibanda Gregoire yashingaga ishyirahamwe rya “Mouvement Social Muhutu”, ari ryo ryahindutsee PARMEHUTU mu 1959, nyuma rihindurirwa izina ryitwa MDR Parmehutu (Mouvement Démocratique Républicain).

PARMEHUTU yabayeho mu gihe cy’inkundura y’ishyirwaho ry’amashyaka mu 1959 yabaye nyuma y’aho Umwami Rudahigwa atangiye hagahita himikwa Kigeli V Ndahinduwa. Icyakora Abakoloni ntibashakaga ko himikwa undi mwami kuko babonaga batangiye kutagendera mu murongo wa bo, ahubwo bakaba bashaka ubwigenge.

Amashyaka yabanje kujyaho kuva muri Nyakanga 1959 arimo na RADER yo yarashyigikiye ubwami, nyuma nibwo haje PARMEHUTU mu Ukwakira, haza na za Aprosoma n’andi.

Kayibanda we bivugwa ko yari yarateguwe n’abakoloni kuva na mbere kugira ngo bazamwifashishe mu mugambi wabo wo kuvanaho ingoma ya cyami bagashyiraho ubutegetsi bw’Abahutu bazashobora kubumvira ndetse ngo yajyanywe no mu Bubiligi kujya guhugurwa mu byo guteza imvururu.

Umunyamateka akaba n’Umwanditsi w’Ibitabo, Murashi Isaïe, aganira na IGIHE yavuze ko umugambi wo gushyira Abahutu ku butegetsi bagasimbuzwa abami b’Abatutsi, wari umaze igihe unozwa n’abakoloni ariko ku isonga hakaba abapadiri bera bari baroherejwe gukwirakwiza ubukirisitu mu Rwanda.

Ku isonga ry’uwo mugambi, hari Musenyeri Léon Classe wari ushinzwe Kiliziya Gatolika mu Rwanda, ubwo yapfaga mu 1945 abisigira abandi bamusimbuye barimo na André Perraudin na Padiri Arthur Dejemepe.

Yagize ati “Yagiye mu Iseminari Nkuru ya Nyakibanda, bamuvanayo bafite umugambi wo kuzamugira umuntu ukomeye. Bamwohereza i Kigali, muri ririya shuri bita ETO ryari ryubatswe muri St Paul. Padiri Arthur Dejemepe ni nk’aho ari we wasimbuye Classe, Kayibanda bamugira umwungiriza we amuha kwigisha Igifaransa n’amateka.”

Ishyaka rya PARMEHUTU ryari rifite amatwara akaze n’ubuhezanguni, ryimakaje gutoteza Abatutsi, kubica no kubamenesha kuva mu Ugushyingo 1959.

Ibi byose byashingiye ku ishyirwaho ry’inyandiko yiswe “Manifeste y’Abahutu”, yasohotse ku wa 24 Werurwe 1959. Niyo ifatwa nk’inyandiko shingiro ya PARMEHUTU, yari ikubiyemo amahame agamije gucamo ibice Abanyarwanda, Abahutu bumvishwa ko Abatutsi ari abanzi, ko babatsikamiye bakwiye kubigobotora.

“Manifeste y’Abahutu” ntiyagizwemo uruhare na Kayibanda na PARMEHUTU gusa, ahubwo ngo hihishemo n’uruhare rukomeye rw’abakoloni.

Nk’uko Padiri Karangwa Hildebrand yabitangaje mu gitabo cye “Parmehutu (1959-1973): Imwe mu nkomoko za Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, Abanditsi nyabo ba Manifeste ngo ni Kayibanda, Munyangaju, Gitera na Mulindahabi.

Gusa ngo mbere y’uko iyi nyandiko isohoka yamenywe na ba Padiri Arthur De Jemeppe, Innocent Gasabwoya, Boniface Musoni na Eugèene Ernotte. Ubushakashatsi ngo bukaba bunagaragaza neza ko na Mgr Perraudin nawe yayigizemo uruhare.

Icengezamatwara rya PARMEHUTU ryakwiriye mu gihugu, mu bahezanguni b’Abahutu, bumva ko bakandamijwe n’ingoma ntutsi, ko bakwiye kuyipakurura, bahera ubwo batangira ubona Umututsi nk’umwanzi.

-  PARMEHUTU: Intangiriro ya Jenoside Yakorewe Abatutsi

Mu Ugushyingo 1959 nibwo ibintu byatangiye guhindura isura mu gihugu, ubwo nyuma y’ubukangurambaga bwakozwe na PARMEHUTU ndetse na Aprosoma yari iyishyigikiye, Abatutsi batangiye gutotezwa hirya no hino mu gihugu, bamwe baricwa abandi barameneshwa barahunga.

