Icyihishe inyuma y’ibyutswa rya ’Mapping Report’ nyuma y’imyaka 10 isohotse

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 1 Ukwakira 2020 saa 01:58
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Tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 2010, Komisiyo ya Loni ishinzwe Uburenganzira bwa Muntu yari ikuriwe n’Umunyafurika y’Epfo, Navi Pillay, yashyize hanze imbanzirizamushinga ya raporo yiswe ’Mapping Report’.

Ni raporo itaravuzweho rumwe ndetse yarakaje u Rwanda ku buryo bukomeye, kugera n’aho rufata umwanzuro wo kuba rwakura cyangwa rukagabanya ingabo zarwo zari i Darfur muri Sudani mu butumwa bw’amahoro, rushingiye ku makuru y’ibinyoma yari ayikubiyemo.

Yavugaga ku byitwa ubwicanyi ndengakamere n’ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu ryakorewe muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, ariko igashinja u Rwanda kubigiramo uruhare rukomeye.

Ikimara kujya hanze, u Rwanda rwagaragaza ibimenyetso by’ingenzi byirengangijwe ubwo Ingabo z’u Rwanda zashinjwaga gukorera ibyaha ku butaka bwa RDC. Ni mu gihe rwo rwari rurajwe ishinga no gucyura no rugasubiza mu buzima busanzwe impunzi miliyoni 1.5 zivuye mu yahoze ari Zaire, izirenga miliyoni 1.7 zivuye mu Burundi, Tanzania ndetse na Uganda.

Rwerekanye ko uku gutahuka kw’izi mpunzi ari kimwe mu bintu bikomeye iyi raporo yirengangije, hakiyongeraho ukwirengagiza ukuri kwa nyako kw’ibyaberaga muri Congo, birimo ko abahoze mu ngabo za FAR hamwe n’Interahamwe bari bakomeje ibikorwa by’iterabwoba, kwica inzirakarengane z’abaturage ndetse no kugaba ibitero ku Rwanda.

Imvano ya ’Mapping Report’

Umuryango w’Abibumbye wakunze gusohora raporo zitandukanye zirega imitwe yitwaje intwaro n’u Rwanda kugira uruhare mu mutekano muke mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo.

Izo raporo zatangiye gusohoka mu 1997 zikoreshejwe na Komisiyo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye Ishinzwe Uburenganzira bwa Muntu, zinakomeza gutanga ibyo birego mu 1998 ziyobowe n’Umunyamategeko ukomoka muri Chile, Roberto Garreton, wabaye Intumwa idasanzwe ya Komisiyo ya Loni y’Uburenganzira bwa muntu muri Congo kuva 1994 kugeza 2001.

Raporo zanditswe na Garreton ntabwo zahawe agaciro gakomeye n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, kuko wazakiraga ariko ntugire ikindi uzikoresha ndetse n’ibyifuzo abazanditse basabye ntibihabwe agaciro na Loni.

Uko kutaziha agaciro kwa Loni kwatumye abazanditse kimwe n’izindi nzego ziganjemo imiryango mpuzamahanga itari iya leta nka Human Rights Watch, bakora ibishoboka byose maze bazihuriza hamwe bakoresheje Komisiyo ya Loni y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu, maze bivamo icyiswe ’Mapping Report’.

Inyandiko ndende yiswe ’Projet Report kuri Congo’, yakozwe na Komisiyo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yita ku Burenganzira bwa muntu, ifite icyicaro i Genève mu Busuwisi, isohoka ku itariki ya 01 Ukwakira 2010.

Imaze kujya hanze u Rwanda rwagaragaje ko uretse kuba yari ikubiyemo amakosa menshi ku bibazo byateye intambara muri Congo n’imigendekere yazo, inandika ibinyoma bikomeye ku Rwanda, birimo kugoreka amateka, guhimba icyaha cya jenoside bise ko cyakorewe impunzi z’abahutu muri Congo n’ibindi.

Ni raporo igizwe n’impapuro zirenga 600. Ikubiyemo ibyaha bigera kuri 617 byakusanyijwe hagati y’ukwezi kwa Nyakanga 2008 na Kamena 2009 ku butaka bwose bwa Congo.

