Inzira y’umusaraba u Rwanda rwanyuzemo mu myaka 99 yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 10 Mata 2019 saa 08:54
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U Rwanda rwanyuze mu nzira zirimo amahwa, rwikorera umusaraba utamirijwe ingorane n’ubugome butisukirwa n’uwo ariwe wese w’ikiremwamuntu. Nyamara abarwikoreje uwo musaraba nabo bari abantu bafite umubiri n’amaraso, bagakwiye kugirira impuhwe ikiremwamuntu by’umwihariko Abanyarwanda bazengereje bakabacura bufuni na buhoro, bakababurabuza mu mashyi no mu mudiho.

Muri iyi nkuru tugiye kubatekerereza inzira y’umusaraba u Rwanda rwanyuzemo mu gihe cy’imyaka 99, yashyizweho umusozo na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yo muri Mata 1994, yahitanye ubuzima bw’Abatutsi basaga miliyoni.

Nk’uko tubikesha igitabo “Intwari z’Imbanza, zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro” Cyanditswe n’Umusizi Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, kidutekerereza ko insiriri y’inzira y’umusaraba u Rwanda rwanyuzemo ikarugeza kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994, ifite ibirari bihera mu mwaka wa 1895, ubwo umudage Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen yari akubutse mu Rwanda yageze ku wa 2 Gicurasi 1894, mu rwego rwo kumenya byimbitse igihugu cy’u Rwanda bari bagiye gukoroniza.

Mu kwinjira mu Rwanda baje kurukoroniza, baje bafite imigambi yo guhindura byose mu miyoborere y’igihugu, mu bukungu, mu mutekano, mu mibereho y’abaturage, mu myemerere n’ibindi. N’ubwo Abadage nta gihe kinini bamaze bakoloniza u Rwanda, ariko ntibabuze gusiga bakongeje umuriro w’ikibatsi cyaremye inzira y’umusaraba Abanyarwanda banyuzemo bikarundurira kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Hari bimwe mu byo Abadage bakoze, byatangiye inzira y’umusarabara y’imyaka 99 (1895-1994) .

Umusanzu wa mbere Abadage basize mu mugambi mushya wo gusenya igihugu, ni uko basize babitsemo Abanyarwanda ubwoba no kwiburira icyizere.

Abanyarwanda bizeraga umwami wabo n’Ingabo zabo, zibahanganira ku rugamba, bakizera ubudahangarwa bw’igihugu cyabo ariko ku butegetsi bwa Musinga hagaragaye intege nke mu ngabo z’umwami, aho bitabaje Abasirikare b’Abadage bifashishaga imbunda. Ibyo bituma Abanyarwanda, babona ko igihugu cyabo cyagurishijwe mu buryo bugaragara.

Imitwe y’ingabo isaga 61 yaremwe n’umwami Kigeli Rwabugili, yose yari yarasenyutse ku buryo iyari isigaye ari mbarwa. Ikindi kiri mu byatumye u Rwanda rudakomeza kurema imitwe y’ingabo, harimo no kuba ibitero byo kwagura igihugu byashishikazaga abanyarwanda kwinjira mu ngabo z’igihugu, byasaga n’aho byasoje umugambi wa byo kuko ibihugu byagombaga kwigarurirwa no guhuzwa byari byarabaye igihugu kimwe.

Bihumira ku mirari ubwo Abasirikare b’Abadage binjiraga mu Rwanda bakarwana n’Abanyarwanda, bakabatsinda, nuko himakazwa ingabo mvamahanga iz’u Rwanda zibura ijambo.

Ikindi gikorwa Abadage bakoze kitazibagirana mu mateka yo gusenya umushinga wa Gihanga wo kubaka u Rwanda, ni uko u Rwanda barwambuye ubutaka bunini bakabwomeka ku bindi bihugu birukikije, ibyo bikaba byarakozwe guhera mu wa 1910 kugeza mu wa 1912.

