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Dusure Ingoro y’Umurage wo Kwigira i Nyanza (Amafoto)

Yanditswe na Prudence Kwizera
Kuya 3 June 2022 saa 10:50
Yasuwe :

Ku Musozi wa Rwesero mu Karere ka Nyanza ni ho hari Ingoro y’Amateka yo Kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda ibonekamo byinshi bigaragaza ayo mateka kuva mu myaka myinshi ishize kugeza n’ubu.

Iyo ngoro iri mu nzu y’igorofa rimwe, mu Mudugudu wa Murambi mu Kagari ka Rwesero mu Murenge Busasamana, yubatswe n’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa ateganya kuyigira Ingoro ye. Imirimo yo kuyubaka yatangiye mu 1957 isozwa mu 1958 ariko Umwami Rudahigwa yatanze ku wa 25 Nyakanga 1959 atayitashye.

Mu myaka yakurikiyeho iyo nzu yakorewemo imirimo inyuranye ya Leta irimo Urukiko rw’Ikirenga, Urukiko rusesa imanza, urukiko rw’imari ya Leta ndetse n’ubushinjacyaha bukuru. Yagizwe Ingoro y’Umurage guhera ku wa 18 Gicurasi 2006, nyuma yaho ku wa 20 Gicurasi 2022 igirwa Ingoro y’Umurage wo Kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda.

Kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda ni igitekerezo cyaje gishingiye ku muco n’amateka byabo. Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, igihugu cyari gifite ibibazo by’ingutu byiganjemo ibishingiye ku ngaruka zayo.

Ni muri urwo rwego Leta y’Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda yahisemo kwishakamo ibisubizo byatuma igihugu gisohoka mu rusobe rw’ibyo bibazo.

Kuva gahunda yo kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda yatangizwa mu Rwanda yafashije mu kubona ibisubizo by’ibibazo bishingiye ku miyoborere, ubukungu ndetse n’imibanire y’Abanyarwanda.

Uko kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda kandi kugarukwaho mu ngingo ya 11 y’Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda aho rigira riti ‘mu rwego rwo kubaka igihugu, umuco wacyo no kwihesha agaciro, Abanyarwanda bashingiye ku ndangagaciro zabo bashyiraho uburyo bwo kwishakamo ibisubizo by’ibibazo byabo.

Ni ibiki biboneka muri iyi ngoro?

Uhereye ku miterere y’inzu irimo iyo ngoro, aho iteretse n’igihe yubakiwe, ni umwihariko. Ni igihangano kigaragaza ubwigenge, agaciro n’ukwigira nk’indangagaciro yaranze Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa, Intwari y’Igihugu n’Abanyarwanda muri rusange.

Ucyinjira muri iyo nyubako ubona bimwe mu bimenyetso biranga Kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda ndetse n’ibisobanuro bwabyo.

Kuri ubu ibiranga ukwigira kw’Abanyarwanda biyirimo biri mu ngeri enye. Iya mbere ni ‘Imiyoborere’ irimo umwiherero, umushyikirano, ukwezi kw’imiyoborere, ihuriro ry’imitwe ya politike, itorero, imihigo, kubungabunga amahoro n’ibindi.

Iya kabiri ni ‘Imibereho myiza’ irimo girinka, ubudehe, VUP, ubwisungane mu kwivuza, uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka 12 n’ibindi.

Iya kane ni ‘Ubukungu’ nk’umuganda, agaciro, guhuza ubutaka ariko hari n’ibijyanye n’ubutabera nk’ikigo Gacaca, Abunzi na MAJ n’ibindi.

Umwihariko w’Itorero ry’Igihugu mu Rwanda

Amateka y’u Rwanda agaragaza ko mbere y’umwaduko w’Abazungu itorero ryari ishuri urubyiruko rw’u Rwanda rwigiragamo imvugo nziza, gukunda igihugu, kubana neza, imikino, imbyino, indirimbo no kurinda ubusugire bw’igihugu.

Itorero kandi ryafashaga urubyiruko gukura rwumva neza ibigize umuco n’amateka y’igihugu. Intore zatozwaga kumenya indangagaciro na kirazira by’igihugu. Mu Itorero kandi niho hategurirwaga abayobozi b’ejo hazaza b’igihugu.

Amateka y’u Rwanda agaragaza ko Itorero rya mbere ry’Igihugu ryabayeho mu ngoma y’Umwami Ruganzu I Bwimba ahayinga mu 1312. Guhera mu 1924 kugeza mu 1994, igihe cy’ubukoloni na Leta zakurikiyeho Itorero ryaraciwe hagamijwe gusenya ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, ubufatanye, ubwitange n’izindi ndangagaciro biigishirizwagamo.

Gusenywa kw’Itorero ari imwe mu nzira zidashidikanywaho zayoboye kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda mu 1994. Itorero ryongeye kubyutswa mu 2009 ndetse hanashyirwaho Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Itorero.

