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U Rwanda rushya: Incamake ku gihe cya mbere ya Jonoside no muri Jenoside

Yanditswe na

Sondra Myers

Kuya 2 Gashyantare 2012 saa 10:28
Yasuwe :

Iki ni igice cya kabiri cy’umutwe wa mbere w’igitabo “u Rwanda rushya : iterambere n’imibereho myiza" cyanditswe na Sondra Myers.
Amakimbirane ashingiye ku moko hagati y’Abahutu n’Abatutsi yakomeye cyane mu gihe cy’ubukoroni. Mbere y’ubukorni, ubutegetsi bwari bushingiye ku kugenzura urwego rw’ubukungu rwari rushingiye ku nkingi eshatu arizo: umutungo w’ubutaka buhingwaho, amatungo n’umutekano.
Abanyarwanda bari bafite umuco umwe kuva mbere y’ubukoroni mu Rwanda. Bivugwa ko abahutu bageze mu Rwanda (...)

Iki ni igice cya kabiri cy’umutwe wa mbere w’igitabo “u Rwanda rushya : iterambere n’imibereho myiza" cyanditswe na Sondra Myers.

Amakimbirane ashingiye ku moko hagati y’Abahutu n’Abatutsi yakomeye cyane mu gihe cy’ubukoroni. Mbere y’ubukorni, ubutegetsi bwari bushingiye ku kugenzura urwego rw’ubukungu rwari rushingiye
ku nkingi eshatu arizo: umutungo w’ubutaka buhingwaho, amatungo n’umutekano.

Abanyarwanda bari bafite umuco umwe kuva mbere y’ubukoroni mu Rwanda. Bivugwa ko abahutu bageze mu Rwanda ahagana mu myaka 1,000 ishize, bakahasanga abatwa batuye. Abatutsi, bivugwa ko bageze mu guhugu imyaka 400 nyuma yaho (mu kinyejana cya 15) maze bafata umuco w’abahutu. Abatutsi bafashe ururimi ndetse bafata n’imihango n’imigenzo y’abahutu, kandi babanaga nabo. U Rwanda icyo gihe rwari “Imbaga y’inyabutatu,” (ni ukuvuga abatutsi, abahutu n’abatwa). Ururimi rw’ikinyarwanda ntirubafasha gusa gutumanaho ahubwo rubafasha kumva ibintu kimwe, bakagira icyerekezo kimwe kandi bakumva kimwe politiki y’igihugu.

Ikindi kandi ni uko Umuhango wo kwambaza Lyangombe (Imana abanyarwanda bakundaga kwiyambaza) cyari ikimenyetso cy’uko abanyarwanda bari bashyize hamwe mu bice bitandukanye mbere y’ubukoroni. Abatutsi abahutu n’abatwa babanaga neza, kandi bumvaga ko bagize umuryango umwe, ko bose bakomoka kuri Gihanga, wahanze u Rwanda nkuko babyemeraga. Amoko twayasangaga mu bice byose by’igihugu, nta karere runaka k’igihugu kari kihariye ubwoko runaka. Umuryango, imibanire ishingiye ku bukungu ndetse n’umuco nibyo byari ishingiro ry’umuryango nyarwanda wo hambere.

Imibereho n’imibanire mu rwego rw’ubukungu yaterwaga n’inka umuntu yoroye ndetse n’ubutaka afite. Uwabaga afite inka zirenze icumi yabaga yitwaga Umututsi, naho uwabaga afite nke cyangwa azirengeje ariko atunzwe ahanini n’ubuhinzi yitwaga umuhutu. Abari batunzwe no guhiga no gusoroma imbuto bitwaga abatwa. Mu gihe cy’imyaka 500, abake aribo borozi b’abatutsi nibo bategekaga abahinzi aribo bahutu
ndetse n’abahigi bakaba n’ababumbyi aribo batwa.

