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Ubushakashatsi: Impuruza ku modoka, inkwi n’inganda zangiza ikirere mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Ishimwe Israel
Kuya 21 Ukwakira 2021 saa 07:28
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Abashakashatsi mu by’ubumenyi bw’ikirere bakomeje gutanga impuruza ko ingamba zigamije kukirinda guhumana zakazwa, cyane cyane imodoka zisohora imyuka icyangiza, ikoreshwa ry’inkwi n’amakara mu gucana cyo kimwe n’imyotsi ituruka mu nganda bigakumirwa.

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Buzima (OMS) ryasohoye amabwiriza y’ubuziranenge avuguruye agamije kurokora miliyoni z’abantu bahitanwa n’indwara ziterwa n’ihumana ry’ikirere.

Amabwiriza mashya yatangajwe mu mpera za Nzeri 2021, yaherukaga kuvugururwa mu 2005.

OMS yatangaje ko aya mavugurura yitezweho kugabanya impfu z’abantu barenga miliyoni zirindwi bahitanwa n’indwara zikomoka ku ihumana ry’ikirere buri mwaka.

Amabwiriza mashya ashyiraho cyangwa avugurura ingano y’imyuka ndetse n’utuvungukira duto duhumanya ikirere mu gihe cy’amasaha 24 ndetse no ku mwaka. Urugero ni utuvungukira duto cyane tuzwi nka particles (PM2.5) dusanzwe dutera indwara nyinshi harimo asima [Asthma] na kanseri y’ibihaha.

Ubusanzwe amabwiriza y’ubuziranenge ya 2005 yategekaga ingano y’utu tuvungukira ingana na mikorogarama (microgram) 10 kuri metero kibe mu gihe cy’umwaka, ubu yagabanutseho mikorogarama eshanu kuri metero kibe mu cyegeranyo cyo muri Nzeri 2021.

Iyi raporo yerekana kandi ko mu gihe ibihugu byakubahiriza aya mabwiriza mashya cyane cyane ku tuvungukira (PM2.5), byagabanya hafi 80% by’impfu zaterwaga natwo.

Amabwiriza mashya asaba inzego za Leta n’iz’abikorera gufatanya bakarinda ubuzima bw’abaturage babo bagabanya ibintu byose bihumanya ikirere.

Muri Kamena 2016 ni bwo hasohotse itegeko riha uburenganzira Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe kubungabunga Ibidukikije (REMA) kubungabunga imyuka yanduza ikirere no gushyiraho ingamba zo kwirinda.

-  Impuruza ku myuka yanduza ikirere

Imyuka ihumanye yoherezwa mu kirere iri ku isonga mu bibazo byugarije Isi muri iki gihe; nibura abarenga miliyoni zirindwi bapfa buri mwaka bishwe nayo.

Mu kiganiro IGIHE yagiranye na Dr Kalisa Egide, Umushakashatsi akaba n’Umwarimu mu Ishami ry’Ubumenyingiro n’Ikoranabuhanga muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda yavuze ko hari zimwe mu ndwara ziterwa no guhumeka umwuka wanduye zikunze kwibasira abantu zirimo stroke, umutima, kanseri y’ibihaha ndetse n’iz’ubuhumekero zidakira kandi zikomeye zirimo na asima.

Yakomeje ati “Abana bato ndetse n’abantu bakuze cyane ni bamwe bakunda kwibasirwa n’izi ndwara cyane ariko bitavuze ko n’abandi na zo zitabageraho.’’

Minisiteri y’Ubuzima mu 2012 yatangaje ko abana bari munsi y’imyaka itanu bapfuye icyo gihe, abagera kuri 22% bazize indwara z’ubuhumekero.

Ihumana ry’ikirere rifite n’ingaruka nini ku mihindagurikire y’ibihe (climate change) ndetse n’ubukungu muri rusange.

Mu ntangiriro za Ukwakira 2021, Akanama gashinzwe Uburenganzira bwa Muntu mu Muryango w’Abibumbye, katoye umwanzuro uvuga ko guhumeka umwuka mwiza ari uburenganzira bw’ibanze bwa muntu.

Nubwo nta bihano biriho ku bihugu bitubahirije amabwiza mashya agenga ubuziranenge bw’umwuka, buri cyose gisabwa gushyiraho ingamba zikarishye mu kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere ndetse n’indwara ziterwa no guhumeka umwuka wanduye.

