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Ihurizo ku bisasu FAR yasabye mu 1992, bisa n’ibyahanuye indege ya Habyarimana

Yanditswe na Musangwa Arthur
Kuya 9 Ukuboza 2021 saa 07:13
Yasuwe :

Imyaka 27 irashize ariko urujijo ruracyari rwose ku ihanurwa ry’indege yari itwaye uwari Perezida w’u Rwanda Habyarimana Juvénal na mugenzi we w’u Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira.

Ni indege yahanuwe mu mugoroba w’itariki 6 Mata 1994 ahagana saa Mbili n’igice, ubwo Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal wari kumwe n’abantu 11 bavanye mu rugendo i Dar es Salaam muri Tanzania bahuye n’isanganya ikomeye ubwo indege yari ibatwaye yaraswagaho ibisasu bibiri byo mu bwoko bwa misile, mu guhanuka igwa mu busitani bw’urugo rwe i Kanombe hafi y’ikibuga cy’indege, ntihagira urokoka.

Kuva ubwo kugeza ubu ntabwo haraboneka amakuru yuzuye y’uburyo iyi ndege yahanuwe nubwo abashakashatsi batandukanye bagerageje gukora iyo bwabaga.

Nubwo ibyabaye kuri iyi ndege byakomeje kuba inshoberamahanga, hari amakuru agaragaza ko ibisasu byayihanuye ingabo za Habyarimana zabyifuje guhera mu 1992 ubwo zari zugarijwe n’ibitero bya FPR Inkotanyi.

Ibyabaye kuri iyi ndege byagiye biteza umwuka mubi hagati ya Guverinoma y’u Rwanda na Leta y’u Bufaransa, aho iki gihugu cy’i Burayi cyakunze kuyifashisha gishinja abayobozi b’u Rwanda kuri uku guhanura iyi ndege, mu gutwikira uruhare rwacyo mu mateka yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Byafashe intera mu 2006 ubwo umucamanza w’Umufaransa Jean-Louis Bruguière utarigeze akoza ikirenge cye mu Rwanda, yasohoraga raporo ashinja bamwe mu ngabo zari iza FPR-Inkotanyi kuba mu barashe indege ya Habyarimana, ashyiraho n’impapuro zo guta muri yombi abagera ku icyenda.

U Rwanda rwabihakanye rwivuye inyuma ndetse biza gutuma ibihugu byombi bicana umubano waje gusubukurwa mu 2009.

Raporo Bruguière yayikoze agendeye ku buhamya yumviye i Paris atageze aho ibivugwa byabereye, ku buryo byatumye ikemangwa cyane n’abahanga, bagaragaza ko yakoranywe agahimano kuko yagendeye ku buhamya bw’abarwanya Leta y’u Rwanda batuye mu mahanga gusa, biganjemo abahunze igihugu nyuma yo gukora ibyaha n’amakosa akomeye.

Mu 2012 u Rwanda rwahaye rugari abandi bacamanza nabo b’Abafaransa, Marc Trévidic na Nathalie Poux, bo babasha kugera mu gihugu ndetse batangaza ibitandukanye n’ibya Bruguière. Bavuze ko ibisasu byarashe indege ya Habyarimana byaturutse mu Kigo cya Gisirikare cya Kanombe cyacungwaga n’abamurinda, ko ntaho bihuriye n’Ingabo za FPR bivugwa ko zari i Masaka.

Ibisasu byahanuye indege ya Habyarimana, ingabo ze zabyifuje mu 1992

Muri Mutarama 1992, hari hashize umwaka n’amezi atatu FPR Inkotanyi itangije urugamba rw’amasasu rwo kubohora igihugu, nyuma yo gusaba kenshi ko Abanyarwanda bari mu mahanga bataha, bakimwa amatwi.

Perezida Habyarimana yakunze kuvuga ko yatewe atunguwe ndetse bikemezwa n’igisirikare cye (FAR) cyavumbuye ko nta bwirinzi bw’ikirere gifite, bikaba ngombwa ko hasabwa ibikoresho.

Mu bibazo FAR yari ifite, hari harimo ibikoresho byo kurinda ikirere, harimo n’imbunda zifashishwa mu guhanura indege mu gihe zaba zivogereye ikirere cy’u Rwanda.

Tariki 17 Mutarama 1992, Col Laurent Serubuga wari Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo Wungirije yandikiye Minisitiri w’Ingabo, amumenyesha akaga bahuriye nako mu Ruhengeri na Rusumo, ubwo bajyaga guhanura indege imbunda bafite zikabatenguha.

