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Ibyo wamenya ku ndwara zo mu mutwe zishobora gutera uzirwaye kureba ibitandukanye n’ibyo abandi babona

Yanditswe na Evariste Nsengimana
Kuya 29 Gicurasi 2020 saa 11:14
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Abahanga mu by’Ubuzima bwo mu mutwe bavuga ko indwara zo mu mutwe ari ukugaragaza impinduka mu myitwarire, imyifatire, imitekerereze bikaba byanagira ingaruka mu bikorwa umuntu yakoraga mu buzima busanzwe cyangwa mu busabane yagiranaga n’abandi.

Umuganga w’inzobere mu kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe, unakuriye iryo shami mu Bitaro bikuru bya Kaminuza bya Kigali (CHUK), Dr Simon Kanyandekwe, yabwiye IGIHE ko ziterwa n’uruhererekane rw’impamvu nyinshi.

Ati “Ziterwa n’uburyo ubwonko bw’umuntu bwaremwe [nta budahangarwa], akenshi usanga bavuga ko umuntu ashobora kurwara kurusha abandi. Uko umuntu yabayeho mu muryango akomokamo cyangwa aho yakuriye, ibibazo yahuye nabyo akiri umwana [nk’ihungabanga] n’imibereho y’umuntu aho asanzwe aba byaba mu muryango cyangwa n’ahandi.”

Mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe, nta burerekana ko indwara zo mu mutwe umuntu ashobora kuzirwara bitewe n’uko hari uwo akomokaho cyangwa uwo bafitanye isano wazirwaye.

Zitandukanira he?

Ni indwara ziri mu byiciro bitandukanye zirimo izifata amarangamutima ya muntu nk’agahinda gakabije [Depression] cyangwa agahinda gakabije kavanze n’imihindukire y’umubiri aho umuntu ashobora kugira ibishimo bidasanzwe, akabura ibitotsi, agakora byinshi icya rimwe [Bipolar disorder].

Hari kandi izifata abantu bakagira imyitwarire idasanzwe mu gusabana n’abandi zikunze kwitwa ibisazi, aho usanga umuntu yumva ibyo abandi batumva cyangwa akabona ibyo abandi batabona. Iyi ikunze gufata abantu bari mu cyiciro cy’imyaka guhera kuri 17 kuzamura.

Dr Kanyandekwe yasobanuye ko hari umuntu urwara yari umunyeshuri agahita arivamo, kuko aba atakibona cyangwa ngo yumve kimwe n’abandi, akagira ubwoba mu mubiri atazi aho buturuka, bikanamubuza gushyira mu bikorwa ibyo asabwe.

Ibi abatabizi iyo bifashe umwana batangira kumushyira mu cyiciro cy’utazi ubwenge cyangwa wananiwe n’amasomo amwe n’amwe.

Ati “Byakomera agatangira gusakuza cyangwa kumenagura ibintu, kugendagenda nta gahunda afite. Aba ashakisha amahoro ariko atazi aho ayashakisha, rimwe na rimwe akumva ikintu cy’ubwoba budasanzwe atazi impamvu, rimwe na rimwe ugasanga yikingiranye mu cyumba yumva abantu bose bashaka kumugirira nabi.”

Ugeze muri iki cyiciro atangira kugenda ashakisha icyamufasha gutuza yabona nk’ibiyobyabwenge akabinywa, akongera igihe akoresha ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga nka telefoni cyangwa mudasobwa ashaka kuganira n’abantu bategeranye.

Hari kandi idwara yo mu mutwe ifata umuntu akagira ubwoba budasanzwe, ifata abantu bo mu byiciro byose ku buryo ashobora kwibonaho ibimenyetso bishobora no kuba iby’izindi ndwara.

Aha Dr Kanyandekwe yasobanuye ko umuntu ashobora kugira ubwoba nk’umutima we ugatera mu buryo budasanzwe, agatitira, akabira ibyuya ku buryo bishobora kumufata akajyanwa mu byiciro by’indembe ariko bamupima ntihaboneke indwara afite.

Iyo ndwara ngo ishobora gufata umuntu yari nk’umuyobozi agatangira gutinya kuvugira mu ruhame cyangwa kuyobora inama ariko atazi icyabimuteye, bikamenyekana ko ari indwara ari uko bitangiye kugira ingaruka ku kazi akora.

Gusa hari indwara zisanzwe nka mugiga, ibibyimba byo mu mutwe n’izindi zishobora gufata umuntu akagira ibimenyetso nk’iby’indwara zo mu mutwe.

Ubusanzwe abantu batandukana mu myitwarire. Hari abo usanga batuje abandi ugasanga bashabutse. Dr Kanyandekwe yasobanuye ko kugira ngo umenye niba umuntu afite agahinda gakabije kavanze n’ibyishimo bidasanzwe (Bipolar Disorder) hagenderwa ku bimenyetso yagiraga mbere y’uko afatwa.

Iyi ndwara iyo ifashe umutu atangira gukora ibitandukanye n’ibyo yakoraga, yaba afite nk’umukoresha agatangira kumubwira ibintu atajyaga amubwira birimo kumwubahuka cyangwa kumusuzugura cyangwa umuntu mutaziranye ukabona akwisanzuraho nk’aho muziranye. Nyir’ubwite ntamenya ko hari icyahindutse n’ubimubwiye arakara.
Ati “Mpuye n’umuntu bwa mbere ndi kwinywera icyayi, ndi kuganira n’undi wowe ukaza ako kanya ukansuhuza nk’aho tuziranye hanyuma ugafata nk’igikombe cyanjye ugatangira kukinyweramo. Nubwo waba utari umuganga, wakwibaza habaye iki kugira ngo yitware gutyo.”

Uwo muntu ngo arangwa no kumenyera abantu bose n’abo bataziranye akababonamo inshuti n’abavandimwe. Icyo gihe ngo biba bisaba kumwegereza inzobere mu kuvura indwara zo mu mutwe bakareba niba adafite ikibazo.

Dr Kanyandekwe ati “Maze imyaka 20 maze muri uyu mwuga hari ubwo bigeze kumpamagara ngo hari umuntu muri Round Point [amasangano y’imihanda] nini yo mu Mujyi ari kuvuga menshi, witwara mu buryo budasanzwe, wabujije n’imodoka gutambuka. Akanga kuva mu muhanda avuga ko abandi aribo barwaye batamushakira amahoro.”

Izi ndwara abazirwaye bakunze kugira imbaraga zidasanzwe, rimwe na rimwe bakumva bafite n’ubutumwa bwihariye bakwiye kugeza ku bandi. Aho ngo iyo ari umuntu usenga cyane ukunze gusanga ashaka kubwiriza abandi ko hari ibyo Imana bavuganye ikamutuma, akizeza abantu ibitangaza ko yahawe ububasha n’Imana.

Ibi ariko ngo si kimwe n’uko umuntu ashobora gucengerwa n’ijambo ry’Imana agashaka kuryigisha aho ageze hose ariko ngo “Uryigisha agateza umutekano muke mu bandi, ugasanga muri we hatarimo kumva ko ibyo bitemewe, bibangamiye abandi kugeza ubwo bamubuza akananirana, utamwise umurwayi wo mu mutwe ushobora kwibaza niba adakenewe kugezwa ku nzobere.”
Ubufasha buhabwa uwarwaye indwara zo mu mutwe

Umuntu ufite imyitwarire idasanzwe kugera ubwo ibangamira abandi cyangwa ikagira ingaruka ku kazi akora, icyo umuntu asabwa ni ukwihutira kumwegereza abaganga bamwegereye kugira ngo ahabwe ubufasha hakiri kare.

Dr Kanyandekwe avuga ko kuboha umurwayi wo mu mutwe utera amahane iyo bidakwiriye kuko ngo bishobora kumutera ibikomere.

Umuganga w’inzobere amwitaho binyuze mu biganiro bagirana n’imiti imufasha bijyanye n’ibimenyetso yagaragaje cyangwa impamvu nyamukuru zamuteye kugira imyitwarire idasanzwe.

Ati “Umuganga agomba kumenya uwo muntu yari abayeho gute mbere y’uko atugana, ni ikihe kibazo yahuye nacyo kimukomereye, wamara kukibona ukamufasha kugarura icyizere.”

Uburwayi bwo mu mutwe n’amarozi

Dr Kanyandekwe yasobanye ko imiryango imwe n’imwe cyane cyane muri Afurika ikunze guha ibisobanuro indwara zo mu mutwe ibuhuje n’amarozi cyangwa amadayimoni kimwe n’uko umuntu ahuye n’ikibazo icyo aricyo cyose agishakira imvano aho kubishakira mu mubiri imbere.

Ati “Nabyita ko ari imyumvire y’abantu ariko ntitwapfa kubyirengagiza. Kimwe [imyumvire] ntabwo kirwanya ikindi [ibishingira ku bimenyetso byo mu mubiri imbere] ariko ubundi ubihuje nibwo wafasha umuntu neza. Ntabwo dufite uburyo bwo gupima amarozi.”

Indwara zo mu mutwe ni indwara zivurwa zigakira ariko bigatwara igihe gitandukanye bitewe n’ubukana zifite, hari n’izishobora gutuma umurwayi afata imiti igihe kirekire, igikenewe ni ugukurikiza inama ahabwa na muganga kandi akavuzwa hakiri kare.

Ni umutwaro ku gihugu?

Dr Kanyandekwe yashimangiye ko indwara zo mu mutwe ari umutwaro ku gihugu, uzirwaye no ku muryango muri rusange.

Imibare y’ikigo cy’ubuzima, RBC yerekana ko 50% by’indwara zo mu mutwe zitangira mbere gato y’imyaka 14 y’amavuko. Abasaga ibihumbi 200 barwaye indwara zo mu mutwe bazitewe n’ibiyobyabwenge.

Abahanga mu by’ubuzima bwo mu mutwe batangaza ko akenshi kwiyahura kuba gufite aho guhuriye n’ibibazo byo mu mutwe uwiyahuye yari afite. Imibare ya Polisi y’u Rwanda igaragaza ko abantu 121 bapfuye biyahuye mu mezi icyenda ya 2019.

Imibare y’Ishami rya Loni ryita ku Buzima (OMS) igaragaza ko 60 % y’abagerageza kwiyahura baba bafite agahinda gakabije naho 90 % baba bafite imwe mu ndwara zo mu mutwe.

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