U Rwanda ruza mu bihugu bya mbere muri Afurika byapimye imyuka yanduza ikirere, rushyiraho amategeko y’ubuziranenge n’amabwiriza y’ibipimo. Ni rwo rwabaye urwa mbere muri Afurika mu gushyikiriza Loni intego zo kubungabunga ikirere, aho rwiyemeje kugabanya imyuka igihumanya ku kigero cya 38% mu 2030.

Zimwe mu ngamba rwihaye muri icyo cyerekezo harimo kunoza uburyo bwo gutunganya ingufu, gukoresha inganda neza, gucunga imyanda, ubwikorezi ndetse n’ubuhinzi; bizatuma imyuka ihumanya ikirere igabanukaho toni miliyoni 4,6.

Ku wa 7 Nzeri 2021 ubwo u Rwanda rwizihizaga Umunsi mpuzamahanga w’Ikirere cyiza cy’Ubururu, rwagaragaje bimwe mu byashyizweho birimo gushyira mu bikorwa politiki y’ikirere ihuriweho n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere; ikoreshwa ry’ibinyabiziga bikoresha amashanyarazi, siporo yo ku cyumweru ikorwa imodoka zakumiriwe mu mihanda (Car Free Day), gusuzuma imyotsi iva mu binyabiziga bikoresha lisansi na mazutu, gushyiraho uduce twihariye tutageramo imodoka (Car Free Zone) ndetse n’ingamba zo kugabanya ikoreshwa ry’inkwi n’amakara bihumanya ikirere.

-  Icyo ubushakashatsi buvuga ku ngamba zo kwirinda imyuka ihumanya ikirere mu Rwanda

Ubushakashatsi bwa Dr Kalisa mu bihe bitandukanye [2018 -2021] bugaragaza ko imyuka yanduza ikirere by’umwihariko muri Kigali [umujyi utera imbere ndetse ugaturwa cyane] iva ku binyabiziga.

Dr Kalisa n’Itsinda ry’Abashakashatsi bo mu Bwongereza mu 2021 bakoze ubundi bushakashatsi bwifashijije Guma Mu Rugo na Car Free Day basanga utuvungukira (PM2.5) twagabanutseho -15% muri Car Free Day kuva 2017-2020 na -33% muri Guma Mu Rugo yashyizweho mu kwirinda ikwirakwira rya COVID-19.

Ubu bushakashatsi bugaragaza ko iri gabanuka rigabanya abahitanwa n’iyi myotsi n’abajyaga kwivuza indwara ziterwa n’ihumana ry’ ikirere ndetse n’igihugu cyungukira ku kudatakaza amafaranga gishora mu kurwanya indwara zikomoka ku ihumana ry’ikirere.

Dr Kalisa avuga ko hagikenewe izindi ngamba zikarishye kugira u Rwanda ruzabashe kubahiriza amabwiriza mashya yavuguruwe y’ubuziranenge bw’umwuka yasohotse muri uyu mwaka.

Ati “Ntibishoboka ko iminsi yose yagirwa Car Free Day ahubwo hakwiye ingamba nko gusobanurira abatwara ibinyabiziga kubizimya mu gihe batari kugenda (car idling). Si byiza ko abatwara ibinyabiziga basiga moteri zaka kandi bahagaze igihe kirekire kuko byongera imyuka yanduza ikirere kurusha ibinyabiziga bigenda.’’

Usibye abatwara ibinyabiziga, hanakenewe ingamba zifatika mu kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere ku mashuri y’abana, kugabanya imyotsi iva ku bicanwa hashyirwaho izindi ngufu no kongera imbaraga mu bikorwa byo gutera ibiti no gukangurira abantu kumenya ingaruka ziterwa no guhumeka umwuka wanduye.

Dr Kalisa avuga ko imyuka idasaba visa ngo ive mu gihugu kimwe ijye mu kindi, ahubwo bishobora kugenwa n’imiterere yacyo (topography) n’umuvuduko w’umuyaga. Atanga inama ko ibihugu bituranye byashyiraho amabwiriza amwe kandi bikayubahiriza.

Imodoka nizo ziza ku isonga mu guhumanya ikirere mu Rwanda
Umushakashatsi akaba n’Umwarimu mu Ishami ry’Ubumenyingiro n’Ikoranabuhanga muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Dr Kalisa Egide, amaze igihe akora ubushakashatsi ku ihumana ry'ikirere cy'u Rwanda
Abanyarwanda bashishikarizwa gukoresha Gaz nka kimwe mu bicanwa bidahungabanya ikirere
Mu bihe bya Guma mu Rugo na Car Free Day, imyuka ihumanya ikirere mu Rwanda iragabanuka

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