Ni gute urukingo rwa Coronavirus rurinda uruhawe?

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 21 Ukuboza 2020 saa 08:10
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Mu kwezi gushize, nyuma y’amezi umunani y’ubushakashatsi, inganda za Pfizer na BioNTech zashyize hanze urukingo rwa mbere ruzahangana n’agakoko ka SARS-CoV-2 gatera indwara ya Covid-19 imaze hafi umwaka izengereza abatuye Isi.

Nyuma y’igihe gito, uruganda rwa Moderna na rwo rwashyize hanze urundi rukingo, zombi zikaba zarahawe uburenganzira n’ikigo cya Amerika Gishinzwe gusuzuma ubuziranenge bw’Ibiribwa n’Imiti (FDA) nyuma yo gusanga zifite ubushobozi bwo kurinda umuntu kwandura Coronavirus ku kigero cya 95%.

Magingo aya, urukingo rwa Pfizer/BioNTech rwatangiye gutangwa mu bihugu birimo u Bwongereza na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika cyo kimwe n’urwa Moderna.

Usibye izi nkingo zamaze kwemezwa, hari izindi nkingo nyinshi zikiri mu igeragezwa hirya no hino, mu bihugu birimo u Bushinwa, u Burusiya ndetse n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Izi nkingo zombi zikora gute?

Imikorere y’inkingo za Moderna na Pfizer/BioNTech irihariye, kuko yakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga ridasanzwe rimenyerewe mu gukora inkingo zikoreshwa n’abantu.

Mu busanzwe, inkingo zakorwaga hifashishijwe agakoko (virus) k’indwara iri gukorerwa urukingo, ariko gafite ubukana bucye.

Kuri iyi nshuro, inkingo za Covid-19 ziratandukanye, kuko zidakoresha virus y’indwara ishaka kuvurwa, ahubwo zizakoresha ubutumwa buvanwa muri iyo virus n’ubundi, bukinjizwa mu mubiri maze bugateka utunyangingo tw’umubiri (cells) kwiremera ‘protéine zimeze nk’iza virus ya SARS CoV-2’, ari nayo itera Covid-19. Nyuma y’igihe gito, ubwirinzi bw’umubiri (antibodies) bubona ko za protéine ziri mu mubiri zidakwiye kuba zirimo, maze bukazirwanya.

Muri uko kuzirwanya, bikangura umubiri ku buryo indi nshuro winjiriwe na ya virus wigeze kurwanya, uhita uyibuka ukongera ukayirwanya, bityo SARS Cov-2 ikaba idashobora kongera gutera umuntu wakingiwe.

Ni uwuhe mwihariko w’ubu buryo?

Iri koranabuhanga rishya rifite umwihariko ukomeye, kuko rifite ubushobozi bwo gufasha abahanga gukoresha igihe gito mu gihe bari gukora inkingo, bitandukanye n’uko byari bisanzwe.

Ubu buryo kandi bwitezweho kuzakoreshwa mu guhangana n’indwara zikomeye, zirimo nka kanseri kuko igira utunyangingo (cells) duhora twihinduranya, ku buryo urukingo rukozwe mu buryo bumwe rudafite icyo rwayitwara.

Iri koranabuhanga rizashoboza abahanga gukora urukingo rujyanye na buri mwihariko w’indwara, ndetse byemezwa ko mu myaka iri imbere, iri koranabuhanga ari na ryo rizakoreshwa mu gukora inkingo z’indwara zirimo na SIDA.

Iri koranabuhanga kandi rishobora kuzatuma mu gihe kiri imbere urukingo rushobora gukorwa mu mezi macye, ndetse yewe urukingo rumwe rukaba rushobora kuzajya rukingira indwara zirenze imwe.

Warwara Coronavirus wamaze guhabwa urukingo?

Birashoboka cyane ko umuntu ashobora kurwara Coronavirus mbere gato na nyuma gato yo guhabwa urukingo. Impamvu ni uko kugira ngo umubiri wubake ubudahangarwa bwuzuye bwo kwirinda agakoko bitwara iminsi, ku buryo iyo ako gakoko kinjiye mu mubiri utarubaka ubwigenge bwuzuye, gashobora gutera umuntu kurwara.

Ni yo mpamvu na nyuma yo gukingirwa Coronavirus abahanga batanga inama yo gukomeza kubahiriza amabwiriza yo kwirinda, kugira ngo bahe umubiri wabo umwanya ukeneye kugira wubake ubudahangarwa buzarwanya SARS CoV-2 burundu.

Urukingo rwa Coronavirus ruzagura amafaranga angahe?

Mu nkingo zemejwe, urwa Moderna rubikika byoroshye, kuko rushobora kubikwa muri frigo zisanzwe mu gihe cy’iminsi 30 kuri dogere -20C, gusa ni rwo ruhenze kuko rushobora kugura 33$ (hafi ibihumbi 32 Frw).

Kuri Moderna, hagati y’urukingo n’urundi, hazajya hacamo iminsi 28 mbere y’uko umuntu aterwa urundi. Uru rukingo rushobora kurinda umuntu kwandura Coronavirus ku kigero cya 95%.

Ku rundi ruhande, urukingo rwa Pfizer/BioNTech rwo ruzagura 20$ (hafi ibihumbi 20 Frw) ariko ntirushobora gukoreshwa ahantu henshi kuko rusaba kubikwa mu buryo bwihariye, ahantu hari ubukonje bwa dogere -75C. Ku muntu watewe urukingo rwa mbere, azajya aterwa urwa kabiri nyuma y’iminsi 21. Uru rukingo rushobora kurinda umuntu kwandura Coronavirus ku kigero cya 90%.

Ku zindi nkingo, n’ubwo urukingo rwa AstraZenica rwakozwe na Kaminuza ya Oxford yo mu Bwongereza rutaremezwa, bikekwa ko ari rwo ruzaba ruhendute nirumara kwemezwa, kuko ruzagurwa hafi 4000 Frw.

Urukingo rwa Sputnik V rwakozwe n’Abarusiya rwo ruri kugurishwa 10$ (hafi ibihumbi 10 Frw).

Ese u Rwanda ruzabona inkingo ryari?

U Rwanda, kimwe n’ibindi bihugu 94 biri mu nzira y’Amajyambere, ruri mu Ihuriro rya Covax ryitezweho kuzafasha isaranganya rikwiriye ry’inkingo za Coronavirus.

Kugeza ku itariki ya 7 Ukuboza, u Rwanda rwari rwamaze gutanga ubusabe bwarwo muri Covax kugira ngo ruzahabwe inkingo zishobora gukingira 20% by’Abanyarwanda kandi ku buntu, nk’uko amabwiriza ya Covax abiteganya.

Urukingo u Rwanda ruzakoresha ntiruramenyekana, gusa bijyanye n’imiterere yazo, biragoye ko rwaba urwa Pfizer/BioNTech, kuko kubona ahantu ho kurubika byagorana.

Urwa Moderna rwo rurashoboka, gusa mu kiganiro cyihariye aherutse kugirana na IGIHE, Minisitiri w’Ubuzima, Dr. Ngamije Daniel yaciye amarenga ko urukingo rwitezwe cyane n’ibihugu bya Afurika ari urwa AstraZenica ruri gukorwa na Oxford, n’ubwo rutaremezwa.

Yagize ati “ruriya rwa AstraZenica ni urukingo rutatuvuna cyane mu buryo bwo gutwara inkingo”.

Urukingo rwa AstraZenica rugeze mu cyiciro cya gatatu cy’igerageza, ari na cyo cya nyuma. Uru rukingo rwadindijwe n’uko hari umwe mu bantu bari bari gukorerwaho igerageza waje kugaragaza ibibazo by’ubuzima, bigakekwa ko ashobora kuba yabitewe n’urwo rukingo bigatuma ruhagarikwa, usibye ko nyuma rwaje kwemererwa gukomeza gukorerwaho ubushakashatsi.

Nta gihindutse, inkingo za mbere zagera mu Rwanda mu mpera za Werurwe umwaka utaha, aho Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’ubuzima, RBC, Dr. Sabin Nsanzimana, mu kiganiro The Square, yavuze ko igihe urukingo ruzaba rugeze mu Rwanda, abazitabwaho cyane ari abaturage “basanganywe ibindi bibazo by’ubuzima, birimo indwara nk’umuvuduko ukabije w’amaraso, diabète, asthma n’izindi z’ubuhumekero”.

Mu bandi bazazihabwa mu ba mbere harimo abageze mu za bukuru, abakora mu nzego z’ubuzima ndetse n’abandi bakora mu mirimo ituma bahura n’abantu benshi, irimo abakora ku mipaka n’abandi nk’abo.

U Rwanda rwiteguye gute kuzatanga inkingo?

N’ubwo kubona urukingo ari ingenzi, kurugeza ku bo rugenewe ndetse no kurubatera na byo ni ingenzi kurushaho. Leta y’u Rwanda yizeza Abanyarwanda ko igihe inkingo zizaba zigeze mu gihugu, hari ubushobozi ntakemangwa bwo kuzazikoresha uko bikwiriye.

Dr. Nsanzimana ashingira iki cyizere ku bushobozi igihugu kimaze kubaka mu bijyanye no gutera inkingo, akavuga ko n’uru rwa Coronavirus rutazateza ingorane cyane.

Yagize ati “Tumaze igihe tubyitegura, ku buryo bitazatubera imbogamizi ikomeye yaba mu buryo bwo kubika no gutwara urukingo bitewe n’ibikorwa dusanzwe dufite by’inkingo”.

Gutera inkingo kandi bisaba abantu babizobereyemo, ndetse bigakorwa mu buryo bitabangamira izindi serivise z’ubuvuzi.

Dr Nsanzimana yavuze ko u Rwanda nta kibazo rufite cy’abantu bazatera inkingo, ati “Abantu bazatera inkingo no kugira ubumenyi busabwa si ikibazo kuri twe. Tumaze gutanga inkingo nyinshi, ndetse kugeza ubu turi gutanga urukingo rwa Ebola ku bantu barenga 200.000. Imikorere y’izi nkingo zombi rero ijya gusa kuko ziterwa ahantu hamwe, zigakenera ibikoresho bimwe ndetse n’ibindi bikenewe [kugira ngo zitangwe neza]. Kuri twe rero nta mpungenge dufite”.

Leta y'u Rwanda itangaza ko ifite ubushobozi bwo kuzatanga inkingo igihe zizaba zigejejwe mu gihugu

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