Igice kimwe cy’ubutaka bacyomeke ku gihugu cya Zaire harimo kivu y’Epfo na Kivu ya Ruguru, ikindi kijya kuri Uganda. U Rwanda barutwaye ubutaka bunini buri ku buso bwa Km² 142. 268, ni ukuvuga 5/6 by’uko u Rwanda rwanganaga.

Ntibyatinze ubwo Intambara ya mbere y’Isi yabaga mu wa 1916, Ababiligi birukanye Abadage mu Rwanda, noneho inzira y’umusaraba yaharuwe n’Abadage iragaragara, ku buryo buri wese wayinyuragamo yabonaga ko ari inzira irimo ibirushya byinshi kandi irimo iganisha u Rwanda ahatari heza.

Ababiligi bo baje beruye ko bagiye guhangana n’umwami Yuhi Musinga watwaraga u Rwanda muri ibyo bihe, cyane ko yagize n’uruhare rwo gufasha Abadage kurwanya Ababiligi bikarangira Abadage batsinzwe. Izo nzika zuje umujinya w’umuranduranzuzi nizo Abakoroni b’Ababiligi bazanye mu kwihimura ku Rwanda.

-Mu 1917 umwami bamwambuye uburenganzira bwo kwica no gukiza Ubusanzwe kwica no gukiza ni kimwe mu byatumaga umwami yubahwa akanatinywa, byafashaga kandi kugabanya ibyigomeke mu gihugu.

Muri icyo kibariro nibwo Ababiligi badukanye imigirire mishya yo guhana abanyabyaha, aho babazirikaga ku kintu bakoresheje iminyururu kuko nta nzu zigenewe imfungwa zari zakubatswe. Aho niho naho bakurije kwita ifungiro ry’abanyabyaha ‘umunyururu’.

Muri uwo mwaka kandi habayeho kuzimya umuco w’Icyezamana mu Banyarwanda. Icyezamana ry’Abanyarwanda ryari rishingiye ku kwemera ntakebakeba Imana yaremye Ijuru n’Isi, kandi rigashingira ku muco wabo wagaragazaga ingiro z’ibikorwa z’icyo bemera n’icyo bahakana, icyo banze n’icyo bakunze.

Mu mwaka wa 1917 ni bwo Rezida Major Declerk yajyanye Musinga gusinya iteka riha buri Munyarwanda uburenganzira bwo kuyoboka idini yishakiye. Ni nabwo Musinga yatanze ubuzima gatozi bw’itorero Gatolika kugira ngo rikorere mu Rwanda.

- Mu 1922, umwami bamwatse ububasha mu bucamanza: Musinga yari aziko ari ‘Nyamugirubutangwa’ (utavuguruzwa mu byemezo) kandi ni koko niko imihango y’ubwiru yabigenega ko umwami ari we Nteko y’ikirenga mu gihugu. Ababiligi bemeye ko mu murimo we wo guca imanza, azunganirwa n’umuzungu uhagarariye Rezida, ububasha bwe mu gucira imanza abaturage ayoboye babumukuraho.

- Mu 1923 bamugabanyirije ububasha bwo kugaba imisozi:Muri uwo mwaka bamubujije gushyiraho abatware mu gihugu no kubanyaga uko ashaka, abatware b’Intara na bo ntibashoboraga gushyiraho abasushefu bitabanje kunyura kuri Rezida, ishyirwaho n’ikurwaho ry’abategetsi b’u Rwanda rijya mu maboko y’Abakoroni.

- Mu 1924 bakuyeho Itorero: Itorero niryo shuri ryo hambere, bigiragamo imyuga, umuco, indangagaciro na za kirazira n’ubumenyi ngiro bw’ingeri nyinshi, imitegekere y’igihugu, imyuga y’uburyo bwose n’ibindi, rikaba ryari ryarahanganywe na Gihanga, rikaza gushimangirwa na Ruganzu II Ndoli.