Igaragaza uruhare rw’ingabo z’ibihugu bitandukanye zari muri Congo, ariko ikagira umwihariko wo kurega ingabo z’u Rwanda izitirira kuba zarakoze icyaha cya jenoside ku mpunzi z’abahutu.

Inyandiko yigeze gushyirwa hanze n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Rwanda muri Gashyantare 2013 yagarukaga kuri ’Mapping Report’ igira iti "Ubu buryo bwo kugoreka amateka bwerekana imikorere yaranze Umuryango w’Abibumbye ku kibazo cya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi no kwirengagiza ingaruka zayo mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari".

Abayanditse kandi banenzwe ko batigeze bafata umwanya uhagije wo gukora iperereza kuko barikoze mu gihe cy’amezi atandatu gusa kandi ku byaha byabereye muri Congo yose mu gihe cy’imyaka icumi, bizwi ko ari igihugu kinini gifite ubuso bungana na 2.345.410 Km2.

Mapping Report yahesheje agaciro FDRL

Mu 2013, abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Rwanda bakoze Raporo ku karengane gakorerwa u Rwanda hashingiwe ku mutekano muke mu Burasirazuba bwa Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Raporo yabo yari ikuriwe na Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène wari Umusenateri. Icyo gihe bavuze ko ’Raporo Mapping’ yirengagiza uruhare rukomeye rwa FDLR mu guhungabanya amahoro n’umutekano mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo no mu Rwanda.

Bati “Nyamara birazwi ko uyu mutwe wakomeje ibikorwa byo gukora imyiteguro yo gutera u Rwanda, guhohotera abaturage b’impunzi z’abanyarwanda bababuza kugaruka mu gihugu ku bushake, kwica no gukorera urugomo abanye-Congo batuye mu Ntara za Kivu n’ibindi.”

Banenze kandi Mapping Report ko yirengagiza nkana ibyaha bikomeye bikorwa na FDLR birimo ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu, ibyaha by’intambara, iby’iterabwoba, ubwicanyi, ubugome, ubusahuzi n’ibindi bikorwa na FDLR.

Ikindi ni uko mu gushaka ibimenyetso, abayanditse bakusanyije gusa ibituruka ku ruhande rushinja u Rwanda, cyane cyane iby’Imiryango Mpuzamahanga itari iya Leta, birimo inyandiko zisaga 80 zatanzwe na Human Rights Watch n’izikomoka muri Sosiyete civile ya Congo, yari isanzwe yikoma u Rwanda.

Yirengagije impamvu yatumye Ingabo z’u Rwanda zijya muri Congo

Ku itariki ya 15 Ugushyingo 1996, Ingabo z’u Rwanda zinjiye muri Congo hagamijwe gutabara impunzi z’abanyarwanda zari zarafashwe bugwate na ex-FAR n’Interahamwe, gukumira jenoside n’ibikorwa byo gushoza intambara mu Rwanda byategurwaga n’abo barwanyi.

Mu kohereza abasirikare muri Congo, u Rwanda rwashoboye gucyura no gusubiza mu byabo impunzi z’abanyarwanda zirenga miliyoni, zari zifashwe bugwate n’abicanyi kandi Umuryango w’Abibumbye n’ibindi bihugu byari byarananiwe gukemura icyo kibazo.

Mu gihe cy’iminsi ine gusa, u Rwanda rwari rumaze gucyura no kwakira impunzi z’abanyarwanda zigera ku bihumbi 600 bakomoka mu nkambi zo muri Kivu y’amajyaruguru ya Congo.

N’izindi mpunzi zari mu nkambi zitandukanye muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo zakomeje gutaha mu Rwanda ku buryo abakomeje gufatwa bugwate na ex-FAR/Interahamwe ari bake kandi nabwo u Rwanda rwakomeje kubashakisha no kubacyura mu gihugu, runabakura mu mashyamba ya kure muri Congo.

Imibare ya Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu yerekanaka ko mu 1994 hatashye 1.200.008; mu 1995 impunzi ziba 338.825; mu 1996 hataha 1.362.273; mu 1997 hataha 219.750 mu gihe hagati ya 1998 na 2010 hatashye 271.895. Zose hamwe ni impunzi 3.392.751.

