Impinduka 10 zidasanzwe zaranze u Rwanda mu myaka 26 ishize

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 3 Nyakanga 2020 saa 06:57
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1994-2020: Imyaka 26 irashize abanyarwanda bakora urugendo rugoye rwo kongera kwiyubaka nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, igahitana ubuzima bw’abarenga miliyoni mu minsi ijana gusa ndetse igashegesha n’inzego zose z’ubuzima bw’igihugu kugeza munsi ya zeru.

Nyuma y’ubwitange bw’intagereranywa bw’ingabo za RPA zabohoye igihugu zigahagarika Jenoside, igihugu cyubatswe guhera hasi kuko cyari cyarasenyutse burundu, ibikomere bikiri bibisi, mbese ureba hirya no hino ugasanga byose birihutirwa.

Ni urugendo rudasanzwe rwabayemo iterambere ryinshi mu mfuruka zose, ubukungu bwari bwarasubiye inyuma 41 ku ijana munsi ya zeru bwongera gushinga imizi burafata, uburezi bugera kuri bose, ubuzima buzira umuzi buba intego, ibikorwa remezo birubakwa igihugu cyongera kujya ibuntu.

Hirya no hino mu gihugu imihanda yarubatswe, imijyi itezwa imbere, amashyanyarazi n’amazi byegerezwa abaturage ku buryo mu myaka ine iri imbere nta rugo ruzaba rudacaniwe.

Gahunda zitandukanye zo kuzamura imibereho myiza zarimakajwe. Girinka na VUP zimaze kuba ikimenyabose, mituweli yatumye ntawe ukirembera mu rugo, nta mwana w’umunyarwanda ukibuzwa kwiga amashuri yifuza n’impamvu iyo ari yo yose kuko intego ari ‘uburezi kuri bose’.

Imyaka 26 ishize ibumbatiye byinshi cyane ku buryo uwavuga ko ari ‘imyaka yo kuzuka k’u Rwanda’, ataba abeshye. Muri iyi nkuru, turagaruka ku bintu 10 bidasanzwe byaranze iyi myaka.

-Imiyoborere myiza

Abahanga mu by’iterambere bemeza ko nta mpinduka zishobora kubaho mu nzego zose mu gihe nta miyoborere myiza ihari.

Impinduka idasanzwe ya mbere yabaye mu Rwanda ni imiyoborere myiza ndetse n’ubuyobozi bufite icyerekezo. Uruhare rwa Perezida Kagame mu kwimika imiyoborere myiza ni ntagereranywa.

Kwegereza abaturage ubuyobozi bakanagira uruhare mu miyoborere, politiki idaheza mu nzego zose z’ubuzima bw’igihugu, gahunda zihariye zo kwishakamo ibisubizo no gushyira hamwe kw’Abanyarwanda muri rusange, byabaye inkingi mwikorezi y’ibyo u Rwanda rumaze kugeraho.

Imiyoborere myiza ya Perezida Kagame, ni kimwe mu byaranze iyi myaka, byatumye abanyarwanda barushaho kugirira icyizere ubuyobozi maze nabo bagakora batizigamye

-Izamuka ry’ubukungu

Iterambere ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda rikora ku mutima benshi yaba abanyarwanda n’abanyamahanga bitewe n’impinduka rizana mu mibereho myiza y’abarenga miliyoni 12 barutuye ndetse n’umusanzu waryo mu guhanga imirimo.

Nka gahunda y’imbaturabukungu ‘EDPRS I’ yatangiye mu 2008 igeza mu 2012, yasize u Rwanda rugabanyije ubukene ndetse n’ubusumbane mu bukungu. Yatumye ubukene bugabanuka kuva kuri 56.7% bugera kuri 44.9%, bituma abarenga miliyoni imwe bava mu bukene mu myaka itagera kuri itanu.