Byose bijya gutangira hari ku Cyumweru tariki ya 1 Ugushyingo 1959, ubwo Mbonyumutwa Dominique wari umuyoboke wa Parmehutu yakubitwaga n’insoresore z’Abatutsi. Mbonyumutwa yari Sous Chef muri Ndiza i Gitarama.

Bararwanye Mbonyumutwa aza kubacika ariruka, ariko nyuma abarwanashyaka ba Parmehutu bakwirakwiza igihuha cy’uko yishwe n’abambari ba UNAR, ari nako bashishikariza Abahutu kwihorera.

Abahutu bari muri Parmehutu batangiye kwihorera hirya no hino mu gihugu, batwika inzu n’imyaka y’Abatutsi irarandurwa. Bamwe mu batutsi kandi barimo abari abayobozi batangiye kwicwa, abagize amahirwe barahunga.

Ibyo bikorwa byagize ingaruka zikomeye ku Rwanda kuko abaturage benshi bahunze kugeza ubwo mu 1962 impunzi z’Abanyarwanda mu mahanga zasagaga ibihumbi 200.

Imvururu zimaze gukaza umurego, ku wa 9 Ugushyingo 1959, ingabo z’u Bubiligi zabaga muri Congo zoherejwe mu Rwanda guhosha imvururu ziyobowe na Colonel Guy Logiest waje kuyobora ingabo z’Ababiligi mu Rwanda (Résident Militaire du Rwanda).

Nubwo izo ngabo zoherejwe zifite inshingano yo guhosha imvururu no kurinda abaturage, Paternostre de la Mairieu wabaye Umujyanama wa Kayibanda mu gitabo cye ‘Toute ma vie pour vous, mes frères’, agaragaza ko ingabo z’Ababiligi zibanze mu gucungira umutekano abanyapolitiki b’amashyaka nka Parmehutu na Aprosoma yashakaga kuvanaho ubwami kurusha gucungira abaturage umutekano.

Bitewe n’izo mvururu zose, muri Nyakanga 1960, Umwami Kigeli yumvise ko Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni, Dag Hammarskjöld azaba ari i Léopoldville (Kinshasa) muri Congo, asaba Guverineri wa Ruanda-Urundi pasiporo ngo azagende bahure, amugezeho ikibazo cy’Abanyarwanda kuko yabonaga ko Ababiligi batazagikemura.

Yabanje kwangirwa pasiporo ariko ageze aho arayihabwa, agiye yangirwa kugaruka ndetse Abakoloni bakwirakwiza kuri Radiyo ko Umwami atemerewe kugaruka mu Rwanda. Yagerageje no kuza mu ibanga babimenye bamusubizayo ku ngufu.

Tariki 18 Ukwakira 1960 hatowe ba Burugumesitiri ba Komine. Muri ba burugumesitiri 229, hari harimo 210 ba MDR Parmehutu. Mu matora y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko yabaye tariki 26 Ukwakira MDR Parmehutu yagize imyanya 31, irindwi ya Aprosoma n’icyenda ya RADER.

Kubera ko MDR Parmehutu ariyo yari ifite ubwiganze mu Nteko niyo yasabwe gushyiraho Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho. Ni Guverinoma yari igizwe n’abaminisititi icyenda, abanyamahanga ba Leta 12 barimo Ababiligi umunani.

Ibyo ubwabyo bigaragaza urwego rw’ubwigenge u Bubiligi bwateguriraga u Rwanda kuko icyo gihugu cyakomeje kugira ijambo rigaragara mu butegetsi bw’u Rwanda na nyuma y’ubwigenge.

Bivuye ku busabe bw’Umwami na UNAR, tariki 20 Ukuboza 1960, Inteko rusange ya Loni yategetse u Bubiligi kurekura imfungwa zose za Politiki zari mu Rwanda, gutegura inama y’ubwiyunge no kwimura amatora rusange yagombaga kuba muri Mutarama 1961.

Nyuma y’ubwo rero nibwo hemejwe ko hagomba kuba amatora ya Kamarampaka hakemezwa niba ingoma ya cyami igumaho cyangwa niba ivaho hakajyaho Repubulika.

-  Kayibanda na PARMEHUTU ku butegetsi

Amashyaka nka Parmehutu na Aprosoma ashyigikiwe n’Abakoloni b’Ababiligi yifuzaga ko ubwami buvaho, ubutegetsi bukajya mu maboko y’Abahutu kandi hakajyaho Repubulika, naho amashyaka nka UNAR na RADER ashaka ko ubwami bugumaho kandi u Rwanda rugahabwa ubwigenge byihuse.