Muri iyo nyandiko ifite umutwe ugira uti “Possibilités des Moyens de Défense Aérienne et de Défense Anti Aerienne”, Col Serubuga yagize ati “Ndifuza kubagezaho imbogamizi batayo LAA yahuye nazo ubwo yashyiraga mu bikorwa ubutumwa bwayo bwa AA kubera ubushobozi buke bw’intwaro yahawe.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Inshuro ebyiri zose nyakubahwa Minisitiri, amatsinda abiri yagiye mu butumwa muri Ruhengeri na Rusumo, guhanura indege zivogera ikirere cyacu ariko byarabananiye kuko indege zabaga ziri kugurukira hejuru cyane harenze ubushobozi bw’ibikoresho bya batayo.”

Serubuga yavuze ko intwaro u Rwanda rwari rufite, zari zifite ubushobozi buke cyane bwo guhanura indege, ugereranyije n’aho indege bashakaga guhanura zigurukira.

Ati “Intwaro iyo batayo ifite 37 mm double-barreled cannon ndetse na 14.5 mm AA mi, zikora ku ndege ziri kugurukira ku butumburuke bwo hasi, nka metero 1500 uvuye ku butaka.”

“Kugira ngo tubashe kurinda ahari ubutumburuke bwo hagati (hagati ya metero 1500 na metero 7500), hakenewe izindi ntwaro zifite ubushobozi buhambaye ziri ku rwego rumwe n’iz’u Bufaransa, ubushobozi bwazo tukaba twabwometse kuri iyi baruwa.”

Intwaro Serubuga yavuze ko zikenewe kandi ziberanye n’u Rwanda, ni izo mu bwoko bwa SAM 16 zikorerwa mu Burusiya. Izi ni nazo ntwaro byagaragaye ko zakoreshejwe ubwo indege ya Habyarimana yahanurwaga mu 1994.

Muri iyi baruwa, Serubuga yashimagije izi ntwaro, avuga ko uretse kuba zishobora guhanura indege ziri hejuru cyane “zishobora no kurashishwa ziri ku modoka nto.”

Hagaragajwe ko izi ntwaro “zihutirwa’, ahita atanga n’umubare w’izikenewe. Ati “Hakenewe intwaro 12 zirashisha SAM16 n’ibisasu byazo 120, muzirikana ko agatsinda gato k’abasirikare barasa kagizwe n’abantu bane barashisha imbunda ziremereye.”

Mu mpamvu zitangwa n’abahakana ko indege ya Habyarimana yahanuwe n’abasirikare be, bavuga ko nta ntwaro za SAM 16 igisirikare cye cyagiraga, nyamara ntaho bagaragaza ko ubu busabe bwa Serubuga butubahirijwe.

Hari inyandiko z’Urwego rushinzwe Iperereza ryo hanze y’Igihugu mu Bufaransa, DGSE, zigaragaza ko icyo gihugu cyari gifite amakuru ku bahanuye indege ya Habyarimana guhera ku wa 6 Mata 1994.

Mu iperereza ryakozwe n’ibinyamakuru Radio France na Mediapart, byavumbuye inyandiko DGSE yandikiye abarimo Perezida Mitterand ku makuru uru rwego rwari rufite ku wahanuye indege yari itwaye Habyarimana.

Inyandiko ibigaragaza ni iyo ku wa 22 Nzeri 1994 yashyizwe hanze na Minisiteri y’Ingabo ku wa 17 Nzeri 2015 mu gihe cy’iperereza ryakorwaga n’abacamanza Marc Trévidic na Nathalie Poux ku wahanuye indege ya Habyarimana.

Ivuga ko ‘abahezanguni babiri’, "ba colonel [Théoneste] Bagosora wahoze ayobora Ibiro bya Minisitiri w’Ingabo na [Laurent] Serubuga’ ari bo batanze itegeko ryo guhanura indege ya Habyarimana.

Ku wa 12 Nyakanga 1994 nyuma y’amezi abiri indege irashwe, DGSE nabwo yari yagaragaje ko yahanuwe n’abahezanguni b’Abahutu bagamije kwikiza Perezida Habyarimana wari wemeye kumvikana na FPR Inkotanyi.

Igishimangira ko Abafaransa bari bazi neza ayo makuru, ni uko indege ya Habyarimana ikimara kugwa aribo ba mbere bahageze ndetse binavugwa ko aribo bajyanye agasanduku k’umukara kayo, kabika amakuru y’ingenzi y’ibyabaye ku ndege.

Ibisasu byahanuye indege ya Habyarimana, ni kimwe n'ibyo ingabo ze zari zarasabye mu 1992
Col Laurent Serubuga wigeze kuba Umugaba Mukuru wungirije w'Ingabo, ashyirwa mu majwi mu bahanuye indege ya Habyarimana
Falcon 50, ubwoko bw'indege Habyarimana yagendagamo

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