Ubukoroni bwazanye ibintu bishya byinshi byahungabanyije uburinganire mu muryango nyarwanda. Ubukoroni bw’abadage bwatangiye mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19 kugera mu 1916. Abakoroni b’abadage bemeraga ubutegetsi n’ububasha bw’umwami ku butaka. Ariko ababirigi bazanye impinduka zikomeye mu micungire y’igihugu ku buryo byagize ingaruka ku buryo bw’imiyoborere. U Rwanda rwahindutse indagano y’ububirigi bisabwe n’Umuryango mpuzamahanga nyuma y’Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi.

Abakoroni b’ababirigi bageze mu Rwanda mu 1916 bafashe abatutsi n’abahutu nk’ubwoko butandukanye maze batanga indangamuntu zibatandukanya. Bakuyeho ubutegetsi n’imiyoborere yari iriho maze bishyiriraho ubutegetsi bwabo. Ivugurura ryo mu 1926 ryagabanyije igihugu mo za sheferi maze rikuraho uburyo bwa kera aho umushefu yashoboraga kugira ibikingi mu bice bitandukanye by’igihugu bigatuma agira ububasha mu butegetsi bw’igihugu. Gukuraho iyo mitegekere mu kugenzura imicungire y’igihugu byahungabanyije cyane umuryango nyarwanda.

Abahutu bari bagize 84% by’abaturage, abatutsi aribo bake, nibo bari barize bagize 15%, n’aho abatwa bakaba 1%. Mu gihe kinini cy’ubukoroni, abategetsi b’ababirigi bakurikizaga ihame ryo kuvuga ko abatutsi bari hejuru y’abahutu, bashyiraho ubutegetsi bw’abatutsi bakuraho abashefu b’abahutu, batonesha abatutsi akaba aribo bashyira mu mashuri kandi bashyira mu myanya y’ubutegetsi bw’ubutaka mu maboko y’abatutsi. Ikindi twavuga ni uko politiki y’ababirigi yashyigikiye cyane irangamuntu y’ubwoko maze gutandukanya abantu bishingiye ku mibereho n’umutungo babisimbuza ivangura rishingiye ku bwoko. Nibwo rero mu 1959, babifashijwemo n’abakoroni b’ababirigi, abahutu bahiritse ubutegetsi bw’umwami bw’abatutsi maze bashyiraho ubutegetsi bwamaze imyaka 35 hategeka abahutu.

Mu 1959, ni ukuvuga imyaka itatu mbere y’u bwigenge bwatanzwe n’ababirigi, abahutu bakuyeho umwami w’umututsi. Mu 1962 u Rwanda rwabaye igihugu cyigenga kiyoborwa na Minisitiri w’intebe wa mbere ariwe Gregoire Kayibanda. Kuva icyo gihe hakomeje kuba amakimbirane hagati y’abategetsi bashya aribo bahutu, bari bagize umubare munini w’abaturage, n’abategetsi bari bavuyeho aribo batutsi, bari bagize umubare muto w’abaturage. Byarakomeje akaba ari nabyo byavuyemo iyicwa ry’abatutsi bageze ku 1000 mu 1963. Abatutsi bahunze kuva mu 1960 ntibigeze bemererwa kugaruka mu Rwanda bityo baguma mu buhungiro imyaka 30 batagira igihugu. Mu Rwanda hakomeje kuba ibikorwa byo guhungabanya uburenganzira bwa muntu mbere ya Jenoside yo muri Mata 1994.

