Ibintu icyenda bikomeye mu mateka y’Isi byavumbuwe n’abagore

Yanditswe na Mfitumukiza Moïse
Kuya 27 Kanama 2018 saa 03:19
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Mu buvumbuzi bwagiye bukorwa kandi buzirikanwa mu mateka y’Isi, iyo busomwa cyangwa se bwigishwa, akenshi hagaruka amazina y’abagabo nka Thomas Edison wavumbuye itara ry’amashanyarazi, Alexander Graham Bell wavumbuye telefoni n’abandi.

Gusa nubwo abagore bagiye basigazwa inyuma igihe kinini mu mateka y’Isi, hari abagaragaje ubumenyi n’ubuhanga bukomeye, bafite ibintu bavumbuye n’ubu dukoresha mu buzima bwa buri munsi, nubwo amazina yabo atabaye ikimenyabose.

1. Gukora porogaramu za mudasobwa: Grace Hopper

Nyuma yo kwinjira mu ngabo z’Amerika zirwanira mu mazi mu ntambara ya kabiri y’Isi, Rear Admiral Grace Hopper yahawe inshingano zo gukora kuri mudasobwa nshya yitwaga Mark 1.

Uyu mugore kubera uhuhanga bwe, byamufashije kuvumbura byinshi kuri mudasobwa ahagana mu 1950, harimo Compiler, porogaramu ifata ibintu ushyize muri mudasobwa ibahihindura muri ‘code’ mudasobwa ibasha kumva kugira ngo ibone kugusubiza ibyo uyikeneyeho.

Ibi byahinduye imikorere ya mudasobwa tubona uyu munsi.

Uyu mugore ni nawe watumye hamenyekana ijambo "de-bugging" rikoreshwa n’uyu munsi mu gukora porogaramu za mudasobwa, cyane iyo umuntu ari gushakisha igisubizo porogaramu runaka itari gukora neza.

Ururimi rwa mudasobwa rutandukanye n'urw'abantu bandika bisanzwe

2. Gutegereza ku muntu uguhamagaye agasanga uri kuvugana n’undi kuri telefoni: Dr Shirley Ann Jackson

Dr Shirley Ann Jackson ni umuhanga mu bugenge w’umunyamerika. Ubushakashatsi bwe bwahereye mu myaka ya 1970, buba inkomoko y’ikoranabuhanga rituma ubona umuntu uguhamagaye kuri telefoni (Caller ID).

Ni kimwe n’uburyo umuntu aguhamagara kuri telefoni, yasanga uri kuyivugiraho, iye igategereza ko urangiza kuvugana n’uwa mbere, bizwi nka Call Waiting.

Ubuhanga bwe mu by’itumanaho kandi bwafashije abandi bashakashatsi kuvumbura fax wagendana, insinga zitwara itumanaho za fibre optique n’ibindi.

Niwe nawe munyamerikakazi wa mbere w’umwirabura wabonye impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga (PhD) muri Massachusetts Institute of Technology, aba n’umunyamerikakazi wa mbere wayoboye ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi cyo ku rwego rwo hejuru.

3. Akantu gahanagura ibirahuri by’imodoka: Mary Anderson

Mu gihe cy’ubukonje bukabije mu 1903, Mary Anderson yari agiye mu mujyi wa New York. Kubera urubura rwinshi, yaje kubona ko umushoferi we ari gufungura ibirahuri by’imodoka ngo hinjiremo umwuka, bityo ikirahuri cy’imbere gihumuke.

Uko yafunguraga niko ubukonje bwinjiraga mu modoka, abarimo bakagenda baba ubutita.

Anderson yatangiye gutekereza uko yabona igisubizo kirambye kuri icyo kibazo, avumbura akuma kazajya gahanagura ikirahuri cy’imbere ku modoka.

Ibigo bikora imodoka byabanje kukamagana bivuga ko kajya kabangamira abashoferi, ariko ntibyabujije ko ahubwo byaje kugirwa itegeko ko imodoka yose igomba kukagira.

