Intambwe ku yindi y’urugendo rwo kubaka urwego rw’imari mu myaka 26 ishize

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 10 Nyakanga 2020 saa 06:57
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Mu 1994 ubwo ingabo zari iza FPR zabohoraga u Rwanda zikanahagarika Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, inkingi zose z’ubuzima bw’igihugu zari zarasenyutse. Urwego rw’imari rwari munsi ya zeru, abaturage baratakarije icyizere amabanki mbarwa yari mu gihugu, kuko amwe muri yo abayacungaga bayasahuye bakayeza.

Icyo gihe mu mabanki atatu y’ubucuruzi yari mu gihugu, abiri yari ibisenzegeri, abaturage bari bafite umuco wo kubika amafaranga yabo mu bimuga, mu misego, mu mikenyero y’ingutiya n’ahandi, kuko wasangaga bumva ko banki ari iz’abakire.

Kugira ngo umunyarwanda ashobore gukoresha amadevize, yasabaga icyemezo cyatangwaga na Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu. Ni uburyo bwazitiraga ubucuruzi kandi bukimika magendu, kuko hari abayacuruzaga mu buryo bwa magendu muri Quartier Commerciale.

Ubwisanzure bw’amabanki ntibwabagaho kuko nka banki yajyaga gutanga inguzanyo ku wayisabye ikabanza kujya gusaba uburenganzira muri Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu.

Iki cyari kimwe mu bibazo uruhuri ubuyobozi bwagombaga guhangana na cyo mu maguru mashya, kuko bigoranye ko iterambere rirambye kandi ridaheza rigerwaho mu gihe serivizi z’imari zitagera kuri bose.

Ubwo u Rwanda rwatangiraga urugendo rwo kongera kwiyubaka, urwego rw’imari rufatwa nk’urutirigongo rw’ubukungu bw’igihugu ntirwasigaye inyuma. Uhereye ku guhindura imyumvire y’abaturage, kuvugurura imikorere y’urwego rw’imari, gukurura abashoramari bashya muri uru rwego no kwishakamo ibisubizo.

Inzira yari ndende

Abakurikiranira hafi urwego rw’imari rw’u Rwanda mu myaka 26 ishize bemeza ko inzira rwanyuzemo ari ndende cyane, nubwo n’iri imbere itoroshye kuko hakiri byinshi byo kunoza.

Mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, mu Rwanda hari banki eshatu gusa z’ubucuruzi; Banki ya Kigali, Banki y’ubucuruzi y’u Rwanda na BACAR yahindutse GT Bank kandi nazo zifatwa nk’iz’abantu badasanzwe.

Mu kiganiro IGIHE yigeze kugirana na Kanimba François wakoze muri Minisiteri y’imigambi ya Leta kuva mu 1983-1995, akaba Visi Guverineri wa BNR mu 2000, yemeza ko urwego rw’imari ari rumwe mu ziyubatse kandi ruri ku rwego rushimishije.

Kanimba yavuze ko mbere ya Jenoside isoko ry’amadevize ritari rifunguye kuri buri munyarwanda wese, ku buryo ushaka gucuruza areba n’amahanga, yashoboraga gukenera amadevize akayabura.

Yagize ati “Icyemezo cyo kugira ngo Umunyarwanda ashobore gukoresha amadevize cyatangwaga na Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu. Yego hari isoko ryari ryarishyizeho hariya muri Quartier Commerciale, ugasanga abacuruzi bamwe na bamwe bacuruza rwihishwa amadolari”.

Yakomeje avuga ko abantu bari bafite imikoranire y’izo banki bari bakeya n’izo banki zitarashinga amashami hirya no hino mu giturage. Abashoboraga gukorana na zo, banki yajyaga gusaba uburenganzira muri BNR kugira ngo ibahe inguzanyo.

Ati “Kugira ngo ugire umushinga ujye gusaba inguzanyo, ntabwo banki y’ubucuruzi mwakoranaga yari ifite icyemezo ku buryo bwisanzuye mu biganiro byawe n’uko ikubona nk’umukiriya wayo kugira ngo iguhe iryo deni”.

