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Imyaka 106 irashize Abadage n’Ababiligi barwaniye i Kigali

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 6 May 2022 saa 11:22
Yasuwe :

Mu myaka 106 i Kigali habereye urugamba rwagaritse ingogo ubwo ingabo z’u Bubiligi zifashijwe n’Abanye-Congo, zigaruriraga uwo murwa ziwirukanyemo Abadage bari bahamaze imyaka isaga 15.

Ni imwe mu mirwano yahuje ibyo bihugu bibiri by’ibihangange mu Burayi mu gihe cy’Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi yose. Ubwo u Budage bwayitsindwaga, bwahanishijwe kwamburwa byinshi mu bihugu bwari bwarahawe ngo bukolonize muri Afurika birimo Tanzania, u Burundi n’u Rwanda mu cyiswe ‘German East Africa’.

Abadage n’Ababiligi mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari bahoraga barebana ay’ingwe. Guhera muri Nzeri 1914, Capt Max Wintgens wayoboraga ingabo z’u Budage mu Rwanda, yagabye ibitero ku kirwa cya Idjwi mu Kiyaga cya Kivu ariko asubizwa inyuma n’ingabo z’u Bubiligi ku bufatanye n’iza Congo zitwaga Force Publique ariko zagenzurwaga n’Ababiligi.

Mu kwihumira, Force Publique bahise batangira kugaba ibindi bitero ku Gisenyi bagamije kuhatsinsura Abadage ariko basubizwa inyuma.

Niba warageze mu Mujyi wa Rubavu, mu marembo yawo uturutse i Kigali munsi y’umuhanda hari agashyamba karimo irimbi rishyinguyemo ingabo zaguye kuri urwo rugamba rwarwaniwe ku musozi wa Rubavu.

Muri Mata 1916 nibwo ingabo z’u Bubiligi zari hakurya ya Kivu muri Congo, zafashe umwanzuro ntakuka wo gutera u Rwanda, u Burundi na Tanzania bakirukanamo Abadage.

Major General Charles Tombeur ni we wari uyoboye ingabo z’u Bubiligi zagabye ibitero byirukanye Abadage muri German East Africa.

Bamwe mu Banyarwanda bafashije Abadage kurwana nubwo bari bake ugereranyije n'abo ku ruhande rw'u Bubiligi

Igitabo “The Kaiser’s Last General: The East Africa Campaign and the Hunt for Paul Von Lettow-Vorbeck, 1914-1918” cyanditswe na R.G. Gladding, agaragaza ko Tombeur yari afite ingabo zisaga 15000.

Muri izo ngabo, hari harimo ibihumbi 11 zitwaga askari ari nazo zari zigizwe n’abanye-Congo, inkeragutabara 2500 ndetse n’Ababiligi 2700.

Muri Mata 1916 nibwo batayo imwe yari iyobowe na Colonel Phillippe Molitor yahagurutse Majyaruguru y’Ikiyaga cya Kivu ku Gisenyi, binjira berekeza i Kigali.

Bivugwa ko imirwano ikomeye yabereye ku musozi wa Nengo i Rubavu ariko ahandi nta mirwano yabaye muri iyo nzira kuko u Budage bwari bufite ingabo nke mu Rwanda.

Batayo yinjiriye ku Gisenyi, yari igizwe n’abasirikare 5200, imbunda zisanzwe 32 na mitrailleuses 32 mu gihe ingabo z’u Budage mu Rwanda zari ziyobowe na Captain Max Wintgens zari zifite ingabo 55 z’Abadage, ingabo 600 z’Abanyarwanda, imbunda zisanzwe eshatu na mitrailleuses eshanu.

Batayo ya kabiri y’Ababiligi yinjiriye i Cyangugu iyobowe na Colonel FV Olsen, igamije gufata umurwa mukuru w’ubwami i Nyanza.

Muri batayo yinjiriye i Rusizi, ingabo z’Ababiligi zari 2500, zifite imbunda 20 na mitrailleuses 20. Muri ako gace, ingabo z’Abadage zari ziyobowe na Langenn muri icyo gice yafatanyaga n’u Burundi zari zifite ingabo 286, imbunda ebyiri na mitrailleuses eshatu.

Bigaragara ko mu nzira aho ingabo z’Ababiligi zanyuraga, nta mirwano ikomeye zahuye na yo kuko Abadage bari bake. Kigali yafashwe tariki 6 Gicurasi nta kurwana gukomeye kubayeho kuko ingabo z’Abadage zari ziyobowe na Captain Max Wintgens zari zamaze guhunga.

Abadage bamaze kwirukanwa muri Kigali, berekeje mu Majyapfo i Save, bahahurira na batayo ya Langenn, bakomereza mu Burundi bashaka inzira yo guhunga.

Umwami Yuhi V Musinga amaze kubona ko Abadage batsinzwe, tariki 19 Gicurasi yagiye kureba Colonel Molitor wari wafashe Kigali kugira ngo batangire imikoranire.

Tariki 6 Kamena na Bujumbura yari yafashwe bituma tariki 13 Kamena 1916 General Tombeur yandika agira ati “Igihe cyageze ngo dushake uburyo dushwanyaguza burundu umwanzi.”

Ingabo z’Ababiligi zimaze gufata Kigali zakomereje muri Tanzania gufasha Abongereza kwirukanayo Ababiligi.

Imyaka ibiri yakurikiyeho, urugamba rwakomeje kurwanirwa muri Tanzania ariko u Burundi n’u Rwanda byo byari byamaze kujya mu maboko y’Ababiligi bidasubirwaho.

Umwanditsi Lucas Catherine mu gitabo cye “Des tranchées en Afrique”, yagaragaje ko ingabo 29 000 z’u Budage ari zo zaguye ku rugamba muri Afurika mu gihe iz’u Bubiligi ziri hagati ya 13 716 na 3500.

Nubwo u Bubiligi bwatsinze iyo ntambara basaga nk’iyo bwiteguye, ubuzima bwa benshi mu baturage bwarahatikiriye. Urugero, kuva mu 1914 kugeza mu 1916, muri Congo hatoranyijwe abagabo n’abasore 260.000 bagombaga kwikorera ibiribwa n’ibindi ingabo zizakenera ku rugamba.

Abagore n’abagabo batatoranyijwe bo bategetswe kenshi guhinga umuceri no gucukura zahabu ngo hazaboneke ibitunga ingabo.

Buri umwe yashoboraga kwikorera umutwaro upima ibilo 30, mu rugendo rwashoboraga kumara amasaha atanu ku munsi. Mu basirikare b’u Bubiligi hapfuye 15 % mu gihe mu bikoreraga imizigo hapfuye hafi 49 %. Ku ruhande rw’u Budage naho hari ibihumbi by’Abanyarwanda bagize uruhare mu gutwara ibyo ingabo zakoreshaga, bakabyikorera ku mutwe.

Force Publique bari bafite intwaro nyinshi ugereranyije n'Abadage
Umusozi wa Nengo i Rubavu niwo wabereyeho imirwano ubwo Ababiligi binjiraga mu Rwanda. Iyi foto igaragaza umurongo w'Abanyarwanda bikoreye imizigo n'ibizakenerwa n'ingabo z'Abadage, baterera umusozi wa Nengo
Ubwo ingabo z'u Bubiligi n'u Bwongereza zinjiraga mu mujyi wa Tabora muri Tanzania

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