Ikiganiro na Nathalie Munyampenda: Imibare mu buzima bwa muntu, AIMS, Einstein w’Umunyafurika

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 28 Mutarama 2020 saa 03:10
Yasuwe :
0 0

Imibare ni rimwe mu masomo atinyitse, yangwa cyangwa se akagenderwa kure n’abanyeshuri bamwe ku mpamvu zitandukanye. Hari abavuga ko imibare ikomera ku buryo kuyiga bisaba gushirika ubute ugakurikira, kandi ikaba itagoragozwa nk’uko wabisanga mu yandi masomo. Iyo umuntu ayizi, aba ayizi ku rwego rugaragara; yaba atayizi kandi nabwo bikaba ari uko.

Gusa nubwo imibare ifatwa gutyo, ni isomo ryiza ku waryize rikamucengera kuko rimuhesha ubushobozi bwo guhindura byinshi mu buzima bwa muntu.

Imibare mvuga si bimwe twigaga by’ibiyega, ibinyampande, imigabane, imihiriko, imvange n’ibindi […] gusa ku wabishoboraga neza akiri muto, biramworohera kumva imibare turi kuganira hano.

Ni imibare ihindura ubuzima bwa muntu kurusha uko watekereza iya 1+1 bibyara 2, cyangwa ngo umubare runaka ukubye 10 -5 = 1+ wa mubare ukubye 2, hanyuma bakagusaba gushaka agaciro ka wa mubare bikarangirira aho.

Ubundi kwiga imibare mu mashuri bidutegura guhindura imitekerereze, tukabasha kureba uburyo ufata bya bimenyetso ukabyinjiza mu buzima busanzwe, bigatuma ibyo tubukoramo bigira umurongo bikurikiza, tukabasha gutekereza kure tugamije gushaka igisubizo cy’ikibazo gihari.

Buri kimwe umuntu akora magingo aya, gishingiye ku mibare. Birahera ku bikoresho dukoresha mu buzima bwa buri munsi, nk’ibiryamirwa kugera kuri za mudasobwa n’indoto benshi dufite zo kuzajya ku mubumbe wa Mars.

Nko kuri telefoni, hatari imibare hari byinshi tuba tutabasha kuko ni yo yifashishijwe havumburwa uburyo butandukanye burimo nko guhamagara nta makaraza.

Abahanga benshi ku Isi bavumbuye amahame atabarika atuma ubuzima butworohera muri iki gihe, bari baraminuje imibare. Urugero ni nka Albert Einstein n’abandi.

U Rwanda rurajwe ishinga no kugira umubare munini w’abahanga mu mibare na siyansi bashobora kuba bakemura ibibazo bitandukanye igihugu gifite bifashishije ibyo bize. Niba mu mihanda hari ikibazo cy’umuvundo w’imodoka, bakaba batekereza izigenda mu kirere nk’uko bimeze mu Bushinwa n’ahandi.

Mu kugera kuri iyo ntego, hatekerejwe ku guha intebe ibigo byigisha amasomo ya siyansi n’imibare kugira ngo bitoze abahanga muri iyi ngeri. Harimo Ikigo Nyafurika gishinzwe guteza imbere ubumenyi bushingiye ku mibare AIMS; igishinzwe guteza imbere ubugenge, International Centre for Theorical Phyisics n’ibindi byunganirwa na Kaminuza zisanzwe mu gihugu nk’iy’u Rwanda.

Nathalie Munyampenda ni Umuyobozi Ushinzwe Ibijyanye n’Itumanaho muri AIMS, akaba anayobora Ihuriro Next Einstein Forum rigamije gukora ku buryo undi muhanga umeze nka Einstein yazaba ari umunyafurika.

Nathalie Munyampenda ni Umuyobozi w'Ihuriro Next Einstein Forum, gahunda ishamikiye kuri AIMS

Mu kiganiro yagiranye na IGIHE, yavuze ko imyigishirize y’imibare guhera mu mashuri yo hasi, ari imwe mu mpamvu ituma abana bayizinukwa, ahubwo bagahitamo andi masomo atari aya siyansi.

Yagarutse ku ntego za AIMS mu Rwanda, aho Isi igeze mu ikoranabuhanga magingo aya bigizwemo uruhare na Siyansi ndetse n’ibyo bateganya mu guhindura ubuzima hifashishijwe imibare.

IGIHE: Ni ayahe mahitamo akwiye kuranga urubyiruko ruri mu mashuri?

Munyampenda: Mu gihe cy’ababyeyi bacu wagiraga umurimo umwe, ukarinda ujya mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru ari ko kazi wakoze. Icyo gihe cyararangiye.

Ni ukuvuga ngo akazi uzatangira urangije Kaminuza mu myaka itanu cyangwa icumi, birashoboka ko atari ko kazi kariho uyu munsi. Internet ntabwo imaze imyaka 20 igeze aho turi, mu myaka 20 tugeze aho abantu benshi bagurisha cyangwa bagurira kuri internet, ibyo ntabwo byabagaho.

Igihari ni uko ugomba kwiga uko wahuza ibyo no kubasha kwiga ubumenyi bwakoreshwa hose. Akenshi mbona urubyiruko rushaka gukira no gutera imbere, […] yego uwo murava wo kugira ngo utere imbere ni mwiza cyane, ariko ikintu kigomba kubanza imbere ni ukureba uti ese ni ikihe kibazo nshaka gukemura? Ese uyu mushinga mfite cyangwa iki gitekerezo mfite cyacyemura ikihe kibazo? Ni iki cyafasha abantu? Ese ni ngombwa?

Uyu munsi mu Rwanda dufite internet, dufite amashuri menshi nta kiguzi. Ukavuga uti ’Icyongereza ntabwo nkizi reka nkige.’ Hari amasomo menshi ushobora gufata kugira ngo utere imbere muri byose.

IGIHE: Kuva aho AIMS yatangiriye mu 2016, ni ikihe kintu ubona yazanye mu Rwanda kitari gisanzwe ?

Munyampenda: Icya mbere igihugu kirashaka gutera imbere mu ikoranabuhanga, bisaba kugira abize imibare, abize siyansi. Mu kuza hano ntabwo ari twe ba mbere, hari n’izindi kaminuza.

Akazi kacu ni ukugira ngo twerekane ko abize imibare ari ngombwa, no kubigisha ku rwego mpuzamahanga, ku buryo umwana wize muri AIMS yakwicarana n’uwize muri Massachusetts Institute of Technology, bagategura uburyo bakemura ikibazo gikomeye cyane.

Akenshi umuntu areba ikibazo kimureba, ntabwo turagera ku rwego rwo kureba za taxis zigenda hejuru mu kirere nko muri Qatar, icyo kibazo si icyacu, turacyareba umuriro, ubuhinzi.

Icyo twigisha abanyeshuri bacu hano ni ugukoresha imibare mu gukemura ibibazo biri mu gace utuyemo. Ni gute imibare idufasha mu buhinzi, ni gute imibare idufasha kumenya igihe tugabanya cyangwa twongera umuriro. Dufite abanyeshuri barangije kwiga bari gukora muri Banki ya Kigali n’ahandi.

IGIHE: Kuva AIMS yatangira mu Rwanda, ni iki mwishimira mumaze kugeraho?

Munyampenda: Mu Rwanda dufite uburyo bw’imikorere dushyize imbere ku kintu kirebana no kugenzura imibare kugira ngo dufate icyemezo, tubashe kuvuga ngo dushingiye ku mibare twabonye, abantu bakunda iki, ntabwo bakunda iki, bidufashe kubaha serivisi nziza.

Mu Rwanda dushyize imbere ubwirinzi mu by’ikoranabuhanga, mu kwirinda abantu bashaka kwiba ibyo tuba twabitse kuri mudasobwa zacu cyangwa amafaranga.

Dushyize imbere ibintu byo kugenzura ibijyanye n’utunyangingo, kureba impamvu umuti ukora kuri njye ariko ntukore kuri wowe cyangwa ukora ku bagabo ariko ntukore ku bagore, […] ibintu nk’ibyo.

Ayo mashami yose asaba abanyamibare kandi ubu abamaze kurangiza amasomo yabo bagera kuri 200 b’Abanyarwanda mu bihugu bitanu turimo, abo bantu bashobora gukoreshwa muri ayo mashami twitegura kujyamo nk’igihugu.

Abanyeshuri bagera kuri 200 bamaze kurangiza amasomo yabo muri AIMS

IGIHE: Iyo urebye mu mashuri cyane mu rubyiruko n’ahandi twumva imibare nk’ibintu bihambaye, mubona abantu bakunda imibare koko?

Munyampenda: Ubundi imibare ntabwo igoye. Ikibazo cyabaye mu mitekerereze yacu n’abantu batwigishije, byatumye twanga imibare.