Ibyavuye mu matora ya Kamarampaka bivuga ko 79% by’abatoye bemeje ko badashyigikiye ubwami n’Umwami Kigeli. Nubwo ariko MDR yatsinze, inyandiko z’icyo gihe zigaragaza ko ayo matora yabayemo uburiganya kandi ko abarwanashyaka ba UNAR n’abandi bari bashyikiye ubwami batewe ubwoba, bikiyongeraho ko umwami ubwe yari yarabujijwe kugaruka mu gihugu no kuba benshi mu barwanashyaka be bari barameneshejwe bari hanze y’igihugu, abandi barishwe.

Amatora arangiye, benshi mu Batutsi bongeye kwibasirwa ndetse n’abari bafite icyizere ko inzego nshya z’ubuyobozi zagarura ituze mu gihugu, bari batangiye kubona neza umurongo mushya w’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda.

Hari abandi Batutsi benshi bafashe iy’ubuhungiro batinya ingaruka bashobora guhura nazo ku bw’umutekano wabo.

Tariki 25 Ukwakira 1961, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko yarateranya itora Amandin Rugira kuba Perezida w’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko mu gihe Kayibanda Inteko yamutoreye kuba Perezida.

Ubutegetsi bushya bwatangiye kwizera noneho guhabwa igihugu byuzuye dore ko ibyo Loni yasabaga byose byari byakozwe, bwemewe ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

Muri Gicurasi 1962, Ingabo zarindaga Teritwari ziyoborwa n’u Bubiligi zarahinduwe zigirwa Ingabo z’u Rwanda. Ingabo zashyizwe mu maboko ya Perezida Kayibanda ariko yemeranya n’u Bubiligi gukomeza gukorana n’ingabo zabwo mu gihe iz’u Rwanda zitaraboneka ku bwinshi.

Nubwo ubutegetsi bwari mu maboko ya Kayibanda na MDR, imvururu zishingiye ku mashyaka zakomeje kubaho kubera amashyaka nka UNAR na RADER atemeraga uburyo ubutegetsi bwari busaranganyijwe. Kubera igitutu cya Loni ayo mashyaka yahawe imyanya mike muri Guverinoma ariko nyuma y’umwaka umwe iyo myanya yarayambuwe, MDR aba ariyo iyiharira.

Tariki 27 Kamena 1962, Loni yafashe umwanzuro wemeza ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda ukwarwo n’u Burundi ukwabwo. Tariki 1 Nyakanga 1962 niyo Loni yahise igenwa nk’itariki y’Ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda n’u Burundi.

Ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda bwahaye umwanya Kayibanda n’ishyaka rye bwo kurushaho gutoteza Abatutsi kuko barushijeho kwicwa no guhunga kugeza ubwo mu 1963 Abanyapolitiki bakomeye muri UNAR na RADER bicwaga.

Ni nayo mpamvu benshi mu banyamateka batemera ubwo bwigenge u Rwanda rwabonye kuko butabaye umwanya n’amahirwe abaturage bose, ahubwo wabaye umwanya w’igice kimwe cy’abaturage kwikiza ikindi, ariko nako igihugu cyasaga n’ikiri mu kwaha kw’Ababiligi bari barahoze barukoloniza.

-  Ihirikwa ry’Ingoma ya Kayibanda n’iherezo ku kiragano cya mbere cya PARMEHUTU

Tariki 30 Ukwakira 1965 habaye amatora ya Perezida, Kayibanda yiyamamaza wenyine anatsinda ku kigero cya 98 %. Tariki 28 Nzeri 1969 nabwo habaye andi matora, nabwo Kayibanda arayatsinda.

Kayibanda yari yemerewe manda ebyiri, mu 1973 ashaka kuvugurura Itegeko Nshinga ngo yiyamamarize manda ya gatatu, umunsi w’inteko rusange y’ishyaka uhurirana n’ihirikwa rye ku butegetsi, akurwaho na Gen Major Habyarimana Juvénal wari Minisitiri we w’Ingabo.

Habyarimana yayoboye igihugu gisirikare kugeza mu 1978 ubwo hategurwaga amatora ya referandumu ku Itegeko Nshinga, ryemeza ko mu gihugu haba ishyaka rimwe.

Amatora ya referandumu yabaye tariki 17 Ukuboza 1978 itegeko Nshinga ritorwa ku kigero cya 89 %, naho aya Perezida aba tariki 24 Ukuboza uwo mwaka , Habyarimana yiyamamaza wenyine atorwa ku majwi 98.8 %.