Ubukene bwakomeje kugabanyuka. Ubushakashatsi bwa Gatanu ku mibereho y’ingo mu Rwanda (EICV5), bwasohotse mu Ukuboza 2018, bwagaragaje abagera kuri 38.2% bari mu bukene naho 16.0% bari mu bukene bukabije.

Ibi bishimangirwa n’umutungo mbumbe w’igihugu (GDP) wavuye kuri miliyoni 753.6 z’amadolari mu 1994, ugera kuri miliyari 9.8 z’amadolari mu 2019. Umusaruro ku muturage ku mwaka wari amadolari 146 mu myaka 26 ishize, ubu ugeze ku madolari 825.

Icyizere cyo kubaho ku munyarwanda cyavuye ku myaka 29.1 mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 1990, kuri ubu kikaba kirarenga imyaka 68.

Kugeza ubu mu Rwanda hari banki 16, ibigo by’imari, ibigo 14 by’ubwishingizi birimo 12 byigenga. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe ku buryo Abanyarwanda bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari, FinScope Survey 2020, bwagaragaje ko 93% [ni ukuvuga miliyoni zirindwi z’abakuze] bagerwaho na serivisi z’imari, bakaba barenze intego igihugu cyari cyihaye ya 90% bitarenze uyu mwaka.

Ishoramari ryafunguriwe amarembo rigira uruhare rukomeye mu guhanga imirimo no kuzamura ubukungu. U Rwanda ruri ku mwanya wa kabiri muri Afurika nk’ahantu byoroshye gukorera ubucuruzi n’urwa 38 ku Isi, nk’uko Raporo ya Banki y’Isi izwi nka Doing Business Report 2020 ibigaragaza.

Ishoramari ry’abanyamahanga, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI’s), rikomeje kuzamuka kuko mu 2010 ryari rifite agaciro ka miliyoni $251, mu 2017 ryari miliyari $1.5 mu gihe mu 2019 ryari miliyari 2.46.

Urwego rw'amahoteli ni rumwe mu zagize uruhare mu iterambere ry'ubukungu bw'u Rwanda

-Iterambere ry’umugore

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yagiye ishyiraho ingamba zo guteza imbere umugore yaba mu burezi, ubukungu, imiyoborere n’ibindi dore ko igitsina-gore ari 52% by’abaturage b’u Rwanda bose.

Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda, ryo mu 2003 ryavuguruwe mu 2015, rishimangira ko abagore bagira nibura 30% by’imyanya mu nzego zifatirwamo ibyemezo.

Ibi byafunguriye amarembo abagore, baritinyuka bafata iya mbere bagira uruhare mu miyoborere y’igihugu, ntibyagarukiye aho byatuma u Rwanda ruba ishuri ry’imiyoborere myiza no kwimakaza ihame ry’uburinganire.

Uyu munsi, u Rwanda ni cyo gihugu cya mbere ku isi gifite umubare munini w’abagore mu nteko ishinga amategeko ku kigero cya 61% mu mutwe w’abadepite, 38% muri Sena. Abagore kandi bagize 55% bya guverinoma ndetse na 49.6% mu bacamanza

Abagore kandi bangana na 45.2% by’abagize inama njyanama z’uturere, 42.7% by’abagize njyanama z’imirenge na 34.5% by’abagize inama njyanama z’utugari.

U Rwanda rwateje imbere uburezi cyane cyane uburezi bw’umwana w’umukobwa, ubu imibare igaragaza ko abana b’abakobwa bitabira ishuri cyane ku kigero cya 98.5% mu mashuri yisumbuye ni 53.2%, mu mashuri makuru na za kaminuza ni 42.7%.

Abagore bazi gusoma no kwandika bafite imyaka 15 kuzamura ni 69.4%, abiga mu mashuri y’imyuga ni 43.8%, abiga amasomo ya siyansi, ikoranabuhanga, imibare na Engeneering ni 45.6%.

