Ibyihariye kuri White House, Perezidansi ya Amerika yanyuzemo ba Perezida basaga 40

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 21 Nzeri 2020 saa 09:39
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Ibiro bya Perezida ku Isi hose aba ari ahantu hakomeye, byakongera ko ari naho atuye bikaba akarusho. Ni inzu irindwa cyane, ihabwa agaciro haba ku bayibamo cyangwa abayigenderera.

White House, inzu ikorerwamo ikanacumbikira Perezida wa Amerika ifite amateka akomeye kuko ari imwe mu nyubako za Leta muri icyo gihugu zimaze igihe kinini, ikagira umwihariko wo kuba yaratwitswe harimo Perezida akabasha guhunga, ikongera kubakwa ubu ikaba igifite umwimerere nk’uwo yubakanywe.

Perezida wayoboye Amerika bwa mbere, George Washington niwe wahisemo ikibanza cyubatswemo White House mu 1791. Ibuye ry’ifatizo ryashyizweho mu 1792 ari nabwo hakorwaga amarushanwa yo gushaka igishushanyo mbonera cy’iyo nyubako. Muri ayo marushanwa hari hitabiriye na Thomas Jefferson waje kuyobora Amerika ku nshuro ya gatatu nubwo atagize amahirwe yo gutsinda kuko hatoranyijwe igishushanyo cya James Hoban, wahise ahembwa amadolari 500.

Iyo nzu yubatswe n’abakozi ba nyakabyizi batandukanye barimo n’abacakara. Bubakaga bacumbikirwa mu nzu z’ibigonyi zabaga zubatswe mu majyaruguru ya White House. Mu 1793 nibwo haje inzobere mu bwubatsi ziturutse muri Ecosse.

Igishushanyo mbonera cyayo cyagaragazaga ko igomba kugira amagorofa atatu n’ibyumba bisaga ijana, byubakishijwe umucanga uvuye mu Mugezi wa Aquia Creek muri Virginia.

Ubwo iyo nyubako yari imaze imyaka umunani yubakwa, Perezida wa kabiri John Adams n’umugore we Abigail bayimukiyemo itarangiye mu 1800. Kuva icyo gihe inzego za Leta zakuwe muri Philadelphia zijyanwa muri Washington.

Urubuga Britannica rugaragaza ko Abigail amaze kugera muri White House atayishimiye kubera uburyo yari itaruzura.

Yaranditse ati “Nta kintu na kimwe kirarangira muri iyi nyubako. Nta ruzitiro na ruto dufite, nta mbuga cyangwa ahantu hatunganye hanze. Nkoresha icyumba cy’inama nk’ahantu ho kwanika imyenda.”

Thomas Jefferson wabaye Perezida wa Gatatu wa Amerika, yemereye abaturage kujya baza gusura White House buri gitondo. Ni umuhango wakomeje kubahirizwa n’abamusimbuye igihe cyose igihugu cyabaga kitari mu ntambara.

Muri Kanama 1814, ubwo u Bwongereza bwashozaga intambara muri Amerika, bwageze Washington DC butwika na White House icyo gihe yitwaga Executive Mansion.

Perezida James Madison n’umuryango we barahunze, nyuma bimukira mu yindi nyubako yari hafi ya White House yitwa Octagon House.

James Hoban yahawe ikiraka cyo kongera kubaka iyo nyubako yari imaze gutwikwa. Yongeye kumera neza mu 1817 ari nabwo Perezida James Monroe yayimukiragamo.

Mu kinyejana cya 19, hatanzwe ibitekerezo bitandukanye byo kuvugurura White House ikaba koko inyubako igenewe Perezida wa Amerika ndetse bamwe bagasaba ko hakubakwa indi nzu yihariye, ariko ibyo bitekerezo byose nta na kimwe cyashyizwe mu bikorwa.

Mu mwaka wa 1902, Perezida Theodore Roosevelt yasabye ko White House ivugururwa, iragurwa. Ni ibikorwa byanakomeje ku bamusimbuye nka Perezida William Howard Taft. Mu 1901 ku bwa Roosevelt ni nabwo iyo nyubako yiswe White House kubera ibara ryayo ryari ritandukanye cyane n’izindi nyubako zari ziyikikije kuko zo zabaga zubakishijwe amatafari atukura.

