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Igihombo twitera iyo tutabungabunze amajwi n’amashusho

Yanditswe na Mutangana Steven
Kuya 27 Ukwakira 2022 saa 08:53
Yasuwe :

Ubwanditsi: Ibikubiye muri iyi nyandiko, ibitekerezo bwiye by’umusomyi Mutangana Steven

Mu rubanza rwa Karamira Frodouald (wahoze ari Visi perezida w’ishyaka MDR -Mouvement Démocratique Républicain), rwabaye hagati y’itariki ya 13 Mutarama 1997 n’iya 19 Nzeri 1997, humvikanye ijambo yavuze ku itariki ya 23 Ukwakira 1993 kuri Stade ya Nyamirambo i Kigali ririmo ingengabitekerezo ya “Hutu power”.

Uwo Karamira yoherejwe mu Rwanda nyuma yo gufatirwa i Mumbai mu gihugu cy’u Buhinde muri 1996. Ubwo havugwaga ko uwari umunyamakuru wa RTLM (Radio-Télévision Libre des Mille Collines) Valerie Bemeriki yafatiwe i Minova ya Congo-Kinshasa akoherezwa mu Rwanda ngo abe ari ho akurikiranwa mu butabera na nyuma y’aho amariye kuburana, hagiye humvikana amajwi y’ibyo yavugiye kuri iyo radio mu gihe cya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Igihe igihugu cya Canada cyemezaga ko Dr Léon Mugesera (wari Visi perezida wa MRND- Mouvement Républicain National pour le Développement- muri perefegitura ya Gisenyi) yoherezwa mu Rwanda ngo abe ariho akurikiranirwa mu butabera, ndetse no mu gihe yaburanishwaga, humvikanye ijambo yavugiye ku Kabaya ku itariki ya 2 Ugushyingo 1992 aho yashishikarizaga Abahutu kunyuza iy’ubusamo Abatutsi babaroha mu ruzi rwa Nyabarongo.

Mu gihe cya vuba aha, ubwo Kabuga Félicien yari atangiye kuburanishirizwa i La Haye aho akurikiranyweho ibyaha bya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, hongeye kugaragazwa amashusho ye yo mu gihe cy’ishingwa rya RTLM, aho abashakashatsi bayakoresheje basobanura ibyo akurikiranyweho.

Amajwi n’amashusho y’umwimerere yagiye akoreshwa muri izo ngero yifashishijwe kuko yari yarabungabunzwe.

Mu gihe cya nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ubwo imanza za TPIR (Tribunal Pénal International pour le Rwanda) zari zigiye gutangira, hari amakaseti menshi y’amajwi yafashwe mu gihe cya Jenoside yegeranyijwe, ibiriho birandukurwa, bishyirwa mu ndimi z’amahanga.

Ayo majwi yari gihamya ku byaha byari bigiye gukurikiranwa ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

Ni uburenganzira bw’uwarokotse kugera kuri uwo murage

Kwita ku ibungabungwa ry’amajwi n’abashusho bifatwa mu bihe bisanzwe n’ibihe by’amage ni ngombwa ku miryango yose ku Isi. Iyo bigeze ku byerekeye ibimenyetso bya jenoside, ibimenyetso nk’ibi bigomba kwitabwaho mu buryo bwihariye.

Iyo ayo majwi n’amashusho bibungabunzwe neza, bishyirwa mu murage w’amajwi n’amashusho (patrimoine audiovisual) w’igihugu. Umurage nk’uyu ufasha by’umwihariko abenegihugu kumenya ukuri ku mateka yabo, nk’uko bishimangirwa n’inyandiko zitandukanye z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye zerekeye uburenganzira bw’umuturage ku murage nyandiko (archives).

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku burezi, ubumenyi n’umuco (UNESCO) rihamya ko umurage nyandiko (archives) kuri jenoside ari umusingi ukomeye ku mateka, ku butabera, ku byerekeye kwibuka, ku bushakashatsi ndetse no ku burezi.

Umwanzuro 12/12 (2009) w’akanama k’Umuryango w’Abibumbye gashinzwe uburenganzira bwa muntu, ku byerekeye uburenganzira bw’umuturage ku kuri kw’ibyabaye (droit à la vérité) mu gihe hakorwaga ibyaha bya jenoside n’ibyibasiye inyoko muntu, ugaragaza ko ari ngombwa kubungabunga ibimenyetso ndakuka biri mu murage nyandiko bigaragaza ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye ugira inama ibihugu kurinda umurage nyandiko (archives, uri mu nyandiko, amajwi n’amashusho) mu bihe bikurikiye iby’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu cyangwa ubwakoze jenoside, kuko uwo murage uba urimo ibimenyetso byifashishwa n’abarokotse bagomba guhabwa ubutabera. Abo baturage bakaba bagomba kugira uburenganzira bwo kubona izo nyandiko, amajwi n’amashusho kugira ngo bamenye uko ababo bishwe n’uburyo bwose bwakoreshejwe igihe bicwaga ndetse n’uko byateguwe.

