Afurika yungukira iki mu nama igirana n’ibihugu bikize ku Isi?

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 13 Ugushyingo 2018 saa 03:57
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Ni kenshi abayobozi ba Afurika bitabira inama ziga ku bufatanye bw’uyu mugabane n’ibihugu bikize ku Isi nka Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Bushinwa, u Buyapani, u Bufaransa n’ibindi, zose zigahuriza ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ubufatanye bugamije iterambere.

Izo nama akenshi zisozwa n’amasezerano y’ubufatanye mu by’ubucuruzi n’izindi ngeri zitandukanye zigamije iterambere ry’impande zombi. Icyakora iyo usubije amaso inyuma usanga inyungu Afurika ikuramo igerwa ku mashyi ugereranyije n’ibyo bihugu.

Hari n’abadatinya kuvuga ko izi nama atari ubundi bumanzi ahubwo ari ubukoloni bwiyambitse agahu k’ishusho y’ubufatanye n’ubucuruzi.

Nk’uwitwa Jean Pierre Bat we yigeze kubwira ikinyamakuru Le Figaro ko hakenewe gusuzumwa byimbitse icyo inama zihuza Afurika n’u Bufaransa zamariye uyu mugabane.

Zimwe mu nama zihuza Afurika n’ibihugu bikize

France-Afrique ifatwa nk’umurongo u Bufaransa bunyuzamo ivanjili yabwo

France-Afrique, ni urubuga Afurika ihuriramo n’u Bufaransa bikungurana ibitekerezo ku ngingo zitandukanye.

Inama ya mbere yabereye i Paris kuwa 13 Ugushyingo 1973. Abaperezida bazanye igitekerezo cyayo ku isonga harimo; Hamani Diori wategeka Niger, Félix Houphouët-Boigny wa Côte d’Ivoire, Léopord Sédar Senghor wa Sénégal, Albert Bernard Bongo wa Gabon n’abandi. U Bufaransa bwategekwa na Géorges Pompidou.

Iyi nama iterana rimwe mu myaka ibiri ariko aho kugwiza iterambere muri Afurika, u Bufaransa bwayihereyeho bwiyubakira ibigo bya gisirikare kuri uyu mugabane, kugeza n’aho ingabo zabwo zagize uruhare mu gukuraho bamwe mu baperezida batumvaga neza ivanjili yabwo.

Imyaka 45 irihiritse izi nama zikorwa, nta garimoshi, nta cyambu, nta mashanyarazi n’ibindi umuntu yavuga ko Afurika yungukiye muri iyi nama. Ku rundi ruhande usanga zaragiye ziba uburyo bwo kwikiza abatumva iyo vanjili.

Urugero ni Umwami w’Abami wa Centrafrique, Jean Bédel Bokassa, yirukanywe mu gihugu cye n’ingabo z’Abafaransa mu kiswe ‘Opération Barracuda’ y’ingabo z’Abafaransa. Ni nyuma yo gukurwaho amaboko mu nama yabereye i Kigali.

Mubyo Bokassa yazize, harimo ko igihe kimwe yacyuriye Valéry Giscard d’Estaing w’u Bufaransa ko yamugabiye agapfunyika ka Diamant, na we akikura mu isoni ko bakaguze amafaranga atakamuhaye ku buntu.

Inama ya ‘La Baule’ yatamitse Abanyafurika demokarasi y’amashyaka menshi

Inama yabereye i La Baule mu Bufaransa mu 1990, ntizibagirana mu mateka, aho François Mitterrand, yategetse ibihugu bya Afurika kwemera Demokarasi ishingiye kuri Politiki y’Amashyaka menshi ku gahato.

Mitterrand yarihanukiriye abwira abakuru b’ibihugu ko utabyumva atyo azamburwa inkunga y’u Bufaransa.

Muri icyo gihe, amashyaka yarashinzwe, ashingwa buhumyi, ndetse mu Rwanda biba agahomamunwa kuva mu 1990 kugeza mu 1994, aho amwe muri yo yijanditse mu kwigisha abaturage umwiryane n’amacakubiri, byanagejeje u Rwanda kuri Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994.

Ihuriro rya Afurika n’u Bushinwa mu by’ubucuruzi

Ni inama imaze guterana inshuro zirindwi kuva mu 2000, eshanu muri zo zari ku rwego rw’Abaminisitiri, eshatu nizo zari ku rw’abakuru b’ibihugu.

Eshatu muri izo nama zabereye muri Afurika, mu gihe izindi enye zabereye i Beijing, umurwa mukuru w’u Bushinwa, harimo n’ayabaye muri Nzeri 2018.

UBushinwa bushimirwa kuba bufite nibura amasosiyete asaga 800 ari mu mirimo itandukanye nk’ubwubatsi bw’imihanda, ibiraro, ibibuga by’indege, ingomero z’amashanyarazi, kuhira imyaka ku mugabane wose wa Afurika.