“Ku byerekeye amabanki, mbere amabanki yari atatu gusa, ariko nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri 1994, ariya mabanki abiri muri yo yari ibisenzegeri, amafaranga yarimo abayacungaga bari barayatwaye ndetse n’abantu bagarutse nyuma ya Jenoside baza kubaza iby’amafaranga yabo, ugasanga harimo ibintu bidasobanutse, bamwe bakayabona abandi ntibayabone”.

Nta bigo by’imari iciriritse byabaga mu Rwanda uretse Banki y’Abaturage yatangiye mu 1975 ku buryo wasanganga muri buri Komine hari ishami, akaba ari ho abaturage mbarwa bashoboraga kugana kugira ngo babone serivisi z’imari.

Imyaka 26 idasanzwe

Impinduka zimaze kuba mu rwego rw’imari mu myaka 26 ishize zigaragarira buri wese. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe ku buryo Abanyarwanda bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari, FinScope Survey 2020, bwagaragaje ko 93% [ni ukuvuga miliyoni zirindwi z’abakuze] bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari.

Ni ukuvuga ko bakorana n’amabanki, ibigo by’imari, koperative zo kuzigama no kugurizanya cyangwa bari mu matsinda yo kwizigamira n’ibimina. Iyi mibare ikomeje kwiyongera cyane kuko mu 2008 abanyarwanda bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari bari 48% gusa.

Kanimba avuga ko impinduka ya mbere ikomeye ari ukumva ko amadevize atari aya Leta, ari ay’abaturage. Ibi bikaba byarahinduye politiki yariho ko ‘nta muntu ufite uburenganzira bwo kugira konti mu madovize muri banki n’uyifite akaba atakoresha ayo madovize uko ashatse’.

Ubucuruzi bw’amafaranga bwahawe umurongo hashingwa za ‘Forex Bureau’, zikorera mu mucyo, aho imibare ya BNR yo muri Kamena 2019, yerekanaga ko mu Rwanda hari izigera kuri 82.

Kanimba ati “Byatumye uwo ari we wese ufite ubushobozi n’ubushake acuruza yaba mu Rwanda ndetse no hanze aho ashatse, ibintu bijya mu buryo”.

Nyuma y’uko banki zari zimaze gutakarizwa icyizere n’abaturage baziburiyemo imitungo yabo, leta yashyize ingufu mu kuzana abandi bashoramari bafite ubuzobere mu micungire y’amabanki kugira ngo bafatikanye na yo.

Icyo gihe havutse amabanki mashya nka BCDI yaje kugurwa na Ecobank, Banki z’abaturage zakoraga nk’amakoperative zirahuzwa zivamo Banki y’Abaturage. Mu mavugurura y’urwego rw’imari nibwo havutse urwego rushya rw’imari iciriritse rworohereza abaturage mu mirenge kubona imari mu bikorwa byabo.

Amabanki y’ubucuruzi yariyubatse agaba amashami hirya no hino mu turere bituma serivisi zayo zigenda zegera abaturage. Mu myaka ya za 2003, urwego rw’imari rwahuye n’intambara ikomeye y’ibigo by’imari byitwaga ‘COOPEC’, byatwaye amafaranga y’abaturage ubuyobozi bukahagoboka.

Nyuma yo kubona uburyo abaturage bari barabyitabiriye ariko bikabatenguha, Leta yashinze Umurenge SACCO, itangira ikorera mu biro by’imirenge none ubu abanyamuryango biyujurije inzu z’aho ikorera.

Uyu munsi Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu itangaza ko mu Rwanda hari banki 16, harimo 11 z’ubucuruzi, imwe y’iterambere, imwe yo mu rwego rwa Koperative n’izindi eshatu zo ziciriritse (Microfinance Banks). Hari kandi ibigo by’imari iciriritse 457 n’ibindi 20 bito.

Imibare ya BNR yo muri Kamena 2019, yerekana ko umutungo rusange w’urwego rw’imari mu gihugu wari miliyari 4,919 Frw. Amabanki yari yihariye 66.1 ku ijana, ibigo by’ubwishingizi bifitemo 9.7 ku ijana, ibigo by’imari iciriritse bifitemo 6.4 ku ijana.