Nkanjye nakundaga imibare cyane ariko nza kugira umwarimu utari mwiza mu mibare. Imishinga dufite hano mu Rwanda, harimo no kwigisha abarimu b’imibare na siyansi kuyigisha mu buryo bufasha abanyeshuri kuyikunda.

Umuntu wese afite ubushobozi bwo kwiga imibare ariko abayikunda si bose. Icyo tugomba kumenya ni uko icyo umuntu akunda ari cyo yagira akazi.

Niba umuntu akunda siporo, twayigira kuri gahunda, umuntu agakora siporo akagera kure niba abishoboye. Icyo AIMS igamije gukora ni ukugira ngo dufashe kwigisha imibare na siyansi kugira ngo umuntu agumemo ayikunze bimufashe atere imbere agere ahantu ajya mu cyiciro cya gatatu cya kaminuza (Masters).

Twe twigisha umuntu kugera ku cyiciro cya gatatu cya Kaminuza, twigisha ku buryo uwo muntu abikunda, noneho akabasha kugera kuri PhD agakora ubushakashatsi, akoreshe imibare kuko imibare ituma ushobora gukemura ibibazo bikomeye.

IGIHE: Ariko abakobwa baracyari bake kurushaho?

Munyampenda: Kuva umukobwa akiri muto, tumwigisha ko imibare ikomeye, bigatuma tugabanya ubushobozi bwe dushingiye ku gitsina, tukamubwira ko imibare, engineering, bikomeye bijyana n’abahungu […] tuti ’Wowe iga ibijyanye n’imari uzicare ubare amafaranga ujye utaha kare.’ Kuva bagifite imyaka ine, tuba dutangiye kubagabanyiriza ibyo baziga.

Abigisha abana bacu bakwiye kumenya ukubogama bafite. Ukuntu umukobwa yarezwe, ntabwo ariwe wa mbere uzamura urutoki, iyo umaze kubimenya ntabwo ufata gusa umuntu wazamuye urutoki mu ishuri ryawe, ushakisha kugira ngo abantu babigiremo uruhare, iyo ubonye ko umukobwa abikunda, ushyiramo imbaraga zisumbuye kugira ngo umufashe agumemo.

Mu Rwanda, dufite abakobwa urebeye mu mashuri yisumbuye yo hasi, ubona abakobwa benshi bakunda imibare, bakunda siyansi, bakora neza, bajya kuzamuka ukabona abakobwa baragenda bamanuka.

Igihari ni ukureba uburyo bagumamo, ni ukubereka abantu bababera icyitegererezo no kubereka ko siyansi ifite ingaruka nziza.

Abakobwa baracyari bake mu masomo ya siyansi. Munyampenda asanga biterwa n'uburyo aya masomo yigishwa ndetse n'uburyo ababyeyi basaba abana b'abakobwa kutiga amasomo y'imibare na siyansi ngo kuko akomeye

IGIHE: Ariko imibare na siyansi ntabwo byakemura ibibazo byose…

Munyampenda: Ntabwo imibare yakemura ibibazo byose, imibare igomba gukorana n’icungamutungo, ubuzima n’ibindi. Urugero tuvuge niba uri kureba ubwiyongere bwa Ebola uko ikwirakwira mu bantu, igera kuri umwe ikagera kuri babiri, ikagera kuri 20.

Dukoresha imibare kugira ngo urebe aho iri kujya ariko ibyo ntabwo bihagije, ukeneye umuntu wize iby’indwara kugira ngo akubwire impamvu abantu badafata imiti cyangwa bafata urukingo, ni uko bazi ko ari ubupfumu; ibyo ugomba kubireba ukabisobanura mugakora ibintu kugira ngo abantu babyumve ko Ebola atari nziza.

Ntabwo imibare ari yo ihagije ariko tugomba kubasha gukundisha abantu imibare, kuko ikoranabuhanga ryose ryakozwe riva mu mibare.

IGIHE: Hari ingero z’imirimo ubona izakendera kubera umuvuduko w’ikoranabuhanga ?

Munyampenda: Ibintu bisaba gukora ibintu bimwe mu buryo bumwe byose bizavaho, akazi kazagumaho ni akazi kareba amarangamutima yacu, ni ko kazi rero tugomba kureba tugapanga.

Ibyo kwakira abantu, mbona aribyo bizavaho bwa mbere ariko icyo njye mbona si akazi tuzabura ahubwo mu Rwanda dufite amahirwe menshi ku mirimo izaza. Ikiri ngombwa ni uko yaba ari Guverinoma, yaba ari urubyiruko, yaba abari mu bucuruzi, bakareba kure kugira ngo tubashe kwakira ayo mahirwe cyangwa se tugire ibyo duhanga.