Akantu gahanagura ikirahuri cy'imbere ku modoka kavumbuwe mu 1903 na Mary Anderson

4. Batiri z’ibyogajuru: Olga D Gonzalez-Sanabria

Uyu mugore yavumbuye uburyo bwo gukora batiri zirambana ingufu zishobora no kuzikomora ku zuba, zifashishwa muri serivisi z’ibyogajuru, ubu zikoreshwa mu cyogajuru International Space Station.

Olga D Gonzalez-Sanabria, ukomoka muri Puerto Rico, yavumbuye iri koranabuhanga ryatangiye gukoreshwa mu myaka ya 1980. Ubu ni umwe mu bayobozi bakomeye mu Kigo cy’Abanyamerika gishinzwe ubumwenyi bw’ikirere, Nasa.

5. Icyuma cyoza ibyombo: Josephine Coshrane

Uyu mugore witwa Josephine Coshrane yifuzaga imashini yakoza ibikoresho byo mu gikoni mu gihe gito ugereranyije n’abakozi, kandi itabimena.

Imashini yakoze niyo ya mbere yoza ibikoresho byo mu gikoni yari ikozwe, yifashisha ingufu z’amazi ama zenguruka.

Imashini yoza ibyombo yavumbuwe n'umugore

6. Ikoranabuhanga ricunga umutekano mu rugo: Marie Van Brittan Brown

Uyu mugore wari umuforomokazi, amasaha menshi yayamaraga ari mu rugo wenyine, aza gutekereza ikintu cyamufasha kumva atekanye igihe nta wundi muntu uri mu rugo.

Afatanyije n’umugabo we Albert, Van Brittan Brown yakoze uburyo bwo gucunga umutekano agamije guhangana n’ibyaha byiyongeraga ndetse polisi ikagera ahabereye icyaha itinze, ahagana mu 1960.

Ikoranabuhanga yavumbuye ryari rigizwe na camera yagendaga izamuka yongera imanuka ku rugi, ikarebera mu mwenge ubundi igatanga amashusho y’uko ibintu byifashe.

Yari yarashyize mu cyumba cye ahantu agenzurira ibyo byose, ashyiraho n’ahantu ashobora gukanda nk’intabaza igihe yaba atewe.

7. Gutandukanya utunyangingo tw’amaraso: Ann Tsukamoto

Umushakashatsi Dr Ann Tsukamoto yageze ku bintu bikomeye ubwo yavumburaga uburyo bwo gutandukanya uturemangingo tw’amaraso, icyo yise Stem cell isolation.
Gusobanukirwa neza uburyo amaraso akorwamo n’imiterere yayo byabaye intambwe ikomeye ku rugendo rwo gushaka umuti wa kanseri yo mu maraso n’uko yakumirwa.
Ubushakashatsi bwe bwemewe mu 1991, ndetse ubu aracyakora ubundi ku tunyangingo twinshi ndetse byitezweho kuzatanga umusaruro ufatika.

8. Kevlar: Stephanie Kwolek

Uyu munyabutabire Stephanie yavumbuye ubudodo dukoreshwa mu gukora imyenda itanyurwamo n’amasasu bita bullet-proof mu Cyongereza. Bunakorwamo imyambaro itinjiramo ubushyuhe.

Kuva Stephanie yakora ubu buvumbuzi mu 1965, iki gikoresho gikomeye inshuro eshanu kurusha icyuma, kimaze gutabara ubuzima bwa benshi kugeza uyu munsi.

9. Monopoly: Elizabeth Magie

Umukino wa Monopoly, ni umukino ukomoka muri Leta Zunze ubumwe za Amerika wabayeho mu 1903.
Uyu mukino wakozwe hagamijwe kwerekana ibibi bya politiki ya ‘capitalisme’ aho abakinnyi bakinaga bahanahana amafaranga n’ibikoresho bitari ibya nyabyo.

Elizabeth yagurishije igitekerezo cye ku $500 mu 1904.


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