Nyuma y’imyaka igera kuri 50 hakozwe amavugurura, Perezida Harry S. Truman, yongeye gutegeka ko iyo nzu ivugururwa guhera hasi, ikintu cyonyine kitahindutse ni igikuta cy’imbere kigaragaza umwimerere wa White House.

Mu bantu 44 bayoboye Amerika uhereye kuri John Adams, bose babaye muri White House. Iyi nyubako uretse kuba Ibiro by’Umukuru w’Igihugu ni naho umuryango we uba utuye.

Igizwe n’ibyumba 132, ubwogero 35 ndetse n’imiturirwa itandatu. Igizwe n’imiryango 412, amadirishya 147, aho kuzamukira cyangwa kumanukira umunani n’ibyuma bitatu bizamura abantu mu nyubako.

Igikoni cya White House gishobora gutekera abashyitsi bagera ku 140. Iyo bagiye kuyisiga irangi inyuma, bitwara litilo z’irangi zisaga 2100 nkuko biri ku rubuga rwa Perezidansi ya Amerika. Iyi nyubako iri ku butaka bwa hegitari 7.5. Niyo nyubako ya Leta muri Amerika imaze igihe kinini.

Abakozi basanzwe bo muri White House batari aba Leta, mbere ya 1909 bishyurwaga na Perezida ubwe. Mu 1909 nibwo Inteko Ishinga Amategeko yemeje ko abakozi ba Perezida bazajya bahembwa na Leta.

Iyo nyubako yagezemo firigo mu 1845, naho amatara akoreshwa n’amashanyarazi yagezemo mu 1891.

Umutekano wagiye ukazwa

Bimwe mu bidasanzwe byahabereye, mu 1865 ubwo Perezida Abraham Lincoln yicwaga, muri White House niho habereye ikiriyo. Kubera iminsi itanu umugore we Mary Todd Lincoln yamaze mu cyumba yikingiranye aririra umugabo we, bimwe mu bikoresho byari mu nyubako byaribwe ndetse nyuma uwo mugore ajyanwa mu rukiko ashinjwa kubyibisha.

Kubera ibikoresho n’imimerere yo mu myaka ya kera, White House ni imwe mu nzu zisurwa cyane na ba mukerarugendo dore ko ku mwaka isurwa n’abagera kuri miliyoni 1.5. Mu mwaka wa 1988 nibwo ibice byayo bimwe byagizwe inzu ndangamurage.

Nubwo White House ari inzu ifatwa nk’iy’abaturage ba Amerika ndetse bakaba bemerewe kuyisura, ntabwo ari ibintu byoroshye kuko uyijyamo abanza kohereza ubusabe bwe mbere y’iminsi 21 bugasuzumwa. Ibyo bituma abashinzwe umutekano biga neza ku muntu uzayizamo, amateka ye n’ibindi.

Ni inzu igizwe n’ibirahuri bidatoborwa n’amasasu. Mu Ugushyingo 2011 hari umuntu wagerageje kurasaho amasasu 11 ariko nta na rimwe ryinjiye.

Iyi nyubako kandi izengurutswe n’utwuma duto dushobora kugenzura no kumva igishobora guhungabanya umutekano hafi yayo. Ntabwo utwinshi muri utwo twuma tugaragarira amaso y’abahanyura. Mu gihe hari igikomye cyangwa icyo twikanze, twohereza amakuru yihuse abashinzwe umutekano bagahagurukana ingoga baje gutabara.

Nta ndege yemerewe kunyura hejuru ya Washington DC aho White House yubatse. Indege igerageje kuhanyura ihabwa gasopo, mu gihe ikomeje guhatiriza ihanurwa n’ibisasu bya misile biri hafi ya White House bishinzwe kurinda umutekano w’ikirere cy’iyo nyubako.

White House imaze imyaka isaga 200 ikoreramo abaperezida bayoboye Amerika
Amatara ya White House akoze mu buryo bwihariye ku buryo iyo ari nijoro idapfa kugaragara
White House yatangiye kubakwa mu 1792, yubakwa n'abiganjemo abacakara
James Hoban niwe wakoze igishushanyombonera cya White House ahembwa amadolari 500
Ibyumba bya White House bitatse mu buryo buteye amabengeza kandi bikabamo amateka ku buryo iyo nyubako yahinduwe inzu ndangamurage
Muri White House hari icyumba cyihariye gikoreramo Perezida kizwi nka Oval Office, cyangwa se ibiro bikoze nk'igi

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