IGIHE: Haba hari nk’ubushakashatsi bwakozwe cyane n’Abanyarwanda mureba mukavuga muti ’Ubu bushakashatsi ni urugero rwiza rw’ibyo abanyarwanda bashoboye?’

Munyampenda: Mu Rwanda turi igihugu, nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi twongeye gutangira, abanyeshuri benshi barangije muri AIMS no hanze bagiye kwiga benshi nibwo bakirangiza icyiciro gihanitse (PhD).

Si benshi babaye aba Professeur, ndavuga abashya batarangije kera mbere ya Jenoside, haracyari igihe kugira ngo tugire ubushakashatsi buhambaye uvuge ngo iki kirazwi ku Isi, ariko dufite urubyiruko rwinshi ruri mu mashami akomeye cyane.

Dufite abari gukora mu bijyanye n’ihindagurika ry’ikirere, kumenya gukoresha imibare cyangwa ubugenge mu kumenya uko twafasha igihugu gutera imbere, mu kurinda ikirere cyacu n’ibindi.

Dufite urubyiruko ruri muri za banki ruri kureba uko iyo mibare bayikoresha. Noneho kubera imibare ishyirwa mu ngiro, dufite abantu benshi biteguye gukora bafite ubumenyi bize yaba ari muri AIMS n’ahandi hanze bashobora gufasha gukemura ibibazo dufite hano mu Rwanda, ni cyo cya ngombwa.

IGIHE: Hari ibyahanzwe n’abanyafurika bigaragaza ubushobozi bwabo?

Munyampenda: Gukoresha Mobile Money, porogaramu za telefoni kugira ngo wishyure fagitire, ntabwo ushobora kumva ko muri Canada no mu Burayi babigeraho ubu, twe tumaze imyaka n’umuntu utarize amenya kwishyura fagitire ze kuri telefoni atarinze kujya mu ikoranabuhanga rihambaye.

Icyo kintu cyo gukoresha telefoni kugira ngo wishyure cyatangiwe muri Afrika kandi birakora muri Afrika hose, ushobora kuva hano ukajya muri Sénégal ukabasha kwishyura fagitire zawe n’ibindi kuri telefoni.

Icyo ni ikintu gikomeye cyane n’ubwo tugifata nk’ikintu cyoroshye kirimo kiragera ubu gusa mu Burayi kubera ko bafite amategeko menshi no kugira abasaza benshi, Abanyarwanda n’Abanyafurika turacyari bato icyo kintu cyo kumva ko wakoresha ikoranabuhanga turagifite kandi ni cyiza.

Nko mu buzima, Virusi itera Sida yavumbuwe n’Umunyafurika, urukingo rwa Ebola rwavumbuye n’Umunyafurika, mu bijyanye n’ubuzima ni ho hari byinshi byakozwe n’Umunyafurika.

Ikibazo gikomeye cyane ni uko Umunyafurika ashobora kuba ayoboye ubushakashatsi ariko igihe cyo kumenyekana hakamenyekana umufatanyabikorwa cyangwa uwamufashije kubera itangazamakuru ryo muri icyo gihugu, yaba ari Amerika cyangwa muri Aziya ugasanga bo bavuze uwabo twe ntituvuge uwacu.

IGIHE: Ni iki ubona kibura mu rubyiruko rukora ikoranabuhanga muri Afurika?

Munyampenda: Ntabwo Abanyafurika benshi tubihanga ahubwo dukoresha ibyahanzwe n’abandi.

Ni ukuvuga ngo bazanye telefoni turaguze; mu Rwanda tumaze gufungura Mara Phone ikorera telefoni mu Rwanda, aho tugomba kugera ni uko tugira urubyiruko ruhanga ikoranabuhanga ubwarwo, bagafata n’izo drones n’ikoranabuhanga ryazo (Artificial Intelligence) akaba ari umunyafurika wabikoze bikaba umutungo we mu by’ubwenge.

Hari umuntu wavuze neza ko telefoni ya Mara ikirahure cyayo kidakorerwa mu Rwanda, hari umuntu nibaza ko ari uwo muri Aziya ugifiteho uburenganzira. Mu mafaranga wishyura haba harimo n’ay’uwakoze icyo kirahure.

Icyo dushaka ni uko Abanyafurika bagera ahantu bagira ikoranabuhanga ryanditswe ko ari iryabo ariko bigatuma Afurika igira icyo ikura muri iryo koranabuhanga.