Ubudehe mu Rwanda

Amateka y’u Rwanda yerekana ko Ubudehe ari kimwe mu bikorwa bifite imizi mu muco wa kera w’Abanyarwanda. Iki gikorwa kikaba kiri mu byarangaga ubufatanye mu gukemura ibibazo byo mu muryango.

Nubwo hatazwi neza igihe Ubudehe bwatangiriye mu Rwanda hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko bumaze ibinyejana bitari bike. Ubudehe bwibandaga ku bikorwa by’ubuhinzi n’ubwubatsi kuko ari yo mirimo y’ibanze yarangaga Abanyarwanda bo hambere.

Ubudehe bwaciwe intege n’ubukoloni ndetse n’ikoreshwa ry’amafaranga kuko bamwe mu baturage bahisemo guhemba amafaranga ababakorera imirimo itandukanye aho kwitabaza Ubudehe.

Nubwo bwabaye nk’ubucika ariko mu bice bimwe na bimwe by’igihugu bwari bugikora kugeza mu mpera za 1980 aho bwibandaga ku bikorwa by’ubuhinzi.

Ubudehe bwongeye kubyutswa mu 2001 na Leta y’Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda mu rwego rwo kubanisha neza abenegihugu, kubatoza kwigira no kwikemurira ibibazo.

Muri iki gihe ibikorwa by’ubudehe ku rwego rw’akagari byibanda ku mirimo y’ubuhinzi, guhanga imihanda y’imigenderano, kubaka ibiraro bito by’imihanda, ibigega by’amazi meza no guca amaterasi y’indinganire.

Gacaca umwihariko w’u Rwanda

Ijambo ‘Gacaca’ ryibutsa uko hambere Abanyarwanda bahuriraga hamwe bagakemura ibibazo byavutse hagati y’abagize umuryango cyangwa imiryango. Inyangamugayo zafashaga gukemura ibyo bibazo akenshi zabaga zigizwe n’abageze mu za bukuru ndetse n’abakuru b’umuryango.

Buri wese mu bafitanye ibibazo yahabwaga ijambo noneho inyangamugayo zigafata umwanzuro. Gacaca yasozwaga no gusangira nk’ikimenyetso cy’ubwiyunge ku bari bafitanye ikibazo.

Mu 2002 Inkiko Gacaca zongeye kubyutswa na Leta y’Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda nk’igisubizo cyo guca imanza nyinshi zari mu gihugu za Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Imibare igaragaza ko Inkiko Gacaca zabashije guca imanza zigera kuri 1.958.634 mu gihe gito.

Umuganda mu mateka y’u Rwanda

Umuganda bisobanuye gushyira hamwe hagamijwe kugera ku ntego yemejwe kuko mu muco n’amateka y’u Rwanda iyo habaga hari igikorwa gikeneye abantu benshi nko kubaka, gusana inzu, guhinga n’ibindi, hitabazwaga ingufu z’umuryango n’abaturanyi n’inshuti kugira ngo gikorwe neza kandi kirangire vuba.

Amateka y’u Rwanda agaragaza ko nyuma y’ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda mu 1962 umuganda wifashishijwe na Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri mu gucengeza amatwara y’ubutegetsi bwariho bituma utakaza isura y’umwimerere yawo.

Kuva mu 2007 Leta y’Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda yavuguruye imitegurire n’imigendekere y’umuganda hagamijwe guteza imbere ibikorwa by’amajyambere mu rwego rwo kunganira ingengo y’imari y’igihugu no gutuma abantu bongera gusabana.

Umuganda ukorwa buri wa Gatandatu wa nyuma w’ukwezi ugakorwa n’Umunyarwanda wese ufite imyaka iri hagati ya 18 na 65 y’amavuko.

Inkuru itangaje ya Semakamba

Mu Ngoro y’Umurage wo Kwigira harimo inkuru ya Semakamba igaragaza uburyo yareze Umwami Kigeri IV Rwabugiri akamutsinda.

Semakamba yari yaratowe mu mutwe w’Ingabo zitwaga Abatsinzi. Uyu mutwe ukaba warabayeho kuva ku ngoma y’Umwami Mibambwe III Sentabyo.

Mu mateka y’u Rwanda Sembakamba azwi cyane nk’uwitiriwe ahitwa ubu ‘Ku Cyasemakamba’ mu Karere ka Ngoma mu Ntara y’Iburasirazuba.

Semakamba azwi mu mateka kuba ari mu bantu bake batinyutse guhangara Umwami Kigeri IV Rwabugiri, akamurega mu ruhame.

Inkuru ye ivuga ko ubwo Umwami Kigeri IV Rwabugiri yari mu rugo iwe i Rwamagana, umwe mu bagize umuryango wa Semakamba wari washwanye nawo yateye icumu mu nda Igikomangoma Cyitatire mwene Rwabugiri, agamije kumuhitana, bityo uguhora k’umwami kugahitana abagize umuryango wa Semakamba bose.

Ku bw’amahirwe Cyitatire nyiyapfuye, ariko ntibyabujije umwami guhora. Haciye iminsi nibwo Semakamba wari wararokotse uko guhora, yatanze ikirego arega uwitwa ‘Rwabugiri’ amurega kuba yarahoreye umuntu utarapfuye, ibyo bikaba byari bihabanye n’umuco w’u Rwanda.

Aha Rwabugiri yari arezwe nk’undi munyarwanda usanzwe, ntiyari arezwe nk’umwami. Kigeri IV Rwabugiri n’abandi bari basabwe guterana mu nteko y’urwo rubanza banzuye ko ‘Rwabugiri’ atsinzwe, bamutegeka gutanga inka no gushyingira umukobwa we Semakaba wari wareze.

Umuyobozi w’Inteko y’Umuco, Amb. Masozera Robert, yavuze ko intumbero yo gushyiraho iyo ngoro ari ukugira ngo habe ahantu h’imfashanyigisho ku Banyarwanda n’abanyamahanga b’ingeri zose babashe gusobanukirwa icyo kwigira bivuze.

Yasabye ko abanyeshuri bazajya bajyanwa kuhigira ndetse n’abari mu Itorero bakahasura kugira ngo bahigire amasomo meza.

Ati “Intumbero yari ihari hashyirwaho iyi ngoro, icyiciro kinini cy’abantu twifuza ko bayisura ni urubyiruko, urubyiruko rwo mu mashuri. Turasaba ko no muri gahunda z’imfashanyigisho zo mu mashuri byajyamo ku buryo abanyeshuri bose bajya banyura hano.”

“Intumbero nanone ni uko Intore zica mu Itorero ry’Igihugu, nabo bari bakwiye kujya baca hano kuko na bo ni urubyiruko.”

Yasabye ko n’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze by’umwihariko abakimara gutorwa bajya bahasura bakahavoma ubumenyi.

Amb. Masozera yavuze ko ikindi kigamijwe ari ubukerarugendo bushingiye ku muco kugira ngo abarimo abanyamahanga basure Ingoro z’amateka mu Rwanda byinjirize igihugu.

Ingoro y’Umurage wo Kwigira yaje yunganira izindi zitandukanye ziri mu Rwanda zirimo Ingoro Nkuru y’Amateka y’Imibereho y’Abanyarwanda iri mu Karere ka Huye, Ingoro y’Abami iri mu Rukari i Nyanza n’Ingoro y’Ibidukikije iri mu Karere ka Karongi.

Hari kandi Ingoro y’Amateka y’Urugamba rwo Kubora Igihugu iri ku Murlndi mu Karere ka Gicumbi, naho mu Mujyi wa Kigali hari Ingoro eshatu zirimo iy’Amateka y’Ubukoloni bw’Abadage (Ahazwi nko kwa Richard Kandt), Iy’Ubugeni n’Ubuhanzi i Kanombe ahahoze ari mu rugo kwa Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal n’Ingoro y’Amateka y’Urugamba rwo guhagarika Jenoside iri mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko ku Kimihurura.

Abantu b'ingeri zinyuranye batangiye gusura Ingoro y'Umurage wo Kwigira i Nyanza
Abageze mu zabukuru na bo barayisura
Abanyamahanga na bo basura iyi Ngoro
Abayisura bafata umwanya uhagije bakiga amateka
Amahema ushobora kuruhukiramo igihe wasuye Ingoro y'Umurage wo Kwigira i Nyanza ku musozi wa Rwesero
Amateka y'Abunzi mu Rwanda abonekamo
Amateka yo hambere yerakana Kwigira kw'Abanyarwanda ayibonekamo
Amateka y'u Rwanda ari muri iyi Ngoro asobanuye mu Kinyarwanda, Igifaransa n'Icyongereza
Bamwe mu bayisuye baraganira ku byo bamaze kwibonera
Gusura Ingoro y'Umurage wo Kwigira biremewe kuri buri wese
Habonekamo byinshi bigaragaza uko Abanyarwanda babagaho hambere n'imirimo bakundaga gukora
Ibonekamo amateka y'Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa
Imwe mu misozi y'i Nyanza ubona iyo uri ku musozi wa Rwesero
Iyo uyisuye wibonera byinshi byaranze imibereho y'Abanyarwanda hambere
Ku Musozi wa Rwesero mu Karere ka Nyanza ni ho hari Ingoro y’Amateka yo Kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda
Kwigira kw'Abanyarwanda bifite isoko, si ibya none
Ni Ingoro ibonekamo amateka y'u Rwanda anyuranye
Ukinjira muri iyo nyubako ubona bimwe mu bimenyetso biranga Kwigira kw’Abanyarwanda ndetse n’ibisobanuro bwabyo
Umwe mu banyamahanga areba ibiboneka mu Ngoro y'umurage wo Kwigira ku Rwesero
Usuye iyi Ngoro ahakura inyigisho nyinshi

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