Bwashyizeho kandi amahame icyenda agenderwaho na za Kompanyi zabwo zifuza gushora imari muri Afurika, mu rwego rwo guhangana n’ababunenga kutita ku birebana n’ikiremwa muntu. Bunashimirwa kandi kutivanga mu bya politiki z’ibihugu bushoramo imari.

Nk’igihugu cya mbere byohereza ibintu byinshi hanze ku isi, kikaba icya kabiri mu gutumiza byinshi hanze, byumvikanisha igihagararo cyabwo mu butwererane na Afurika, byongeye ni igihugu cya kabiri gifite ubukungu bukomeye ku Isi nyuma ya Amerika.

Igihagararo cy’u Bushinwa muri Loni nacyo ( Droit de veto ), kiri mu bituma Afurika yakungukira byinshi mu mubano wayo n’iki gihugu, cyane cyane ku byemezo bihafatirwa, bisaba ko Afurika n’u Bushinwa bikenera guhuza ijwi mu bihakorerwa.

Mu nama nk’iyi yabereye i Johannesburg muri Afurika y’Epfo mu 2015, Perezida Xi Jinping yasezeranije Afurika Miliyari 60 z’Amadolari y’Amerika, yo gutera inkunga imwe mu mishinga y’ibikorwa remezo ku mugabane wa Afurika.

Ku ikubitiro muri iyo mishinga, hari umuhanda wa gariyamoshi uhuza Ethiopia na Djibouti n’undi uhuza Mombasa na Nairobi muri Kenya yatangiye kubakwa.

Umuyobozi w’Ikigega gishinzwe Iterambere rya Afurika n’u Bushinwa, Wang Yong, yemeza ko mu mishinga 100 igihugu cye cyateye inkunga, abagera ku 74.000 babonye imirimo, ndetse ko imisoro ihwanye na Miliyari 10 z’amadolari yinjijwe ivuye mu musaruro wavuye muri iyo mirimo.

Umugambi w’Iterambere w’u Bushinwa uzwi nka ‘One Belt, One Road Initiative’ ugamije kuzubaka ibikorwa remezo bizahuza Afurika, Aziya n’u Burayi nk’imihanda, ibyambu ku Nyanja n’ibindi kugeza mu 2049, uzuzura utwaye akayabo ka Miliyari 900 z’amadolari ya Amerika nawo uri mu byo Afurika yiteze ku mubano wayo n’u Bushinwa.

Ni umugambi karundura bivugwa ko uruta cyane uwitiriwe Plan Marshall, Abanyamerika bakoze basana u Burayi nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi, Amerika yatanzeho miliyari 13 z’Amadolari.

Inama ihuza Afurika na Leta Zunze Ubumwe na Amerika

Iyi nama yateranye bwa mbere ku itariki ya 4 kugeza kuya 6 Kanama 2014, ku butegetsi bwa Barack Hussein Obama.

Uwari umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe ubucuruzi muri Amerika icyo gihe, Penny Pritzker, yatangaje ko Amerika yari yiteguye kurekura miliyoni 900 z’amadolari mu gufasha Afurika.

Hanashyizweho ikiswe ‘US-Africa Business Forum’, yahuje amasosiyete akomeye y’abaherwe bo muri Afurika na Amerika.

Muri iyi nama, icyari kigamijwe kwari uguteza imbere ubucuruzi n’ubushabitsi hagati ya Amerika na Afurika ndetse n’umutekano.

Amerika kandi yarekuye Miliyari 7 z’amadorali yashowe mu bukangurambaga bugamije gushishikariza abanyamerika gushora imari yabo muri Afurika.

Ni muri iyi nama kandi Michaelle Obama na Laura Bush bakusanyije miliyoni 200 z’amadolari yo guteza imbere umukobwa w’umunya-Afurika, izindi Miliyari 14 z’Amadolari zerekezwa mu by’indege, amabanki, ubwubatsi n’ibindi.

Miliyari 12 zisanga izindi 20 z’amadolari yagenewe urwego rw’ingufu n’amashanyarazi muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara, harimo umushinga Power Africa ukwirakwiza amashanyarazi mu bice by’icyaro.

Iyi nama ariko yanaranzwe no gushyirwaho igitutu ku bihugu byahatirwaga kwemera mu mategeko yabyo iby’abaryamana bahuje ibitsina.

Uwavuga iby’izi nama ariko ntiyabirondora ngo abirangize, kuko yavugamo izihuza Afurika n’u Buhinde, Turkiya, Israel, ndetse n’iteganijwe guhuza u Burusiya na Afurika iherutse kwimurirwa mu kindi gihe kitazwi.

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