Muri icyo gihe ibihumbi by’abatutsi barishwe, abandi bagera ku 150.000 bahungira mu bihugu bikikije u Rwanda. Abana b’izo mpunzi nibo nyuma bashinze inyeshyamba zitwa RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front), batangira intambara mu 1990. Kuva icyo gihe abanyarwanda batangiye kumwa badatekanye kubera ibi bikurikira:Gutera kwa FPR mu 1990, guhatira u Rwanda gushyiraho Gahunda y’ivugurura ry’imikorere y’inzego yatumye habaho umubare munini w’abashomeri mu mugi, guhatira u Rwanda politiki y’amashyaka menshi byatumye habaho
igabanuka ry’ubukungu. Bityo rero, byatumye abantu benshi bagaruka ku iturufu y’ubwoko bakabiterwamo inkunga n’abanyabolitiki ba ntibindeba.”

Ku itariki ya 6 Mata 1994, indege yari itwaye Perezida w’u Rwanda Juvenal Habyarimana yarahanuwe ubwo yiteguraga kugwa i Kigali maze ahita yitaba Imana. Ibi byabaye imbarutso ya Jenoside. Bivugwa ko Jenoside yateguwe kandi igashyirwa mu bikorwa na Leta kandi ugasanga ari ubugambanyi bwaranzwe n’ibikorwa by’ubugizi bwa nabi kuva mu 1959.

Bamwe mu bagize guverinoma, cyane cyane Minisitiri w’intebe bashinze imitwe yitwara gisirikare y’abahutu mu gihugu cyose kugirango bice abatutsi ku buryo buteguwe neza. Jenoside yatangiye muri Mata igeza muri Nyakanga 1994 ikaba yarahitanye inzirakarengane zigera kuri miliyoni mu minsi ijana. Abagabo, abagore n’abana bishwe urw’agashinyaguro. Abagore n’abakobwa bafashwe ku ngufu bakorerwa iyicarubozo. Abacitse ku icumu babayeho ubuzima bubi kandi barababara cyane iyo bibutse uburyo bafashwe ku ngufu, uko batemaguwe n’uko ababo bishwe.

Bamwe barokotse kuko bahunze bagasiga ibintu byabo maze imiryango yabo irahambirizwa. Abize, abagabo n’abagore, abana yemwe n’ababikira n’abapadiri biroshye mu bwicanyi. Abatutsi babamenyaga hifashishijwe indangamuntu kuri za bariyeri. Abaturage bishe inshuti kuko babikanguriwe na Leta ndetse na ba Burugumesitiri. Radiyo
ya FPR Muhubara yagaragaje mu itangazamakuru ry’i Burayi ko ifite ingabo zifite disipuline, zifite icyo zirwanira, zihanganye na Leta irangwa n’imikorere mibi ishingiye kuri Jenoside nk’intwaro yo kuguma ku butegetsi.

Hagati aho Leta y’u Rwanda nayo yakoreshaga Radiyo y’urwango RTLM kugira ngo irusheho gukangurira abaturage kwica abatutsi benshi bashoboka. Leta muri poropagande yayo yitaga FPR ko ari inyenzi. Insengero zahindutse amabagiro n’ahakorwa ubugizi bwa nabi n’ubwicanyi bukomeye. Raporo ya Minisiteri y’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu muri raporo yayo yo mu 2002, yagaragaje ko cumi na rimwe ku ijana by’abazize Jenoside biciwe mu nsengero. Abahutu bangaga kwifatanya n’abandi muri ubwo bwicanyi nabo baricwaga. Ku rundi ruhande, ingabo zigizwe ahanini n’abatutsi za FPR, zahiritse ubutegetsi bw’abahutu maze zifata umujyi wa Kigali ku itariki ya 04 Nyakanga.

Abahutu bagera kuri miliyoni ebyiri bahise bahungira mu cyahoze cyitwa Zaire, ariyo Repubulika iharanira demokarasi ya Kongo (DRC), Burundi, Tanzania na Uganda. Nyuma y’iminsi cumi n’itanu, hashyizweho Guverinoma y’Ubumwe iyobowe na Perezida Pasteur Bizimungu.

Mu 2003, Nyakubahwa Paul Kagame yabaye Perezida wa mbere utowe n’abaturage, yongera gutorwa mu 2010.


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