Ibigo by’imari iciriritse mu Rwanda byari bifite abakiriya 3,779,860 ni ukuvuga 54 ku ijana by’abakuze bose mu gihugu. Umubare w’abakoresha amabanki wiyongereyeho miliyoni 1.1 kuva mu 2016.

Ubushakashatsi ku buryo serivisi z’imari zigera kuri bose, bwerekana ko abanyarwanda bakorana n’amabanki bakomeje kwiyongera kuko bagera kuri 36% bavuye kuri 26% mu 2016, 23% mu 2012 na 14% mu 2008. Ni mu gihe abandi 75% by’abakuze bakoresha ubundi buryo butari banki burimo Konti za telefoni, Umurenge Sacco, Ibigo by’ubwishingizi n’ibigo by’imari iciriritse.

Umusemburo w’ikoranabuhanga

Iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga mu Rwanda ryabaye umusemburo ukomeye muri serivisi z’imari. Uyu munsi ntabwo bigisaba ko ushaka gufunguza konti, kubikuza, kubitsa, kugura ibicuruzwa no kwishyura serivisi zitandukanye ajya ku cyicaro cyangwa ku ishami rya banki runaka.

Abanyarwanda bageze kuri 10.317.279 batunze telefoni ngendanwa zibafasha guhabwa serivisi zose bifuza za banki cyangwa ikindi kigo cy’imari bakorana. Biroroshye kugendana amafaranga yawe mu ikoranabuhanga, aho usabwa kumenya gusa umubare w’ibanga [PIN] wa konti ukava i Kigali ukagera i New York udakoze ku ifaranga kandi ugura icyo ushatse cyose.

Uyu munsi ufite konti muri banki runaka yicara mu rugo agahaha ibyo ashaka, agasaba serivisi, akoherereza abantu amafaranga, akishyura ifatabuguzi runaka, byose akabibashishwa na telefoni ye bikarangira atavuye aho ari kandi adakoze ku noti n’ibiceri.

Uburyo ikoranabuhanga ryoroheje ubuzima, byatumye kuri ubu abagera kuri 25% by’abakoresha amabanki, bifashisha ikoranabuhanga bakaba baravuye kuri 6% bariho mu 2016.

Nibura batatu muri batanu [ni ukuvuga 61%], bakuze bakoresha Mobile Money, aho abagabo ari 68% naho abagore bakaba 56%.

Mu 2018/19, umubare w’ababitsa muri banki wiyongereyeho 22.4 ku ijana ugera kuri 2,376,475. Iki gihe kandi abatse inguzanyo nabo biyongereyeho 53.2 ku ijana bagera kuri 378,809, Umujyi wa Kigali wihariye 72.7 ku ijana by’abagujije, Amajyaruguru niyo afite bake bangana na 5.4 ku ijana.

BNR itangaza ko abakiriya bafite konti mu mabanki no mu bigo by’imari mu Rwanda bangana na miliyoni 7.5 mu mwaka umwe biyongereyeho miliyoni 1.5. Izamuka ry’uyu mubare ryagizwemo uruhare cyane no kwinjiza ikoranabuhanga mu mikorere ya banki.

Urwego rw’ubwishingizi ruri mu zigize urwego rw’imari narwo rukomeje gutera imbere. Muri Kamena 2019 u Rwanda rwari rufite ibigo by’ubwishingizi 14, harimo 12 byigenga n’ibindi bibiri bya leta byishingira ibijyanye n’ubuzima ari byo RSSB na MMI.

Banki ya Kigali ni imwe muri banki zihagaze neza cyane mu Rwanda
Cogebanque ni imwe muri banki zavutse nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi zimaze kwandika izina mu gihugu
Ecobank yageze ku isoko ry'u Rwanda nyuma yo kugura iyari BCDI
Banki y'Abaturage y'u Rwanda yageze mu Rwanda mu 1975 ariko nyuma ya Jenoside yakozwemo amavugurura akomeye yatumye ijya ku rwego rwiza
I&M Bank ni imwe muri banki zimaze igihe mu Rwanda

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