Muri Mapping Report havugwamo ko Ingabo z’u Rwanda nta kindi zakoze muri Congo uretse kwica impunzi z’abahutu, mu gihe umurimo w’ibanze zakoze wabaye uwo kubohora impunzi no kuzigarura mu gihugu cyazo.

Mu minsi Mapping report yasohokeyeho, tariki ya Mbere Ukwakira 2010, abasirikare ba Monusco bashinzwe kugarura amahoro n’umutekano no kurengera abaturage muri Congo, bavugwagaho n’itangazamakuru kuba baragize uruhare mu bikorwa byo guhohotera abakobwa n’abagore, byari byatanze isura mbi ku Muryango w’Abibumbye na MONUSCO by’umwihariko.

Mu buryo bwo kuyobya uburari kugira ngo ibyaha bya MONUSCO bidakomeza kuvugwa, Mapping report yarihutishijwe kugira ngo itangazamakuru ribone inkuru nshya ikomeye rihugiraho, maze amakosa akomeye yakozwe n’ingabo za Loni abe ashyizwe ku ruhande.

Kuki iyi raporo yongeye kugaruka?

Mu minsi ishize Ishyirahamwe ry’Abaganga baharanira Uburenganzira bwa Muntu rikorera i New York, ryatangaje ko Dr Denis Mukwege ukomoka muri Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Congo, aterwa ubwoba kubera ibitekerezo bye ku ’bwicanyi’ bwabaye mu Burasirazuba bwa RDC.

Dr Mukwege na we yifashishije imbuga nkoranyambaga yakunze kuzamura cyane Mapping Report, asaba ko hajyaho urukiko rwihariye rwakurikirana ubwicanyi bwakorewe muri RDC, inshuro nyinshi agahoza mu kanwa u Rwanda.

Uwo muryango wavugaga ko Dr Mukwege yibasirwa n’u Rwanda ndetse agaterwa ubwoba kubera ibyo atangaza kuri iyo raporo.

Perezida Kagame aherutse gutangaza ko abagize uruhare muri Mapping Report, bakoreraga imiryango yitwa ko irengera uburenganzira bwa muntu, iharanira ubwisanzure n’ibindi, nyamara ari ibikoresho by’abafite uruhare mu bibazo byabaye mu karere.

Yavuze ko ibibazo by’u Rwanda na Congo byatangiye kera kandi amateka agaragaza ko atari u Rwanda rwabitangije. Yavuze ko n’abakomeje kubikuririza bashatse bakwitonda, kuko uruhare runini ruri kuri bo kurusha abandi bose.

Ati "N’iyo wahera mu 1990, muzi ko ingabo zo hanze zabanje kwinjira mu Rwanda zaturutse muri RDC yitwaga Zaïre icyo gihe? […] Bambutse umupaka wa Rubavu, Gisenyi baje gutabara umuntu wabo wari uri kwica Abanyarwanda. Ingabo z’u Rwanda zinjira muri Congo, byari nyuma y’aho iza Congo zinjiriye mu Rwanda. Abo bantu bakwiriye gusubira inyuma, kuki RDC yaje mu Rwanda?”

Perezida Kagame yavuze ko ubwo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yabaga, nabwo abagize uruhare muri Jenoside bambutse bajya muri Congo, bakakirwa neza bagahabwa ahantu heza ho kwisuganyiriza ngo bagaruke guhungabanya umutekano mu Rwanda.

Umwe mu basesenguzi bazi neza imvo n’imvano y’iyi raporo, yabwiye IGIHE ko kuva Dr Mukwege yahabwa igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel i Oslo muri Norvège, yatangiye kuvuga iby’iyi raporo ndetse aherutse no kuyigarukaho ari mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’u Burayi.

Ati “Icyo gihe yarabivuze agira n’abamushyigikira, n’abantu bo muri RDC nka Martin Fayulu baramushyigikira. Ariko hiyongeramo n’umubano w’u Rwanda na RDC wagaragaye cyane mu bitero byo kurwanya imitwe irimo za RNC na FDLR umwaka ushize; hari abo bitashimishije ku buryo byatumye bazana n’ibindi bya balkanization ya Congo.”

Uyu musesenguzi avuga ko impamvu iyi raporo ikomeje kugaruka ubu, ari uko hari abantu muri RDC bizera imitwe irwanya ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda mu kuruhungabanyiriza umutekano. Ngo kuba ikomeje guhashywa, bo basanga ari igisebo kuri bo, bitewe n’urwango bafite ku Rwanda bagahitamo kugarura akahise.

Ati “Umubano mwiza w’u Rwanda na RDC, kurwanya imitwe yitwaje intwaro n’ibindi, bituma bo babona nta yandi mahirwe bafite za FDLR, za RNC n’indi mitwe iyo yagabaga ibitero ku Rwanda, barabyishimiraga. Barabona ko ibyayo birimo kurangira, bati noneho kugira ngo turwanye ubutegetsi [bw’u Rwanda] reka dusunike iyi Mapping Report. Niyo mahirwe basigaranye kuko babona ibindi byananiranye.”

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko hari abantu bari inyuma ya Dr Mukwege bashaka kumugira igitangaza, bigakubitana n’uko asanzwe ari umuntu wanga u Rwanda nubwo kuva aho aherewe igihembo atakivuga nabi u Rwanda mu ruhame.

Uyu musesenguzi akomeza agira ati “Ni umuntu wanga u Rwanda, kuba hari abamushyigikiye ni ibintu bizwi. I Burayi barahari, muri Amerika barahari. Ni abazungu, nibo batanga ibi bihembo bya Nobel.”

Kugaruka kw’iyi raporo hari icyo byahungabanyaho u Rwanda?

Iyi raporo yakozwe na Navi Pillay, ikimara gusohoka yashyikirijwe inzego za Loni, gusa nta rwego na rumwe rwigeze ruyigaho ngo ruyifateho icyemezo.

Umwe mu bazi neza imikorere ya Loni yabwiye IGIHE ati “Ubundi byagombaga kujya mu Kanama k’Umutekano cyangwa mu Nteko Rusange cyangwa muri Komisiyo y’Uburenganzira bwa muntu. Aho hose iyo raporo ntabwo yigeze ihabwa agaciro.”

Nyuma y’aho isohokeye, u Rwanda rwakoze inyandiko ya paji 28 rwamagana rwivuye inyuma iyi raporo, rugaragaza amakosa ari mu ngingo 60 yakozwe n’impuguke zayikoze. Icyo gihe kandi u Rwanda rwamenyesheje Loni ko mu gihe yahabwa agaciro, ruzavana ingabo zarwo i Darfur muri Sudani.

Byatumye uwari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni, Ban Ki-moon, aza mu Rwanda abonana na Perezida Kagame ndetse n’abayobozi batandukanye muri Guverinoma barimo n’uwari Minisitiri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga, Louise Mushikiwabo, mu ruzinduko rwe rwamaze iminsi ibiri.

Uyu musesenguzi yakomeje agira ati “Kugira ngo bazayibyutse muri Loni ntabwo bishoboka. Ntabwo raporo ishobora kubyuka nyuma y’imyaka 10 nta kintu gishya cyabaye.”

Dr Mukwege asaba ko muri RDC hashyirwaho urukiko rwiga ku byaha byakorewe ikiremwamuntu byabereye ku butaka bw’iki gihugu.

Mu kiganiro yagiranye na Jeune Afrique, Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’amahanga w’u Rwanda, Dr Vincent Biruta, yabajijwe niba u Rwanda rwashyigikira ishyirwaho ry’urukiko rwihariye ku byaha byakorewe muri Congo.

Yasubije ati "Twagaragaje uko tubona ibintu ku buryo bwakoreshejwe kuri iyo raporo, twe tuvuga ko budakwiye. Ni inyandiko yakozwe mu mezi atandatu gusa ku gihugu kinini nka RDC, ikorwa ku gihe bikorwa by’imyaka icumi, n’abantu batizewe… Ntabwo hashingirwa ku mushinga w’inyandiko nk’uyu utavugwaho rumwe ngo hashyirweho urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha."

Ubwo Jenoside yari imaze guhagarikwa, Interahamwe zahise zerekeza muri Zaire zijyana n'impunzi nyinshi ari nazo Ingabo z'u Rwanda zagiye muri RDC zigiye gucyura
Ingabo z'u Rwanda zagize uruhare mu bikorwa byinshi bigamije kugarura amahoro mu karere, birimo 'Operation Umoja Wetu', bitandukanye n'icyasha zasizwe na Mapping Report

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