Ibitero byo kwagura no kurinda u Rwanda, ibigwi bitazibagirana

Yanditswe na Mutangana Steven
Kuya 29 Nzeri 2020 saa 08:42
Yasuwe :
0 0

Kwaguka k’u Rwanda, kuganza, kurinda Umunyarwanda aho ari hose, kugira igitinyiro, kwihesha agaciro n’ibindi, ubisanga mu byaranze Abakurambere b’Intwari bitangiye u Rwanda. Uwo murage warandaranze, ukomeje kuranga u Rwanda rwo muri iki gihe. Mu misozi miremire n’amashyamba, mu biyaga n’inzuzi nini, mu ndege zo mu kirere, ku manywa na nijoro, mu mvura, ku zuba; ku rugamba bahanganye n’abo mu bihugu bya Afurika n’u Burayi; dore bimwe muri ibyo bigwi bihera mu kinyejana cya 14 kugeza mu mwaka wa 1998.

Igitabo “Amateka y’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya xx” cyatangajwe na Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge, kigaragaza amateka y’uko u Rwanda rwagutse ruhereye ku musozi wa Gasabo kugeza uko rungana ubu. Rwari muri ako gace k’aho umugezi wa Nyabugogo uvira mu kiyaga cya Muhazi, ruyobowe n’Umwami Ruganzu Bwimba. Abakomoka kuri Bwimba bari basanganywe igice cy’u Bwanacyambwe, nibo bashatse kwagura ingoma yabo.

Iki gitabo kigaragaza ko u Bwanacyambwe bwageraga ku Musozi wa Kabuye, Jabana, Bweramvura. Icyo gice kandi cyagiye cyongerwaho n’indi misozi y’icyagereranywa n’ibihugu y’u Buriza, hayoborwaga na Migina wishwe na Kigeri I Mukobanya; iy’u Busigi mu gice cy’Urukiga n’icy’u Busarasi ahari imisozi yambukiranya Tare na Shyorongi.

Muri aya mateka kandi iki gitabo kigaragaza ko Abanyarwanda baribamenyereye kwaguka k’u Rwanda ku buryo “kuri rubanda rusanzwe, u Rwanda rwari Igihugu kigari cyageraga aho ijuru riterwa inkingi !”

Mu cyerekezo cy’Amajyepfo, Umwami Cyilima Rugwe (1345-1378) abifashijwemo n’umuhungu we Mukobanya yigaruriye ibice byinshi byo hakurya ya Nyabarongo birimo u Bushegeshi (Ruyenzi muri Kamonyi), Bunyagitunda (Rukoma muri Kamonyi), Bunyatwa (Ndiza muri Muhanga). Nduga yigaruriwe burundu na Mibamwe Sekarongoro Mutabazi, yifashiishije ingabo ze n’amacuti ye yiganjemo Abasinga, Mashira ya Nkuba ya Sabugabo wo mu bwami bw’Ababanda n’igice cy’umuryango we kirazima. Kuva ubwo Abami benshi b’Abanyiginya batangira gutura i Nyanza, ndetse n’ibitero byinshi bigatera ariho biturutse.

Nk’uko tubisoma muri iki gitabo cy’amateka y’u Rwanda, Ruganzu Ndori (1510-1543) mwene Ndahiro Cyamatare yatsinze Nduga yose harimo na Rukoma, Mayaga, Kabagari na Marangara, niho yashinze ibirindiro byo gutera Nyundo ya Bunyogombe. Ategura neza imitwe y’ingabo cyane cyane Ibisumizi byayoborwaga na Muvunyi wa Karema.

Ruganzu Ndori yagabye ibitero biyogoza u Bunyabungo, afata uburasirazuba bwose bw’ikiyaga cya Kivu kugeza kuri Rusizi, atsinda ikirwa cy’Ijwi. Ruganzu yateye u Bugara bwa Nzira ya Muramira wari wafashije Nsibura mu iyicwa rya Ndahiro Cyamatare. Mu bitero yagabye kandi yigaruriye u Bunyambiriri n’u Bwanamukari. Yatsinze u Bugoyi, Byahi, Bwishya n’u Bufumbira, igice cyegereye ibirunga n’inyuma yabyo. Mu bigwi bya Ruganzu Ndori, harimo n’ibitero yagabye kuri Ntare II Kibogora w’i Burundi, atabajwe na Rwayitare wayoboraga u Bugesera, maze Ibisumizi bitsinda ingabo za Ntare II.

Umwami Mutara I Semugeshi (1543-1576), mwene Ruganzu Ndori, niwe watsinze igihugu cy’Abenengwe cyari kigizwe n’u Bungwe, u Bufundu n’igice cy’u Busanza, abyomeka ku Rwanda.

Umwami Kigeri II Nyamuheshera (1576-1609), niwe watsinze u Bukunzi n’u Busozo mu Kinyaga, abyomeka ku Rwanda.

Kurema ingerero zirinda inkiko z’u Rwanda

Umwami Cyirima Rujugira (1675-1708), mwene Yuhi Mazimpaka, yabaye umwami w’ikirangirire mu kinyejana cya 18 mu bijyanye n’intambara. Akimara kwima, habaye intambara yamaze igihe hagati y’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Mu gitero cya 4 cyo kurwanya u Burundi, nibwo umwami wabwo Mutaga yiciwe i Nkanda ho mu Buyenzi. Kuva icyo gihe umwami Cyirima Rujugira yatangije uburyo bushya bwo kurema ingerero zigamije kurinda inkiko z’u Rwanda, ingabo zikarengera u Rwanda zikanakora ku buryo rutongera guterwa; ahereye ku mupaka w’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. Aha havugwa ingerero za Muturu, Gakoma, Buhanga-Ndara, Imvejuru, Nyakare, Bashumba, Nyaruguru.

Kuva kera na kare abanyarwanda bahoze ari intwari kandi bunze ubumwe

Amaze gutsinda intambara yarwanye n’u Burundi, Cyirima Rujugira yashyize imbaraga mu gutera i Gisaka, ibitero bikomeye bigabwa n’umuhungu we Sharangabo n’ingabo ze z’Abakemba zihangana n’iz’Imbogo zariziyobowe na Mudirigi mwene Karemera. Ingerero zishingwa i Munyaga, i Gakuta n’i Rutare. Yatanze afite imyaka 65. Abana be biyita Abatangana ba Rujugira bitewe n’uko nta mahane yabaye mu kumusimbura, ndetse uyu mwami yari yarimakaje urukundo mu bana be no mu miryango y’Abanyarwanda muri rusange.

Umuhungu we Kigeri Ndabarasa (1708-1741), nyuma y’intambara ya Gatsibo, afata impinga ya Rutare, yubaka urugo rwe i Ruhinda, akaba ariho aturuka agaba ibitero Ankole; akayobora u Rwanda n’i Ndorwa ariko yibera cyane mu Ndorwa. Ndabarasa atera u Mubari, yica umwami waho Biyoro na nyina Nyirabiyoro, kuva icyo gihe u Rwanda rugeza umupaka warwo ku Kagera.

Ku ngoma y’Umwami Mibambwe Sentabyo (1741-1746), nibwo u Rwanda rwigaruriye amajyaruguru y’u Bugesera. Umwami Yuhi Gahindiro (1746-?), mwene Mibambwe Sentabyo, yarwanyije u Burundi na Karagwe. Yateye Karinda umuhinza w’u Buhunde aramutsinda aranicwa. Umwami Mutara Rwogera (?-1853) yatsinze i Gisaka.

Umwami Kigeri Rwabugiri, wahawe igisingiro cy’Inkotanyi yabaye igihangange atangaza Ababirigi

Amateka ari muri iki gitabo agaragaza ko Umwami Kigeri Rwabugiri (1853-1895) ari umwami wamenyekanye cyane mu mateka y’u Rwanda kubera ibitero byinshi yagabye, bigatuma bamuha ibisingizo by’Inkotanyi, Rwangakugwabira, Rukayababisha n’ibindi.

Aya mateka akagaragaza ko byatangaje abakoroni b’Ababirigi. Yatsinze Abanyabungo n’Abahima, yigarurira Ijwi, atera u Bushi no ku Ishunga hose arahatsinda. Yazengurutse u Rwanda rwose, nta karere atatuyemo. Yateye u Bufumbira mu majyaruguru y’ibirunga na Ankole. Ku ngoma ye u Rwanda rwigaruriye burundu igice cy’uburengerazuba cyo ku nkombe z’i Kivu na Rusizi, kuva mu Bugoyi kugeza mu Kinyaga. Ku ngoma ye nibwo u Rwanda rwabaye rugari, ruruta uko rungana ubu, ruratinywa cyane muri aka karere.

Urugamba rwo kwibohora rwamaze imyaka ine

Umwaduko w’abazungu wazanye imitegekere mibi n’ivangura rishingiye ku moko. Mu 1959 Abatutsi baricwa, bamwe barahunga baciribwa mu mahanga. Nyuma yo kugerageza inzira y’amahoro igamije gukemura ikibazo cy’impunzi zari zimaze igihe kirekire n’itotezwa ry’abari mu gihugu, umuryango Front Patriotique Rwandais, FPR-Inkotanyi, wagabye igitero ku wa mbere tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990. Urugamba rwo kwibohora rutangira ubwo, ruhera Kagitumba ruyobowe na Major Genenal Fred Gisa Rwigema. N’ubwo yaruguyeho rumaze iminsi ibiri, ntirwahagaze. Inkotanyi zakomeje kuyoborwa na Major Paul Kagame (ubu ni Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda); zirwana n’ingabo za FAR (Forces Armées Rwandaises), Guverinoma yariho icyo gihe itabarwa n’ibihugu nka Zaire, Kenya, u Bubiligi n’u Bufaransa. Abasirikare ba Zaire yategekwaga na Mobutu bafatiwe ku rugamba, bagafungurwa ntibahwemye kurata ibigwi by’Inkotanyi nk’uko tubisoma muri iki gitabo.

Muri Mata 1994 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Inkotanyi ziharanira kuyihagarika mu gihe Umuryango w’Abibumbye wari uhafite ingabo n’ibikoresho bya gisirikare wabinaniwe. Zatsinze uru rugamba zifata umurwa mukuru Kigali kuwa 4 Nyakanga 1994 nyuma y’imyaka ine urugamba rwo kwibohora rutangiye. Impunzi ibihumbi n’ibihumbi ziracyurwa.

“Operation Kitona” n’intambara yiswe iy’isi muri DRC …

Nyuma ya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ingabo zatsinzwe n’interahamwe zahungiye muri Zaire no mu bindi bihugu, aho zakomeje umugambi wa jenoside. Mu 1996, u Rwanda rugaba igitero kuri Zaire, intambara igamije gusenya imitwe y’abakoze jenoside yari muri Zaire no kurinda ubusugire bw’u Rwanda. Iyo ntambara ni nayo yahiritse Mobutu Sese Seko wayoboraga Zaire guhera 1965 kugeza 1997. Umusirikare w’u Rwanda icyo gihe aba umugaba w’ingabo muri Zaire yahindutse Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo (DRC).

Kuva i Goma na Bukavu mu burasirazuba kugera i Kinshasa mu burengerazuba bwa DRC, ingabo z’u Rwanda zihavugwa ibigwi abanditse amateka y’iyo ntambara batangariye. Mu 1998 ikindi gitero cyagabwe kuri DRC. Bari hafi gufata Kinshasa, DRC itabarwa na Angola, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Tchad, Libya na Soudan. Muri iyi ntambara, hirya no hino ku isi havugwa “opération Kitona” isigaye yigishwa mu mashuri ya gisirikare mu mahanga bitewe n’ubuhanga yakoranywe mu by’ibitero bikoresha indege by’igisirikare cy’u Rwanda.

Aya mateka uwayakorera filime, ibitabo byihariye cyangwa Ingoro z’umurage, byatanga ubumenyi ku buryo burambye.

Mutangana Steven, Umusomyi wa IGIHE.COM


Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE
Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .