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Impamvu hari moteri zishyirwa hejuru y’amababa y’indege n’izishyirwa munsi yayo

Yanditswe na Cyril Ndegeya
Kuya 12 Gashyantare 2021 saa 02:13
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Igihe cyose waba warabonye indege ku mashusho cyangwa uyegerey, ndahamya ko utabuze no kureba moteri zayo dore ko ku ndege zitwara abagenzi aricyo kintu gihenze kiba kiyiriho.

Niba waritegereje waba warabonye ko moteri ku ndege zitaba zifunze ahantu hamwe ku ndege zose, hamwe ziba zifunze munsi y’amababa, ahandi zikaba ziri hejuru yayo, ahandi zikaba hejuru cyane ku bice by’inyuma gutyo gutyo. Uyu munsi rero muri iyi nkuru tugiye kurebera hamwe impamvu ya buri cyiciro cy’ahafungwa moteri z’indege.

Duhereye kuri moteri zikunze kuba munsi y’amababa (undermounted engines), ibi ubwabyo bigira ibyiza byabyo gusa bikagira n’ingaruka nkeya.

Duhereye ku cyiza cyabyo, icya mbere ni uko mu gihe iyo moteri ifite akabazo gakeneye gucyemurwa n’umukanishi wayo kuyigeraho no kugera aho akabazo kari bimworohera kubera ko moteri yegereye ubutaka(iri hafi). Byaba ari ukugenzura moteri, kuyikanika, guhindura amavuta, kuyoza n’ibindi bijyanye nabyo, birumvikana ko ubashije kubikora uhagaze hasi ku butaka utiriwe ukenera kurira inzego byaba aribyo byiza kurushaho.

Ikindi, muzi ko uko ikoranabuhanga mu bya moteri z’indege rigenda rikura, hagenda hakorwa moteri nini kurushaho kugira ngo hongerwe ubushobozi bwazo mu bintu bitandukanye. Uko moteri rero zigenda ziba nini, bisaba kuzifunga hasi munsi ya moteri, kandi ni na byiza ko zaba ziri muri uwo mwanya kurusha uko zaba ziri ku gice cyo hejuru cyangwa inyuma ku ndege. Icyakora ibi nabyo ntibivuze ko munsi y’indege wahafunga moteri iyo ariyo yose, kuko ingano ya moteri ihajya iterwa n’indeshyo y’ibyuma amapine afunzeho ndetse n’amapine ubwayo(Landing gear), kubera ko uko amapine arushaho kuba magufi cyangwa mato ni nako amababa nayo aba yegereye ubutaka, ibyo bikagabanya ingano ya moteri ishobora kujya munsi yayo.

Indi mpamvu ni uko nk’uko habaho indege zigira moteri nyinshi, hari izigira moteri enye, esheshatu cyangwa umunani. Ku ndege nk’izo rero urumva ko nta handi izo moteri zabasha kujya uretse munsi y’amababa, cyane cyane kuko ariho hari umwanya ariko nanone indi mpamvu zitashyirwa hejuru yayo ari nyinshi nuko ariho amababa akoranira cyane n’umuyaga kugira ngo indege ibashe kuguruka iva ku butaka ndetse no kuguma mu kirere.

Indi mpamvu ijyanye n’umutekano ni uko moteri zifunze hariya munsi y’amababa ziba zitegereye cyane aho abagenzi bicaye bityo rero nko mu gihe moteri igize ikibazo igashya, ntabwo umuriro uhita ugera ku bagenzi ako kanya nk’uko moteri yaba iri hejuru y’ibaba iruhande rw’abagenzi.

Ikindi kintu cyiza cyo kuba moteri ziri munsi y’amababa ni uko kubera kuba zitari iruhande cyane rw’abagenzi, zitabagezaho urusaku rwinshi kuko ibaba riri hejuru ya moteri ribasha gukingira urusaku rwinshi ruturuka inyuma ya moteri bigatuma rutagera ku bagenzi ari rwinshi.

Icyakora izi moteri zegereye ubutaka ziba nanone zifite ingaruka yo kwangizwa n’imyanda ishobora kwinjirmo ku buryo bworoshye bitewe n’uko zishobora gukurura imyanda yaba iri hafi aho mu gihe hatakozwe isuku ihagije, iyo myanda ikaba yakwangiza moteri

Moteri zifungwa ku gice cy’inyuma ku ndege

Izi nazo rero zigira ibyiza byazo. Icya mbere ni uko urusaku rwazo rutagera ku bagenzi cyane ukurikije aho ziri cyane ko urusaku rwa moteri ruturuka inyuma yayo aho isohorera ijwi, ubwo rero birumvikana cyane ko rusohoka rujya inyuma y’indege ntirugere ku bagenzi.

Indi mpamvu ikomeye nanone ijyanye n’umutekano w’indege ni uko kuba zimanitse hejuru cyane hitaruye ubutaka bizirinda kuba hari imyanda yazinjiramo (FOD:Foreign Objects Debris) ku buryo bworoshye nk’iziri munsi y’amababa zegereye ubutaka, niyo mpamvu bene izi ndege zo bizoroherwa kuba zagwa no ku kibuga kitarimo kaburimbo kuko ntabwo moteri zazo zapfa kubasha kuyora imyanda hasi ngo yinjiremo.

Ikindi cyiza ni uko izi ndege zifite moteri hejuru zibasha kwisubiza inyuma ziva aho ziparitse, kuko ziriya twavuze mbere zibyirinda kubera ya mpamvu yo kuba zayora imyanda hasi ikangiza moteri cyangwa zikayisunika ikagira ibindi yakwangiza. Gusa iki gikorwa cyo kwisubiza inyuma ni icyo kwitondera kuko abapilote baba batareba inyuma ngo bamenye neza ko hari umutekano usesuye, niyo mpamvu akenshi indege isunikwa n’imashini yabigenewe.

Indege ifite za moteri hejuru isabwa kugira amatiyo maremare ajyana amavuta atarwa indege muri moteri kuko ayo mavuta n’ubundi aba abitse mu mababa, ubwo rero nk’igihe itiyo izibye bishobora kugora moteri kuyikurura kuko iba iri hejuru kurusha uko amavuta yaba ava mu ibaba ahita yinjira muri moteri iri munsi yaryo idakeneye iyo tiyo.

Gusa hari n’indege zimwe na zimwe zigira ibigega(fuel tanks) mu bice by’inyuma y’indege byitwa “Horizontal Stabilizers) ndetse ayo matiyo mvuze haruguru akaba ari nayo ajyana amavuta mu cyitwa APU(Auxirially Power Unit) gikora nka moteri yatanga umuriro mu ndege.

Ikindi kuri izi moteri ziba hejuru ku ndege, ni uko kuzikanika bitoroha cyane nko kuri ziriya twavuze mbere kuko zo nyine ziba kure y’ubutaka, bisaba kurira ku nzego kugira ngo ugiye gukora ako kazi ayigereho, ibyo rero bikamuteza akandi kazi nubwo atari ikibazo gikomeye.

Ufite indi nyunganizi cyangwa yifuza igisobanuro runaka yatwandikira kuri [email protected]

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