Birumvika ko ishyaka rya MDR Parmehutu ndetse n’andi byari bimaze guhinduka amateka mu gihugu hasigaye ishyaka rimwe rya MRND rya Habyarimana.

Ibyo niko byakomeje kugeza mu 1991 ubwo Habyarimana yashyirwagaho igitutu n’amahanga by’umwihariko u Bufaransa asabwa gushyiraho politiki yemerera amashyaka menshi, aza kubyemera urubuga rwongera gufunguka ku mashyaka menshi.

-  MDR Parmehutu imbere mu gifuniko gishya nyamara ibirimo ari ibisanzwe

Mu kwemerera amashyaka kwa Habyarimana niho hashibutse n’iryitwa MDR, ryakomokaga kuri MDR Parmehutu ya cyera mbere y’uko ikurwaho na Habyarimana.

MDR nshya yatangiye ifite ingufu ndetse niryo shyaka ryafatwaga nk’irikomeye mu yarwanyaga Habyarimana. Faustin Twagiramungu ni we watorewe kuriyobora mu 1991 rikiyuburura.

Amacakubiri muri iryo shyaka asa n’ayatangiye rigishingwa, icyakora yigaragaje cyane mu 1993 ubwo Twagiramungu yasabwaga gutanga uzaba Minisitiri w’Intebe muri Guverinona ihuriza hamwe amashyaka, agatanga Uwiringiyimana Agathe, atagishije inama ishyaka.

Muri uwo mwaka hateranye inteko idasanzwe ya MDR, yirukana Twagiramungu mu ishyaka na Uwiringiyimana Agathe asabwa kwegura ku mwanya wa Minisitiri w’Intebe yari yahawe.

Twagiramungu yanze ibyemezo yari yafatiwe, havuka impande ebyiri zihaganye mu ishyaka.

Ibyo byaje gukomeza kugeza havutse icyiswe MDR Power ya Karamira na Kambanda Yohani yari ishyigikiye MRND ya Habyarimana na CDR, amashyaka yari ku isonga ry’umugambi wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Ikindi gice cya MDR cyashakaga impinduka mu gihugu, kinashyigikiye urugamba rwa FPR Inkotanyi rwo kwibohora cyakomeje kuyoborwa na Twagiramungu.

Muri Guverinona y’Ubumwe yashyizweho muri Nyakanga 1994 nyuma y’urugamba rwo Kwibohora, FPR Inkotanyi yafatanyije n’amashyaka atarijanditse muri Jenoside, Twagiramungu Faustin wa MDR agirwa Minisitiri w’Intebe.

Uwo mwanya ntiyawumazeho kabiri kuko mu 1995 yareguye afata inzira y’ubuhungiro, asimburwa na Pierre Célestin Rwigema na we wari muri MDR.

Umushakashatsi akaba n’Umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Rutikanga Bernard, yabwiye IGIHE ko MDR itari yarigize ihinduka, yari ikiri ya PARMEHUTU ya cyera mu mwenda mushya.

Yagize ati “Amatwara yari ya yandi n’ubwo izina rihindutse. MDR icyo yashakaga cyari ukuvanaho Habyarimana, ariko ikijyanye no kubaka ubumwe nta cyari kibarimo, yambaye isura nshya ariko hasi yari ikiri ya yindi.”

Yakomeje avuga ko n’ubwo hari n’igice cya MDR cyashyizwe muri Guverinoma y’Ubumwe, abona naho ntaho bari bataniye n’aba mbere, bose ngo bari bafite inyota yo kurwanira ubutegetsi gusa kuruta ubwigenge, ubirebeye mu bibazo byakomeje kugaragaramo.

Mu nama zo mu Urugwiro hagati ya 1998 na 1999 zahurije hamwe abanyapolitiki, abanyabwenge, abanyamadini n’abandi ngo bashake umuti w’ahazaza h’u Rwanda, MDR yongeye gutungwa agatoki.

Izo nama zagaragaje ko muri iryo shyaka harimo ivangura n’irondamoko, ku buryo bikomeje gutyo inzira y’ubumwe igihugu cyashakaga itagerwaho.

Muri Werurwe 1998, habaye inama idasanzwe ya MDR ibera i Kibungo, igamije kuvugurura amahame yayo n’ingengabitekerezo nyuma y’uko binenzwe mu nama zo mu Rugwiro.

Iryo shyaka ryavuguruye amwe mu mahame yaryo, ihindura ibendera ryayo ariko ishyiraho irya MDR Parmehutu yo mu 1959.

Nubwo byitwaga impinduka, hari abatarabifashe nk’impinduka ahubwo babonye ko ari uburyo bwo gushimangira umurongo n’ibiketerezo bya MDR ya kera.

Gucikamo ibice byongeye kuvukira muri iyi nama y’i Kibungo kuko hari abadepite bane MDR, yemeje ko bavanwa ku mirimo bagasimburwa kubera amakosa akomeye bari bakoze.

Anastase Gasana wari ku isonga ya Komisiyo yari yashinzwe kuvugurura MDR, ntiyemeye uburyo bwakoreshejwe hatoranywa abasimbura abo badepite begujwe.
Bomboribombori yarakomeje mu ishyaka kugeza ubwo Rwigema Pierre Célestin, yeguraga ku mwanya wa Minisitiri w’Intebe agahunga, agasimburwa na Bernard Makuza na we wari muri MDR.

Icyo gihe uwitwa Célestin Kabanda ni we wari uyoboye iryo shyaka.

Perezida Pasteur Bizimungu na we amaze kwegura mu 2000, yatangiye kujya mu biganiro na Kabanda, ngo arebe uko yakwinjira mu buyobozi bwa MDR, azongere yiyamamaze mu matora ya Perezida.

Abarwanashyaka b’Imena barimo Anastase Gasana baje kubimenya, barabirwanya ndetse bahita bategura amatora yo gusimbuza Kabanda, asimburwa na Gasana. Hongeye kuvuka imvururu, igice kimwe gishyikira Kabanda ikindi gishyigikira Gasana.

Guverinoma yinjiye mu guhuza ibice byombi, birangira nta kigezweho hitabazwa Perezida wa Repubulika ngo abahuze, Minisitiri w’intebe Makuza yiyemeza kubunga ariko nabyo biba iby’ubusa.

-  Irunduka rya MDR ishami ryashibutse kuri PARMEHUTU

Tariki 18 Ukuboza 2002, Depite Abbas Mukama yandikiye ibaruwa Inteko rusange y’Umutwe w’Abadepite, ayisaba gusuzuma ikibazo cy’ishyaka MDR cyari kimaze gufata indi ntera.

Yagaragaje ko ikibazo cy’amacakubiri ya MDR kidasuzumwe cyabangamira inzira y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge by’Abanyarwanda.

Mu Ukuboza 2002 hashyizweho Komisiyo idasanzwe y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko igizwe n’abantu barindwi igomba kwiga ikibazo cya MDR, ihabwa Mukama ngo ayiyobore.

Iyo Komisiyo yahawe inshingano zo gushaka ingingo zigaragaza uruhare rwa MDR mu macakubiri yaranze u Rwanda, icyateye amacakubiri imbere mu ishyaka n’icyakorwa ngo ahagarare.

Komisiyo yazengurutse mu gihugu hose yumva ibitekerezo by’abaturage, baba abahoze muri MDR Parmehutu ya kera ndetse n’abarwanashyaka ba MDR y’icyo gihe n’abandi.

Raporo yakozwe n’iyo Komisiyo idasanzwe, igaragaza ko amacakubiri muri MDR yari yarahereye kera bitewe n’ingengabitekerezo yayo ariko by’umwihariko yafashe intera mu mwaka wa 1998.

Raporo y’Inteko ivuga ko mu gihe cy’ubuhuza, igice cya Kabanda cyaciye ku ruhande, gitangira gukangurira abaturage kutemera gahunda za Leta zari ziri gutangizwa nka gahunda y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge, Inkiko Gacaca, Amatora, kwegereza ubuyobozi abaturage n’ibindi.

Muri MDR hatangiye gushyirwaho amahuriro y’icengezamatwara nk’iryiswe ITARA, iryiswe Ubumwe bw’Abahutu n’andi.

Raporo igaragaza ko utwo dutsiko twari tugamije gukangurira abaturage kuzashyigikira MDR mu matora ya Perezida n’ay’abadepite mu 2003, hashingiwe ku iturufu y’ubwoko.

Komisiyo idasanzwe yagejeje ku Nteko Ishinga Amategeko raporo ikubiyemo imyanzuro ikwiriye gufatirwa MDR harimo no kuyisesa kuko ‘inzira y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge itari gushoboka hakurikijwe ingengabitekerezo yaryo.’

Muri Mata 2003, Inteko yasabye Guverinoma gusesa ishyaka MDR, byemezwa n’inama y’abaminisitiri yateranye muri Gicurasi uwo mwaka.

Inteko yanatanze urutonde rw’abantu 50 bakekwagaho kubiba amacakubiri mu Banyarwanda, isaba ko bakurikiranwa mu butabera.


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