Abanyarwanda bavumbuye ubwoko bushya bw’agakoko gatera igituntu (Video)

Yanditswe na Evariste Nsengimana
Kuya 5 Ukuboza 2019 saa 04:22
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Itsinda ry’abakozi b’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ubuzima mu Rwanda (RBC), mu ishami rya Laboratwari, ryavumbuye ubwoko budasanzwe bw’agakoko gatera igituntu butigeze buvumburwa n’abandi bahanga ku Isi mu mateka y’iyi ndwara.

Abahanga mu by’ubuzima bavuga ko igituntu ari indwara y’ibihaha iterwa n’agakoko kitwa ‘Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex’ cangwa ‘Bacille de Koch’ yandurira mu mwuka igihe uyirwaye akoroye cyangwa yitsamuye, utwo dukoko tujya mu kirere umuntu wese uhumetse uwo mwuka ku buryo ashobora kuyandura.

Isuzuma ryakozwe mu 2014 ku bisigazwa by’umubiri w’umunya-Peru wari ukirwaye, ryerekanye ko igituntu gishobora kuba cyarabayeho mu myaka isaga 6000 ishize ariko ku wa 24 Werurwe 1882 nibwo Dr. Robert Koch yavumbuye agakoko gatera iyo ndwara, uhita unagirwa umunsi mpuzamahanga wo kukirwanya.

Kuri ubu, itsinda ry’inzobere zo mu Rwanda ryavumbuye ubwoko bushya bw’aka gakoko.

Umukozi wa RBC uyoboye ubu bushakashatsi bwagejeje u Rwanda ku gahigo ko kuvumbura ubwoko bushya bw’agakoko gatera igituntu, Ngabonziza Semuto Jean Claude, yabwiye IGIHE ko kuva indwara y’igituntu imenyekanye, abashakashatsi hirya no hino bakomeje gushakisha imiti yagahangara ndetse no kumenya byimbitse uburyo kashoboye gutera indwara no gukwirakwira mu bantu.

Agakoko gatera igituntu kari mu bwoko bwa ‘Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex’. Utumaze kumenyekana dutera indwara abantu turi mu bwoko umunani, duhabwa amazina bitewe n’uruhererekane rwatwo.

Ngabonziza yavuze ko muri Gicurasi 2017 aribwo itsinda ayoboye ryatangiye ubushakashatsi ku gituntu cy’igikatu mu Rwanda. Ni ubushakatsi bugamije kureba uburyo bwizewe kandi bwihuse bwo gupima muri Laboratwari no gukurikirana mu buryo bwimbitse indwara y’igintu by’umwihariko icy’igikatu (kitavurwa n’imiti isanzwe yo ku rwego rwa mbere).

Ako gakoko byemejwe ko kadasanzwe mu Ukuboza 2017 hamaze gukorwa ibizamini byimbitse ku turemangingo twako (DNA). Kabonetse mu bizamini by’umurwayi ukomoka mu Karere ka Rulindo.

N’ubwo uwo murwayi yaje kwitaba Imana mu gihe gito atangiye imiti, imirimo yo kumenya byimbitse ibidasanzwe kuri ako gakoko igeze hafi ku musozo.

Ngabonziza yagize ati “Kimwe mu bidasanzwe kuri aka ka cyenda kavumbuwe mu Rwanda ni uko ariko kabanziriza uruhererekane rwatwo kakaba kagaragaza ishusho y’uburyo udukoko twagiye duhindagurika kugera k’udutera igituntu.”

Ubusanzwe bishobora gutwara amezi agera kuri atatu kugira ngo hemezwe ko imiti iri gukora neza ku gituntu cy’igikatu, ariko ubu bushakashatsi buzatuma icyo gihe kigabanuka cyane kugera nibura ku cyumweru kimwe.

Ngabonziza ati “Muri uko kureba uburyo bushya bwazasimbura ubusanzwe buhari bufata igihe kirekire nibwo twabonye ako gakoko kadasanzwe, haba mu bushakastsi bwakozwe hose cyera cyangwa uburi gukorwa ubu, nta hantu na hamwe karaboneka. Ni ukuvuga ngo umurwayi umwe wacu niwe wari ufite ako gakoko nako katumvaga imiti isanzwe.”

Ubushakshatsi kuri utwo dukoko bukorwa hagendewe ku ruhererekane rwatwo ‘Lineage’, aho zitandukanira ku turemangingo tuzigize ‘DNA’.

Kuva butangiye gukorwa agakoko kabanje kuvumburwa kahawe izina rya Lineage ya mbere (L1), akakurikiye kitwa L2 kugera ku ka munani gaheruka kiswe ‘L8’.

Urwo ruhererekane rw’utu dukoko usanga tugenda tunatandukana mu buryo dukwirakwira hirya no hino cyangwa uko tubasha guhangana n’ubwoko bw’imiti.

Uwo mwihariko w’ako bavumbuye ngo ugaragaza byihariye ko kitandukanyije n’utwo mu muryango w’utudatera indwara kagahinduka akazitera ariko kanafite ibyo gahuriyeho n’impande zose.

Ibyo bitanga umukoro ku bashakashatsi wo kumenya uburyo kihinduye agatera indwara abantu kavuye mu muryango w’utudatera igituntu.

Ubwo bwoko bushya bwavumbuwe n’abanyarwanda ntabwo burahabwa izina ariko birashoboka ko ryazaba ‘Lineage 9’ ukurikije uko utundi twagiye twitwa, gusa rizatangazwa igihe inyandiko ibuvugaho izaba igiye gushyirwa mu kinyamakuru cy’ubushakashatsi ku rwego mpuzamahanga ‘Medical Scientific Journal’, bizakorwa bitarenze amezi abiri ari imbere.

Muri ubu bushakashatsi RBC ifatanyije n’ibindi bigo by’ubushakashatsi mpuzamahanga harimo Institute of Tropical Medicine yo mu Mujyi wa Antwerp mu Bubiligi, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (Lille, mu Bufaransa), GenoScreen (Lille, mu Bufaransa), Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Basel, mu Busuwisi) ndetse na Laboratoire de Référence des Mycobactéries (Cotonou, Benin).

Muri uyu mwaka nibwo abagize iri tsinda bamuritse uburyo bavumbuye aka gakoko mu nama mpuzamahanga y’abashakashatsi ku dukoko dutera igituntu yabereye muri Espagne hagati ya 30 Kamena na 4 Nyakanga, buhita bwemezwa.

Udukoko dutera igituntu turi mu bwoko bwa Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Kuvumbura ubu bwoko bivuze iki?

Ngabonziza yagize ati “Tugiye kumenya neza uburyo ubu bwoko bushya bw’agakoko gatera igituntu kashoboye gutera uburwayi no gukwirakwira. Ni ikintu gikomeye kuko kugira ngo umuntu ashobore kuba yagira uburwayi umubiri we ugomba kuba wagize intege nke utabasha kurwanya udukoko.”

Ibi ngo bizanafasha kumenya uburyo utu dukoko twarwanywa by’umwihariko ku bantu bafite Virus itera Sida.

Injira muri Laboratwari zipima igituntu n’imiti ikivura

Ubusanzwe kugira ngo bamenye umuti ushobora guhangara ubwoko runaka bw’igituntu bisaba kubanza gushyira agakoko kacyo muri Laboratwari, kagahabwa ibigatunga mu gihe cy’ibyumweru 4-6 kugira ngo kororoke.

Iyo kamaze kororoka, kabyaye twinshi twimurirwa mu yindi laboratoire aho duhabwa imiti mu gihe cy’ibyumweru 3-6 ifasha kureba niba kabasha gukomeza kororoka kari muri iyo miti.

Ngabonziza ati “Usanga umurwayi ashobora kumara amezi atatu tutaramenya imiti neza yamuvura, cyane cyane iyo afite agakoko katumva imiti. Hari iyo ku rwego rwa mbere n’urwa kabiri. Iyo ku rwa mbere, tubibona byoroshye ariko iyo ku rwego rwa kabiri bisaba inzira ndende.”

Nyuma yo kugakura muri iyo Laboratwari, kajyanwa mu yindi bareberamo uturemangingo [DNA] tukagize n’andi makuru akerekewe ndetse n’imiti yakwifashishwa mu kukavura.

Mu 2018, OMS yatangaje ko abanyarwanda 57 ku bihumbi 100, (hafi 6900) bari barwaye igituntu mu gihe umwaka wawubanjirije bari 64 ku bihumbi 100 (7 680). Bivuze ko bagabanutseho hafi 700.

Mu myaka itanu ishize, abakirwaye bagabanutseho nibura 8% buri mwaka. Ibi bitanga icyizere gikomeye ko bikomeje uko, u Rwanda rwazesa umuhigo rwihaye mu ntego z’iterambere rirambye (2030) ko ruzaba rwagabanyije 80% by’abakirwaye.

Ngabonziza asobanura uko urugendo rwo kuvumbura ubwoko bushya bw'agakoko gatera igituntu rwagenze
Ngabonziza ari muri Laboratoire hamwe na bamwe mu bagize itsinda bafatanyije muri uru rugendo

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