Nta murimo umugore ahejwemo. Ubu basigaye bagaragara mu mirimo benshi bumvaga ko ari ikwiriye abagabo

-Ubukerarugendo

Urwego rw’ubukerarugendo ni rumwe mu zakozwemo impinduka cyane aho hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’ingagi 900 ziri ku Isi ziba muri Pariki y’Ibirunga y’u Rwanda. Niho ingagi zikomeje kwiyongera cyane kandi zitabwaho cyane.

Kubungabunga urusobe rw’ibidukikije nka Pariki ya Nyungwe, Gishwati na Mukura, byashyizwemo imbaraga zidasanzwe. Ibi byatumye urusobe rw’inyamaswa n’ibimera bigira uruhare mu iterambere ry’ubukerarugendo mu 2010 bwinjije miliyoni $200, mu 2015 bukinjiza miliyoni $318 naho mu 2017 bwinjiza miliyoni $438.

Ikiraro kinyura mu kirere cyo muri Pariki ya Nyungwe ‘Canopy Walk’, kiri ku mwanya wa mbere ku Isi mu biraro nk’ibi binyura mu ishyamba. Gifasha ba mukerarugendo kwitegereza no kureba ibyiza nyaburanga birimo ibiti, inyoni, inyamaswa, ibimera n’ibindi binyabuzima biri muri iyo pariki.

Pariki y’Akagera ubu ni imwe mu zikomeye muri Afurika kuko ifite inyamazwa eshanu zifatwa nk’izikaze kurusha izindi kuri uyu mugabane, ari zo Inkura, Intare, Imbogo, Inzovu n’Ingwe.

Muri rusange, mu 2018 umusaruro wavuye muri Pariki y’Igihugu Akagera, iy’Ibirunga na Nyungwe wariyongereye kuko habonetse miliyoni 21 zirenga z’amadolari ya Amerika, ni ukuvuga asaga miliyari 18 Frw.

Ubukerarugendo ni imwe mu nkingi za mwamba mu iterambere ry'u Rwanda. Ibyiza nyaburanga ndetse n'inyamaswa ziboneka hake ku Isi ni bimwe mu byakuruye uyu munyamakuru wo muri Amerika y'Amajyepfo, agahitamo kuza gusura u Rwanda

-Ibikorwaremezo

Iyo utembereye mu bice bitandukanye bya Kigali no mu yindi mijyi, nturenga umutaru udahuye n’imiturirwa yubatse neza yaba iyuzuye n’indi ikizamuka. Imihanda iracyeye, utuyira tw’abanyamaguru ndetse n’ubusitani buyikikije buratoshye.

Mu myaka 26 ishize, uwari ufite amashanyarazi yafatwaga nk’umuherwe, kuri ubu bifatwa nk’uburenganzira bwa buri muturage. Abanyarwanda bafite amashanyarazi bageze kuri 55% bavuye kuri 2% mu 1994. Abagera kuri 40 bafatira ku muyoboro mugari mu gihe 15% bakoresha ingufu zisubira.

Ingano y’amashanyarazi yavuye kuri megawatt 42, ubu ageze kuri megawatt 228. Ni nyuma y’iyubakwa ry’imishinga ikomeye nka Kivu Watt ibyaza amashanyarazi Gaz Methane yo mu kiyaga cya Kivu n’iyindi.

Gukoresha amazi meza byari inzozi ku buryo kuvoma mu biyaga, mu bishanga, mu mariba byari akamenyero kabi kadasiba korora indwara ziturutse ku isuku nke.

Ibi ariko byabaye umugani kuko ubushakashatsi bwa Gatanu ku mibereho y’ingo (EICV 5), bwerekana ko 87.4%, bagerwaho n’amazi meza mu gihe mu 2024 abanyarwanda bose bazaba bagerwaho n’amazi meza.

Imihanda yitaweho cyane mu koroshya urujya n’uruza rw’abantu n’ibintu. Kuri ubu u Rwanda ruza ku mwanya wa kabiri ku mugabane wa Afurika mu bihugu bifite imihanda myiza. Imihanda iri mu Rwanda uyu munsi ireshya n’ibilometero ibihumbi 38 muri iyo iya kaburimbo ireshya n’ibilometero 2000.

Stade z’imikino n’imyidagaduro zarubatswe ku isonga Kigali Arena, Stade ya Bugesera, iya Ngoma n’iya Nyagatare. Imidugudu y’icyitegererezo yarubatswe hirya no hino mu gihugu ndetse abaturage bayituzwamo begerezwa ibindi bikorwa remezo by’ingenzi.

Ibikorwaremezo bizamuka ubutitsa mu Rwanda

-Uburezi kuri bose

Hari byinshi byakozwe haba mu mashuri abanza, ayisumbuye kugeza kuri Kaminuza, aho iyari Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda yahindutse Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, izisigaye za leta ziyibera amashami. Hari kandi Kaminuza zigenga nyinshi zavutse mu myaka 26 ishize.

Buri mwana mu Rwanda yemerewe kwiga nibura amashuri 12, ni ukuvuga kugeza mu mwaka wa Gatandatu w’amashuri yisumbuye.

Abanyeshuri barangiza kaminuza bavuye kuri 12 701 mu 2010 bagera ku 18 628 barangije mu 2015, ndetse uruhare rw’abakobwa rukomeza kuzamurwa mu mashuri, mu byiciro byose.

Mu myaka itatu ishize, ijanisha ryakozwe na Minisiteri y’uburezi ryerekanye ko imibare y’abana biga mu mashuri abanza yari 98%. Mu 2009-2017 mu burezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka icyenda na 12, hubatswe ibyumba by’amashuri 16 439 n’ubwiherero 31 934.

Umushahara wa mwarimu wagiye wiyongera aho umwarimu wigisha mu mashuri abanza wari 18 000Frw. Uyu mushahara wagiye wongera buhoro buhoro, umwaka ushize wari ugeze kuri 40 000Frw ku mutangizi wo mu mashuri abanza na 120 000Frw ku mutangizi wo mu mashuri yisumbuye ufite impamyabumenyi y’icyiciro cya kabiri cya kaminuza.

Guhera muri Werurwe 2019, umushahara wa mwarimu wongereweho 10% ku bigisha mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye ya Leta n’afatanya na Leta kubw’amasezerano. Hashyizweho Koperative Umwalimu Sacco, gahunda y’amacumbi, Girinka Mwalimu, gufasha mwalimu kwiga n’ibindi.

Umubare w'abanyeshuri barangiza za Kaminuza wiyongera umwaka ku wundi, bitandukanye n'uko byahoze aho uwajyaga mu ishuri yabaga yajonjowe hagendewe ku bwoko

-Kwaguka kwa RwandAir

Mu 2003, sosiyete Nyarwanda ikora ubwikorezi bwo mu kirere ,RwandAir yarashinzwe. Ubu imaze kugera ku byerekezo 29; aho yifashishije indege 12 ifite zirimo Airbus A330 ebyiri nini, igana mu byerekezo binyuranye muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, Hagati, Iburengerazuba n’Amajyepfo, mu Burasirazuba bwo Hagati, i Burayi no muri Aziya.

Iyi sosiyete ikomeje gufasha u Rwanda kugera ku ntego yo guteza imbere ubukerarugendo burimo n’ubushingiye ku nama, koroshya ishoramari, ubucuruzi, guteza imbere ibikorerwa mu Rwanda, Made in Rwanda no kugabanya icyuho hagati y’ibyoherezwa n’ibitumizwa mu mahanga.

Mu Rwanda hari ibibuga by’indege bitanu birimo Ikibuga Mpuzamahanga cy’Indege cya Kigali, icya Kamembe, icya Rubavu, Nemba, Huye n’icya Bugesera kiri kubakwa.