Igihugu kandi cyifashisha ibiri muri uwo murage mu guca umuco wo kudahana. Ibyo bigashimangira ko umurage nyandiko urimo ibyo bimenyetso utagomba na rimwe kwangizwa cyangwa kugira ibikurwamo, nk’uko raporo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye A/HRC/17/21 yo mu 2011 yerekeye akamaro k’umurage nyandiko mu kugaragaza ukuri ku ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu ibivuga.

Iby’ubwo burenganzira bigarukwaho n’itangazo rya komite mpuzamahanga ishinzwe umurage nyandiko (Déclaration universelle sur les archives du Conseil International des Archives) ryemejwe n’inama rusange ya 36 ya UNESCO muri 2011.

Niyo mpamvu, umurage nyandiko werekeye imanza zaciwe na TPIR uba ukwiye gusangizwa u Rwanda, n’aho byaba kopi, kuko ufitiye akamaro Abanyarwanda mbere na mbere.

U Bufaransa bwatangiye gufungura inyandiko zerekeye Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ku buryo abashakashatsi, abaturage n’abategetsi bazigeraho, nk’uko bikubiye mu Iteka rya Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bufaransa ryo ku wa 06 Mata 2021.

Muri 2019, Nouvelle-Zélande yabaye igihugu cya mbere cyashyikirije u Rwanda bimwe mu bigize umurage nyandiko kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Wakwibaza uko amajwi n’amashusho yo muri za radio na televiziyo abungabunzwe !

Ubundi umurage nyandiko (archives) si uwo mu byanditswe gusa. Ubumbatiye n’ibyo mu mafoto, amajwi n’amashusho. Amateka yabyo agaragaza ko amafoto yatangiye gukorwa ahagana 1816, amajwi muri 1840, amashusho (images animées) muri 1888.

Uko ibyo byagiye bivumburwa bikifashishwa, niko abahanga bagiye bashyiraho uburyo bwo gusigasira umurage nyandiko wo muri ibyo byiciro byose. Ni muri urwo rwego guhera 1980 UNESCO yatangiye gushishikariza ibihugu kwita ku murage nyandiko uri mu mafoto, majwi n’amashuaho (archives audiovisuelles et photographiques). Hakaba hari ibihugu bitandukanye byamaze gushyiraho ishyinguranyandiko yihariye y’umurage uri mu majwi, uw’ibyerekeye amafoto, uw’ibyerekeye filime, n’ibindi.

Ubwo nari i Dakar mu bushakashatsi bwerekeye iby’umurage nyandiko, mu 2022, nasanze mu gihugu cya Sénégal bakataje mu kuwitaho. Bashyizeho amategeko abigenga guhera mu 1953. Ubu bafite kaminuza irimo amashami abyigisha.

Ikigo cy’icyo gihugu kirimo radio na televiziyo kimaze igihe kitari gito kibungabunga amajwi n’amashusho y’ibyo bitangazamakuru. Muri icyo gihugu hari n’urwego rurinda umurage wa sinema (archives cinématographiques) n’uw’amafoto (archives photographiques).

Byatuma wibaza aho amajwi n’amashusho by’amakuru n’ibiganiro bica kuri za radio 39 na televiziyo 20 zikorera mu Rwanda bibitse kuva 1961 kugeza 2022, ku buryo uzakenera kubyifashisha mu myaka ijana iri imbere yabigeraho.

Wakwibaza ariko n’uko amajwi n’amashusho y’imbwirwaruhame n’ibiganiro bitangirwa mu nama mpuzamahanga nziza cyane zibera mu Rwanda bibungabunzwe ku buryo abuzukuruza bacu bazabyifashisha bazirikana intambwe u Rwanda rwateye batarabaho. Ni ukubera ko iby’uyu murage byifashishwa no mu kugaragaza ibyiza igihugu runaka cyagezeho.

Charles Braibant, umwanditsi uzwi nk’impuguke mu byerekeye ishyinguranyandiko akaba n’umwe mu bayoboye ishyinguranyandiko y’u Bufaransa muri 1948, yemeza ko ishyinguranyandiko ari intwaro ikomeye y’ubutegetsi mbere yo kuba ikigega cy’amateka (« Les archives sont l’arsenal de l’administration avant d’être le grenier de l’histoire »).

Iyo tutabungabunze amajwi n’amashusho byari kuzajya mu murage w’igihugu, tuba twiteye igihombo. Twite kuri uwo murage, hamwe n’uwo mu byanditse.

Mutangana Steven
Umusomyi wa IGIHE.COM


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