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Inzuzi n’amasaka, imfura mu bihingwa byatunze Abanyarwanda imyaka amagana

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 1 Ugushyingo 2022 saa 08:16
Yasuwe :

Isi yabaye umudugudu ubu, igihangiwe New York no mu zindi nguni z’Isi bucya kiri i Kigali, Nyamasheke , Nyabihu n’ahandi mu rw’imisozi igihumbi. Hari abo wabwira ko mu myaka nka 500 ishize mu Rwanda habarizwaga ibihingwa bitanu by’ingenzi, bakagutera amabuye!.

Niko bimeze, u Rwanda rutangira kubaho rwabarizwagamo ibihingwa bitanu by’ingenzi byari bitunze abarutuye aribyo Uburo, Isogi, Inzuzi, Ibikoro n’Amasaka. Kuri ubu ibi bihingwa biri mu biri gukendera.

Uko imyaka yashiraga indi igataha, ni ko abami batwaye u Rwanda barushagaho kurushakira imbuto n’amaboko, ari na ko binjiza ibindi bihingwa babikuye mu yandi mahanga ya kure aho babaga bagabye ibitero byo kurwagura.

Igitabo “ Intwari z’Imbanza, zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro” n’igitabo “ Indatwa yogeye i Rwanda”, by’Umusizi Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, avuga ko nk’urutoki bwa mbere rwageze mu Rwanda mu 1411 ku ngoma y’Umwami Mibambwe I Sekarongoro.

Insina za mbere zazanywe n’Abanyoro bazikuye mu Gisaka mu gitero cya kabiri bagabye mu Rwanda.

Ku ngoma y’umwami Ruganzi II Ndoli watwaye ahasaga mu wa 1510 kugeza mu wa 1543, ni bwo u Rwanda rwagezemo ibishyimbo ibi tubona. Ibishyimbo byadutse ubwo Ruganzu Ndoli, yabivanaga mu ngoma y’u Bunyabungo mu gitero cyahigaruriye.

Mbere ye mu Rwanda habaga ubwoko bw’ibinyamisogwe bumeze nk’ibishyimbo byimezaga bitaga “Ibiharo”.

Imbuto y’amashaza tubona aha i Rwanda yadutse ku ngoma ya Ruganzu Ndoli ayihahiye u Rwanda mu gitero yagabye mu Budaha n’u Bwishaza.

Imbuto z’ibijumba zamamaye imyaka myinshi mu Rwanda, zadutse ku ngoma y’umwami Kigeli IV Rwabugili, zizanywe n’ingabo ze zitwaga Inkeramihigo mu gitero cya mbere bagabye mu Nkore, ahasaga mu wa 1892. Ni cyo cyazanye ubwoko bw’ibijumba biri mu Rwanda birimo Gakoba, Wadada, Nsenge n’ibindi.

Abakoloni binjira mu Rwanda, na bo binjiranye ibidi bihingwa bishya bisanga ibyo Abanyarwanda bari bafite. Ibyo bihingwa byadukanye n’ishingwa ry’Ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi mu buhinzi n’ubworozi cya Kongo Mbiligi:INEAC (Institut National de l’Etude Agronomique du Congo) gifite icyicaro cyaryo gikuru i Yangambi muri Kisangani.

Baje gushinga ishami mu Rwanda, aho ryashyizwe I Rubona rwa Ngunda. Ubu ni mu Murenge wa Ruhashya wo mu Karere ka Huye.

Muri uwo mwaka wa 1930, ni bwo hatangijwe ubuhinzi bw’ibirayi, kiba kimwe mu byatangiriweho mu guhinga ibihingwa ngandurarugo mvamahanga. Icyo gihingwa cyitaweho cyane, kugeza ubwo kigwiza amoko asaga 23 mu Rwanda, arimo Kinigi, Magayane, Marirahinda, Mabondo, Sangema n’ibindi.

Hanagiye haduka izindi ngeri z’ibinyabijumba bisanga Ibikoro bya Gihanga, birimo nk’Amateke, ay’ibijumba, imyumbati n’ibindi.

Mu mwaka wa 1958, ni bwo igihingwa cy’Ingano cyatangiye guhingwa mu Rwanda, i Rwerere muri Burera. Mu wa 1972, na bwo hinjiye amoko mashya y’ingano arimo Kihure, Maroko, Rugezi, Mutsima na Dirumu. Aho zatangiriye mu misozi y’ibirunga ahahoze ari muri Komini Mutura.

Ubu ni mu Majyarugu y’Akarera ka Nyabihu munsi y’Ibirunga bya Kalisimbi. Mu mwaka wa 1959, mu Rwanda hinjiye igihingwa gishya cy’Ubunyobwa aho cyatangiriye gukorerwa ubushakashatsi mu Bugesera.
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Mu mwaka wa 1963, nibwo mu Rwanda hinjiye ikinyampeke gishya cy’umuceri kizanywe n’Abashinwa, kikaba kinafite inkomoko mu gihgu cy’u Bushinwa bwo hagati mu ntara ya Hounan aho batangiye kugihinga mu Cyogogo cy’umugezi wa Nyabugogo.

Usibye ibihingwa bishya ngandurarugo by’ibinyampeke n’ibinyamisogwe abakoroni badukanye ino, hari n’amoko menshi y’imboga yazanywe nabo, aza asanga Isogi n’inzuzi bya Gihanga, ndetse n’ayandi yagiye yaduka hanyuma nk’isogo.

Amwe mu moko y’imboga dusanga mu Rwanda yazanywe n’abakoloni, muri yo twavuga Amashu, Karoti, Imbwija, Kokombure, Ibitunguru, Inyanya, Urusenda, Puwavuro, Amabiringanya n’izindi.

Kugeza ubwo aya mateka yandikwaga, nta kindi gihingwa ngandurarugo gishya, cyari cyaduka, kitari muri biriya byahanganywe n’u Rwanda twongeyeho ibyo Abakoroni batuzaniye. Usibye ko hagenda haduka imbuto nshya zigezweho ariko n’ubundi z’ibihingwa twavuze haruguru, ari nako hagenda haduka uburyo bushya bwo kubikoresha mu mirire y’Abanyarwanda.

Amasaka ni kimwe mu bihingwa byageze mu Rwanda hambere

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