Iyi myaka yaranzwe no kwaguka kugaragarira amaso kwa RwandAir, aho umubare w'indege wiyongereye, ikabasha kugera mu byerekezo hafi ya byose ku Isi

-Mituweli na Girinka

Icyiciro cy’imibereho myiza y’abaturage ni kimwe mu byagize impinduka zikomeye ku buryo abenshi bazishingiraho bavuga ko ‘basirimutse’. Uhereye ku muco w’isuku, kwambara ibirenge, kurara muri nyakatsi n’ibindi byinshi.

Umubare w’abatunze ubwisungane mu kwivuza ntusiba kubarirwa muri 90 ku ijana buri mwaka kandi byatanze umusaruro wo kugabanya impfu z’abicwaga na Malaria, Virusi itera Sida n’izindi.

U Rwanda rwagabanyije imfu z’ababyeyi vuba cyane. Kuva mu 2000 abagore bapfaga babyara bagabanutseho hafi 80%, kuri ubu abagore icyenda ku 10 babyarira kwa muganga.

Abanyarwanda bacengewe na gahunda yo kuboneza urubyaro kuko umubyeyi yavuye ku bana 6.1 yabarirwaga mu 2010, bageze kuri 4.2.

Mu 2006, Perezida Kagame yatangije gahunda ya Girinka mu kurwanya imirire mibi ndetse no gufasha abakennye kuzamuka. Imiryango irenze ibihumbi 350 imaze guhabwa inka muri iyi gahunda.

Uretse guteza imbere abahawe inka muri Girinka, iyi gahunda yanagize uruhare mu iterambere ry’igihugu, aho inagira uruhare muri gahunda ya Leta yo guha abana amata ku ishuri (One cup of milk per child).

Girinka yahaye abaturage akazi n’umusaruro w’ubuhinzi uriyongera. Abahinzi babashije kwaka inguzanyo mu mabanki biteza imbere.

Girinka ni imwe muri gahunda zahinduye ubuzima bw'abanyarwanda, aho yagize uruhare mu kurwanya imirire mibi kandi ihuza abaturage binyuze mu buryo umwe yoroza mugenzi we

-Ikoranabuhanga

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ifite intego yo kuba igicumbi cy’ikoranabuhanga. Mu 2014 kandi nibwo u Rwanda rwatangije ikoreshwa rya internet yihuta ya 4G, ndetse rukomeje gukwirakwiza umurongo mugari wa internet hifashishijwe ‘fibres optique’, intego ikaba kuyigeza mu turere 30 tugize igihugu.

Ibi byatanze umusaruro kuko ubu umuturage wibereye mu rugo ahabwa serivisi z’inzego z’ibanze, polisi, ubuzima, ubuhinzi. Byatumye kandi guhanga udushya mu ikoranabuhanga bigirwa umuco.

Mu 2010 Abanyarwanda 3. 172.759 bari batunze telefoni zigendanwa, mu gihe mu mpera za Mata 2020 bari bageze kuri 10.317.279. Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ikoranabuhanga mu isakazabumenyi (RISA) mu Ugushyingo 2019 cyagaragazaga ko Abanyarwanda bangana na 52% bakoresha internet.

Ikoranabuhanga ryageze kuri buri wese. Aha aba bagore bagaragazaga ibyishimo batewe no kuba bakora umurimo w'uburobyo kandi bagakurikirana uko binjiza amafaranga bitabasabye gukora urugendo ahubwo babirebera ku ikoranabuhanga

-Bye Bye amasashi mu kurengera ibidukikije

Mu mwaka wa 2008 nibwo u Rwanda rwahagaritse itumizwa, ikorwa, icuruzwa n’ikoreshwa ry’amasashi ya plastique. Guharika ikoreshwa ryayo, byafashije mu byerekeye isuku kandi byongera amahirwe y’ishoramari n’iterambere, cyane cyane mu bijyanye no gukora ibikoresho bipfunyikwamo bitangiza ibidukikije.

Ubu u Rwanda rwabaye igihugu cya mbere cya Afurika cyashyikirije Umuryango w’Abibumbye intego zijyanye no kubungabunga ikirere, aho rwiyemeje kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere igasigara nibura ku kigero cya 16% mu 2030.

Ubu u Rwanda rurajwe ishinga no kugabanya imyuka yangiza ikirere ariyo mpamvu rwatangiye gukoresha imodoka z'amashanyarazi
RwandAir ubu ifite indege 12 zirimo nini za Airbus ebyiri
Kigali yahindutse nyabagendwa kurushaho, itanga n'amahirwe mashya aho ubu ba mukerarugendo basigaye bayitembera bifashishije imodoka bikinjiriza igihugu agatubutse
Ibikorwaremezo birimo imihanda byagejejwe hose ku buryo abantu batagira impungenge zo kugerwaho n'ivumbi cyangwa se ibyondo
Imiturire igezweho yarimakajwe, igihugu gisezerera za Nyakatsi ahubwo hashyirwa imbere imidudugu n'inzu zigerekeranye
Ibikorwaremezo by'imyidagaduro ni bimwe mu byashyizwe imbere. Iyi ni stade nshya ya Nyagatare iherutse kuzura nyuma y'igihe gito Perezida Kagame ayemereye abaturage bo muri aka karere
Iyi myaka yaranzwe n'intambwe itajegajega mu bijyanye n'ubuhinzi aho ubu busigaye bukorwa mu buryo bwa kijyambere hakoreshejwe imashini
Umugore ntakiri uwo mu gusigara mu rugo, ahubwo yahawe ijambo ku buryo agaragara mu birori no mu bikorwa biteza imbere igihugu
Umuriro w'amashanyarazi ntukiri uw'abifite ahubwo ni ikintu buri munyarwanda wese yemerewe. Mu masaha y'ijoro, Kigali ni uku iba isa
Abakuze bishimiye imibereho kurusha mbere, ubu barafashwa binyuze muri gahunda zitandukanye za leta
U Rwanda rwarushijeho kuba nyabagendwa muri iyi myaka ishize, aho abakuru b'ibihugu benshi barusuye bishimangira umubano mwiza rwubatse
Muri iyi myaka 26, hatashwe ibikorwa byinshi by'iterambere. Aha ni mu 2017 ubwo Perezida Kagame yafunguraga Ikibuga cya Cricket
Buri munyarwanda yagize uruhare mu iterambere ry'igihugu binyuze mu bikorwa birimo n'Umuganda ngarukakwezi
Gare yo mu mujyi rwagati, iri mu byahinduye isura y'ingendo muri Kigali, bitandukanye n'uko mu myaka ya mbere byari bimeze
Kigali Arena ni kimwe mu bikorwaremezo bikomeye u Rwanda rwungutse mu myaka 26 ishize
Kaminuza Mpuzamahanga zikomeye zirimo nka Carnegie Mellon zashimye iterambere ry'u Rwanda, zihitamo kurufunguramo amashami
Iyo umuntu abayeho neza, abona n'umwanya wo kwidagadura...
Amahanga akomeje gutangarira intambwe u Rwanda rwateye mu ngeri zinyuranye
Ubworozi bwa kijyambere bwahindutse ubuzima bwa benshi babasha kwinjiza agatubutse batavunitse
Serivisi z'imari ni zimwe mu zo abanyarwanda bose bishimira kuba bagerwaho nazo mu buryo bworoshye. Iyi ni imibare igaragaza uko mu 2017, abanyarwanda bakoranaga n'Imirenge Sacco
Mu gihe kera ubwiherero bwagiraga umugabo bugasiba undi, ubu siko bikiri. Mu myaka itatu ishize, ni uku byari byifashe
Uko ingengo y'imari y'u Rwanda yiyongereye uhereye mu 2000

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