Mu gukuraho itorero bahise barisimbuza amashuri yigisha gatigisimu. Uko iminsi yagendaga yisunika, niko imyumvire y’inyigisho ku Itorero mu banyarwanda yagiye ibavamo, waba uvuze Itorero ntibumve ishuri nsakazabumenyi ry’abanyarwanda bo ha mbere, bakumva Intore zihamiriza.

- Mu 1925, ubwiru bwavanyweho n’indi mihango n’imigenzo y’Abanyarwanda nk’umuganura: Ubwiru bwari Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda ryahanzwe na Gihanga, riza kuvugururwa bwa mbere na Mutara Semugeshi. Kimwe mu byo ubwiru bwari bushinzwe ni ukuboneza umuhango w’umuganura. Muri uwo mwaka, Adiminisitarateri wa Nyanza yafashe icyemezo cyo "Guca" Gashamura ka Rukangirashyamba umutware w’Abiru amucira i Gitega (Burundi).

Imihango, Imigenzo n’Imiziririzo yari izingiro ryo kwiyitaho kw’Abanyarwanda no kurinda ibyagezweho ngo barusheho kugira ubuzima bwiza bushingiye ku kugira icyo utinya n’icyo wubaha, bayitesha agaciro. Abantu batangira kuba ibifura n’ibinyamusozi bavuga ibyo babonye.

- Mu 1926, ingabo z’u Rwanda zakuweho:Ubwo Ababiligi bari bamaze kwicaza yombi bizeye ko batsinze Abadage burundu, nibwo noneho batangiye kohereza Abategetsi babo bafite imbaraga zo kugira ibyo bahindura ku miyoborere, imibereho n’imyumvire y’Abanyarwanda. Mu mwaka wa 1926, Umubiligi Mortehan yaciye iteka ko nta Ngabo z’igihugu cy’u Rwanda zizongera kubaho.

Gukuraho burundu Ingabo z’u Rwanda byatewe n’inzika Ababiligi baje bafitiye Musinga zo kuba yarafashije Abadage kurwanya Ababiligi mu ntambara ya mbere y’Isi yose kandi akaba mu mateka y’u Rwanda, Ababiligi baje bazi neza ko Intambara y’Abanyarwanda ari inkundura, ari abakogoto b’umuheto n’indwanyi kabuhariwe.

Kutagira Ingabo ku Rwanda byashegeshe Abanyarwanda mu buryo burunduye, kurinda ubusugire bw’igihugu ntibyongera kubaho, ubutwari bwabo bwagaragariraga mu guhangana n’umwanzi, barabucecekesha maze Abakoroni baba bababonye urwaho.

- Mu 1927 abakoroni bakuyeho urugerero:Urugerero rwari rwarashyizweho n’umwami Cyilima II Rujugiro ahasaga mu mwaka wa 1691 kugeza mu wa 1708, rukaba rwari Politiki yo gukumira ibitero mvamahanga no kubimenya kare bitarasakara mu gihugu. Rwafashaga kurinda abaturage ngo badapfa cyane mu gihe hateye igitero gitunguranye, ndetse n’imitungo y’igihugu ntiyangirike.

Urugerero rwatumaga Ingabo zifata iya mbere mu ku menya ko umwanzi yateye, baruvanaho mu rwego rwo guca intege imbaraga z’ubutasi bw’Abanyarwanda.

Mu 1931 Umwami Yuhi Musinga na nyina Kanjogera baciriwe i Kamembe, bava ku butegetsi badatanze kandi atari ko imihango y’Ubwiru yabigenaga.

Mu gice gikurikiraho, tuzabagezaho uko Abanyawanda bakomeje kugenda muri iyo nzira y’umusaraba mu bihe by’umwami Mutara Rudahigwa, dukomereze no mu bihe bya Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri, ari nayo yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994.

Umwami Musinga asuhuza igikomangomakazi Elena d'Aosta wo mu Butaliyani

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