Hari n’ikibazo cy’imyumvire, tugomba kugira ahantu tugura ibintu by’Abanyafurika, tukumva ko ikintu kivuye muri Ghana n’ubwo cyamfata amafaranga make kurushaho nakigura mbere y’uko ngura ikintu kivuye mu Buyapani.

Nathalie Munyampenda yigeze kuba Umuyobozi w'Ibiro bishinzwe Ubuvugizi bwa Guverinoma (OGS)

IGIHE: Birashoboka ko Einstein utaha yazaba umunyafurika?

Munyampenda: Turashaka Einstein ukurikira, ni ukuvuga ngo umuhanga wakoze ikintu gikomeye cyane, wavuze ibintu bikomeye cyane bituma ibintu byose dukora mu gutwara ibintu n’abantu n’ibintu biva muri icyo gice, turashaka ko azaba Umunyafurika.

Kandi kubera ko Isi yose irimo irasaza, dufite abakiri bato benshi, ayo mahirwe ari hejuru cyane mu mibare ko Einstein ukurikira azaba Umunyafurika.

Ariko kugira ngo bibeho, birasaba ko dukora ibintu byinshi; icya mbere ibihugu bigomba gukomeza gushora amafaranga agaragara muri Siyansi n’Imibare. Ubu ni ukuvuga ngo nta gihugu gitanga 1% muri GDP mu kuzamura iterambere n’ubushakashatsi, urumva birakomeye cyane.

Amerika itanga 4% muri GDP, ni ukuvuga ngo byose bijya mu iterambere ry’ubushakatsi. Bihaye intego, ni ukuvuga ngo Amerika, mu gihe nta muntu wari warangiye ku kwezi, bihaye intego baravuga ngo umuntu wa mbere uzakandira ku kwezi azaba ari Umunyamerika.

Natwe rero tugomba kwiha intego zikomeye, tukavuga ngo turashaka gukora iki mu bijyanye n’ingufu cyangwa iki, noneho mugashyiramo amafaranga.

Ntabwo igihugu kigomba gukora ubushakatsi mu bintu byose, tugomba gutanga nk’urugero mu Rwanda tumenyereye ibintu bya Genomics, ni ukureba icyo DNA yacu ivuga, ni iki twakuramo, yaba ari imiti, yaba ari ibintu byose, kwimenya byatuma haboneka n’undi musaruro.

Noneho kubera ko tuzi ko ari ibyo dufite, tugomba kwitegura, uretse kubishoramo imari, tugomba gushaka n’abo bantu bakora ubwo bushakashatsi. Niba nta bantu bakora Genomics, turibeshya. Niba dushaka kuzakora ibyerekeranye no kurwanya ibyaha bikoreshwa ikoranabuhanga, tukaba tudafite aba enjiniyeri babikora, ni ikibazo gikomeye.

Ni cyo dushaka gufasha yaba ari ibihugu cyangwa ubushabitsi; kumenya ni ibiki bikenewe kugira ngo tugere ku ntego zacu.

IGIHE: Amafaranga ariko aracyari ikibazo mu bijyanye n’ubushakashatsi…

Munyampenda: Niba tudafite amafaranga ya Leta ntabwo twavuga ngo dukure amafaranga mu buzima cyangwa mu burezi, tuyashyire mu bushakashatsi muri ibyo bikorwa. Dushake ahandi dukura amafaranga haba ari mu bantu bakora ubushabitsi cyangwa mu Banyarwanda baba muri Diaspora cyangwa ahandi kugira ngo bashore mu bushakashatsi n’iterambere.

Tugomba kubigiramo ubushake no guhanga ibishya kugira ngo tumenye aho amafaranga ava, tubashe kugera kuri za ntego zacu. Bizatuma n’abakiri bato babona akazi.

Icyo dushaka muri NEF (Next Einstein Forum), ntabwo dushaka kuvuga gusa ngo abantu bakore ubushakatsi, turashaka kugaragaraza iyo ukoze ubushakatsi ni izihe ngaruka bigira ku bukungu? Kandi cyane cyane ni akahe kazi bizatanga? Urabona muri Afurika buri mwaka miliyoni 10 zirenga z’abakiri bato zirangiza ishuri zishaka akazi.

Muri Mata 2017 ubwo Perezida Paul Kagame yatangizaga ku mugaragaro imirimo y’ikigo gitanga ubumenyi bushingiye ku mibare, AIMS (African Institute for Mathematical Sciences)

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .