Ibyihishe inyuma ya raporo yatunze agatoki u Rwanda mu bucuruzi bwa zahabu iva muri Congo

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 23 Nzeri 2020 saa 07:37
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U Rwanda rwamaganye raporo nshya irushinja uruhare mu bucuruzi bwa zahabu iva muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko, ruvuga ko ari uburyo bugamije gushaka imirimo ku bayihishe inyuma.

Ni raporo yakozwe n’ikigo IMPACT gikora mu bucuruzi bwa zahabu mu karere, igaruka ku bo yita abacuruzi babangamiye imbaraga RDC irimo gushyira mu gukora ubucuruzi bwa zahabu butarimo amakimbirane, yiswe ‘The Intermediaries Traders Who Threaten the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Efforts for Conflict-Free Gold’.

Iyo raporo igaragaza ko ubucuruzi butemewe bwa zahabu bwatumye RDC ihomba nibura miliyoni 214$ muri zahabu yoherejwe mu mahanga itamenyekanishijwe hagati ya 2015 na 2016, bingana n’igihombo cya miliyoni 4.2$ zari kuva mu misoro.

Hari ahagaragazwa uburyo abacuruzi bamwe, binyuze mu manyanga, bagurisha zahabu nyinshi mu mahanga ariko bakamenyekanisha mu buyobozi nke cyane, akaba ari nayo yishyurirwa imisoro, bigatuma bashyira ku mufuka inyungu ihanitse.

Muri raporo havugwamo ibigo bibiri birimo Cavichi SARL cyakoreraga i Bukavu, hagati ya 2015-2016 cyohereje mu mahanga 25.7 kg nk’uko byamenyeshejwe ubuyobozi bwa RDC, nyamara mu nyandiko ngo zabonywe mu Rwanda aho iyo zahabu yanyujijwe, byagaragaye ko yari ibilo 5290.

Raporo ikomeza iti "Agaciro ka zahabu yanyujijwe mu Rwanda inshuro 69 yamenyekanishijwe kari miliyari 12724 Frw. Ni ukuvuga miliyoni 13.6$ zonyine. Binyuranye na zahabu ifite agaciro ka miliyoni 191.5$ yanyujijwe mu Rwanda."

Hatanzwe urugero no kuri zahabu ngo yambukijwe iva i Bukavu igatungukira i Kamembe, abayobozi ba Cavichi bakoresha ibyangombwa by’ibihimbano kugira ngo babashe kuyigeza i Kigali, bakomereze i Dubai muri Cavichi Jewellery LLC.

Muri iyi raporo, IMPACT ivuga ko u Rwanda mu myaka mike ishize aribwo rwinjiye mu bucuruzi bwa zahabu bweruye, ariko ngo "ubuke bwa zahabu icukurwa imbere mu gihugu bugaragaza neza ko igice kinini cyane cy’iyi zahabu idakomoka mu Rwanda”.

Ivuga ko nk’u Rwanda, mu 2014 rwatangaje ko rwavanye miliyoni 8.1$ mu "yandi mabuye y’agaciro" yoherejwe mu mahanga arimo na zahabu, yaje kugera kuri miliyoni 80.06$ mu 2016.

Ikomeza iti "Igenzura ryakozwe n’Ikigo cy’Abanyamerika ku musaruro wa zahabu mu Rwanda wari 160 kg mu 2014 na 319 kg mu 2015. Naho itsinda ry’impuguke z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye zavuze ko u Rwanda rwohereje mu mahanga 2163 kg bya zahabu mu 2018, ariko 12539 kg bya zahabu yakiriwe muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu yamenyekanishijwe ko yaturutse mu Rwanda."

Iri zamuka ngo ryatumye mu 2019 mu Rwanda hatangizwa uruganda rutunganya zahabu ruzwi nka Aldango Ltd., rugaragaza ko rufite ubushobozi bwo gutunganya 220 kg ku munsi na toni 6 ku kwezi.

Uretse zahabu inyuzwa mu Rwanda igakomereza i Dubai, ngo hari na zahabu nyinshi ikurwa muri RDC cyane cyane muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo, yagezwa mu Rwanda ikabona kumenyekanishwa ikaninjizwa mu bucuruzi mpuzamahanga bwa zahabu, ikajyanwa i Dubai byitwa ko ari iyo mu Rwanda.

Hari ibigo bibiri bivugwa muri iyo raporo, Congo Golden Mining Ltd na Omega Gold Mining Ltd, bigaragara gusa mu nyandiko zo mu Rwanda nk’ibyohereje zahabu mu mahanga, kandi yaraturutse i Bukavu ikabona kujyanwa i Dubai.

Imibare IMPACT ivuga ko yabonye ko nko hagati ya Mutarama na Gicurasi 2016, ibigo byo mu Rwanda byohereje zahabu ingana na 574.401 kg ku baguzi batandukanye i Dubai, aho nka Golden Gold Ltd yohereje 194 kg, Onyx Mining Ltd yohereza 171 kg naho Sigma Mining Corporation Ltd yohereza 209.401 kg, mu gihe u Rwanda rwagaragaje ko rwohereje 592 kg, zavuyemo miliyoni $21.99.

U Rwanda ntirwemera ubucuruzi budakurikiza amategeko

Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo Gishinzwe Mine, Peteroli na Gaz, Gatare Francis, yabwiye IGIHE ko amabuye y’agaciro yaba gasegereti, zahabu, coltan n’andi, ari ibicuruzwa nk’ibindi ku isoko ry’akarere na mpuzamahanga.

Ati "Mu Rwanda twafashe umurongo w’uko tuzakomeza guteza imbere gutunganya amabuye y’agaciro, ari nayo mpamvu hashyizweho ishoramari ryo kuyatunganya no gutunganya na zahabu. Nk’uko mubizi, hari uruganda rutunganya zahabu rwitwa Aldango Ltd, ariko no hirya no hino ku Isi izo nganda zirahari. Ibikorerwamo rero ntabwo bikomoka mu gihugu gusa, biva no hirya no hino."

"Ariko kuko ibi ibihugu bicuruzanya, hari uburyo ibicuruzwa byakirwa n’uburyo bimenyekanishwa, ntabwo wagira uruganda rushingiye gusa ku bikorerwa mu gihugu cyacu. Zahabu rero ni kimwe muri ibyo, itunganya zahabu ikomoka mu Rwanda ariko n’ikomoka mu bindi bihugu by’aho icyo kigo kiba cyayikuye."

Gatare avuga ko bitashoboka ko ikigo gitunganya zahabu ituruka mu Rwanda gusa, kuko mu gutunganya amabuye y’agaciro menshi ari ho inganda zivana inyungu.

Yakomeje ati "Ahubwo wavuga uti uruganda rutunganya ingana iki, bayikura hehe, bayigura na nde, bayicuruza he, ibyo ngibyo ubibabajije babigusobanurira cyangwa se ukareba mu yandi maraporo agaragaza icuruzwa rya zahabu mu gihugu cyacu."

Abakoze iyi raporo barashakisha ishoramari

Gatare yavuze ko yasomye raporo yakozwe na IMPACT, ariko iyo urebye abo aribo, uhita wibaza icyabateye kuyikora n’icyo bagambiriye.

Ati "Ntabwo ari raporo yanditswe n’igihugu, nta gihugu cyo muri aka karere cyatanze ikirego ko bafite ikibazo cy’icuruzwa rya zahabu ikomoka mu gihugu cyabo, hari umugani abanyarwabda bajya baca bati ‘iyo umuntu akunze umwana kurusha nyina umubyara, ugomba kubanza ukanibaza uti ariko uyu muntu ukunze uyu mwana kurusha nyina umubyara aramuhaka ho iki’? "

"N’iriya raporo dukeneye kuyibazaho. Iyo urebye aho bari kuyiganisha, ni abantu ubona bashakisha guteza ikibazo kugira ngo noneho banashakishe guhinduka igisubizo."

Gatare yahise abihuza na raporo zasohotse mu myaka icumi ishize ahagana mu 2008, zagaragazaga ko amabuye ya coltan, gasegereti na wolfram azwi nka T eshatu (Tin, tantalum & Tungsten) ari inyuma y’amakimbirane n’intambara muri aka karere, zikaganisha ku kuvuga ko hashyizweho uburyo bwo kugenzura icuruzwa ryayo, byakemura intambara muri aka karere.

Ati "Bihinduka ikibazo, barangije bati ariko dushobora gutanga igisubizo, hari ikintu bita gukurikirana inkomoko (traceability), twebwe dushobora gushyiraho uburyo bw’uko amabuye twajya tuyakurikirana kuva ku kirombe, kugera k’uyacuruza no kuyageza ku isoko mpuzamahamga, ngo bizakemura ikibazo gihari n’intambara zihagarare."

"Ariko hari ikiguzi, ni aya mafaranga buri wese azajya yishyura […] hashize imyaka icumi muri aka karere ubwo buryo tubukoresha, n’uyu munsi nibwo dukoresha mu gucukura no gucuruza amabuye y’agaciro. Ariko se wakwibaza, niyo yateraga umutekano muke muri aka karere? Ntabwo aribyo."

Yavuze ko ahubwo hari abantu bari babibonyemo ubucuruzi bashaka kubiryamo amafaranga, bagaragaza ko ari ikibazo gikomeye banazana igisubizo, ariko ngo "nta nyungu byazaniye igihugu icyo aricyo cyose, nta nyungu byazaniye abacukuzi, ahubwo byabateye igihombo kubera ko aribo bishyura cya kiguzi" cyaje ari inyongera.

Ahubwo ngo abazanye uyu mushinga babyungukiyemo, kuko aribo bazanye "igisubizo cyishyurwa”, kandi ntibashobora kugabanyaho n’ifaranga rimwe.

Gatare yakomeje ati "Iyo ukurikiranye iriya raporo n’icyo igamije, ni ubucuruzi bwa kabiri, bwiyongera ku bwo basanganywe, guteza ikibazo kugira ngo bahinduke igisubizo. Nta kibazo kiri muri aka karere cyo gutunganya, gucukura cyangwa gucuruza zahabu, uretse abarimo kugihindura ikibazo kugira ngo babone ubucuruzi."

"Mubikurikiranire hafi munamenye abo aribo, ababyanditse n’ibyo basanzwe bakora muri aka karere. Ni bo batanga ibi birango (tag) dukoresha hano [ku mabuye y’agaciro yoherezwa hanze], amafaranga bakuramo aruta ayo igihugu cyacu gikura mu bucukuzi nk’inyungu, aruta ayo igihugu cya Congo gikura mu bucukuzi bwa 3T nk’inyungu. Ntabwo rero njyewe nayiha agaciro, uretse gusa kuyitaho nkavuga nti ‘OK, aba barashaka ubucuruzi, ubwo tuzakorana na bo nibiba bibahiriye."

Raporo yasabye u Rwanda gukurikirana abantu bagira uruhare mu bucuruzi bwa zahabu mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko no kugenzura buri zahabu bitangazwa ko ituruka muri RDC, kugira ngo harebwe ko ibisabwa byose biba byubahirije.

U Rwanda rukomeje kongera imbaraga mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, aho ubu aricyo gihugu muri Afurika gifite uruganda rushongesha gasegereti, Luna Smelter.

Ruteganya ko kugeza mu 2024 ruzaba rwinjiza miliyari $1.5 iva mu mabuye y’agaciro.

Uruganda rwa Aldango Ltd rutunganyiriza zahabu mu Rwanda
Iyi zahabu itunganyirizwa mu Rwanda mbere yo koherezwa ku isoko mpuzamahanga

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