Mail & Guardian: Ikinyamakuru cyahisemo kwifatanya n’abakoze Jenoside n’abagambiriye kubiba urwango

Yanditswe na Gatete Nyiringabo Ruhumuliza
Kuya 16 Ukuboza 2020 saa 08:46
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Umunyafurika y’Epfo w’impirimbanyi y’ubwigenge, Steve Biko, yigeze kuvuga ko ‘intwaro ikomeye y’umutegetsi mubi ari imitekerereze y’uwo atsikamiye.’

Mu cyumweru gishize, ikinyamakuru Mail & Guardian cyo muri Afurika y’Epfo cyahaye urubuga umuhakanyi wa Jenoside, Judi Rever, n’undi mugabo ntari nzi witwa Benedict Moran, bakora icyiswe ‘guhishura’ ‘ubuhamya bw’ibanga rikomeye bugaragaza uruhare rwa Perezida w’u Rwanda mu byaha by’intambara.’

Nta kintu kidasanzwe cyarimo cyangwa ‘cyahishuwe’ mu nkuru ya M&G, ahubwo ni ukugarura igitabo cya Judi Rever benshi muri twe tutanasomye, ibigikubiyemo yakomeje kubikwirakwiza ku mbuga nkoranyambaga mu mezi ashize.

Muri e-mail igayitse yoherejwe muri Perezidansi y’u Rwanda no ku muryango RPF, Benedict Moran yifashishije uburyo bwo guhata ibibazo, asaba abandikiwe kwemeza ibirego yabashinjaga.

Ikigaragara ni uko nta n’umwe wasubije iyo baruwa yanditswe mu buryo bwo gushinja umuntu ikintu runaka, ubundi ukamusaba ko aguha ibimenyetso by’uko atagikoze. Ibyavuzwe na Moran ko “biheruka guhishurwa’ ni amagambo yuzuye ubuhakanyi yazamuwe n’abavoka b’abakoze Jenoside ahagana mu myaka ya 2000, ibintu byateshejwe agaciro n’abacamanza ba ICTR.

Abo banyamategeko bakoranye n’abiyitaga abakusanya ibimenyetso ku ruhande rw’abaregwa, byaje kugaragara ko ari abakoze Jenoside ariko bakaza kugera ku rutonde rw’abakozi ba ICTR. Bamwe baje no gufatwa, baburanishwa ndetse bahamywa ibyaha n’urwo rukiko ubwarwo.

Ibi bihimbano byongeye guteshwa agaciro n’iperereza ry’abacamanza b’Abafaransa, ndetse abo batangabuhamya bari batangajwe bakuramo ubuhamya bwabo.

Ubwo ibyo birego byazamurwaga bwa mbere mu myaka isaga 20 ishize, umunyamakuru ukomeye Nick Gordon yafashe urugendo agana aho ‘icyo cyaha cyabereye’ i Gabiro, aho RPF ngo yatwitse imibiri y’abahutu b’inzirakarengane. Gordon yabonye, nk’uko yabivuze mu magambo ye, “ahantu hatatu hari ibigo bya gisirikare, nta kintu gisa nk’inkambi y’urupfu.”

Mu bya vuba bitesha agaciro igitabo cya Judy Rever nabashije kubona, umwanditsi w’umuhanga mu bijyanye n’uburezi, agaragaza uburyo Judy Rever yifashisha imikorere y’aba Nazi muri Jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi mu gusobanura uburyo RPF yaba yaragiye irigisa imibiri y’abahutu bishwe.

Avuga ko ibyo birego bya Rever bidashoboka, kubera ko nko gutwika imirambo byasabye SS imyaka itanu n’ibyo bikorwa byose ngo bishoboke, ariko inkambi ziciwemo abantu zaranze ziramenyekana. Ntabwo byari gushoboka ko RPF yica bantu ngo imibiri yabo irigiswe mu minsi cyangwa amezi make.

Kuba abagize uruhare muri Jenoside bacyidegembya mu mijyi ya Afurika y’Epfo na nyuma y’imyaka 25 bakoze ibyo byaha, bikwiye guhangayikisha buri muntu wese muzima kimwe n’ikinyamakuru cyose kizi ibyo gikora. Kuba bahabwa umwanya wo kumvikanisha ibyo bakoze, bagashinja ababatsinze hamwe n’abarokotse ibikorwa byabo, ntabwo umuntu abasha kubyiyumvisha.

Kuba umunyamakuru yahitamo kwifatanya na bo, ubwabyo binyuranya n’intego z’umwuga w’itangazamakuru wahoze wubashywe.

Mbivuze neza, ntabwo njya impaka n’abahakana Jenoside. Ni ihame nsangiye na bagenzi banjye, bakomotse ku kwibohora k’u Rwanda. Muri iyi nkuru ndagaruka ku byatangajwe mbere, aho ibi birego byagiye bigarukwaho.

Hari ikibazo gikomeye kuba ikinyamakuru cyiyibagiza ibyemezo byafashwe n’urukiko mpuzamahanga, kikarenga ku myanzuro y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, abahanga bakomeye mu bijyanye n’amateka n’abanditsi, kikirengagiza ubuhamya bw’abarokotse Jenoside, kigashyira imbere imvugo z’abiyita abanyamakuru badafite aho bakora hazwi, bifashishije abatangabuhamya ba baringa n’inyandiko zidafite ishingiro bita amabanga.

Kimwe n’ibitangazamakuru byabibaga urwango byo mu gihe cya Jenoside, ibitangazamakuru byo muri Afurika y’Epfo bifite amateka atandukanye.

Mu gihe cya apartheid, bamwe mu banyamakuru n’ibitangazamakuru bifatanyije n’abategetsi bayikoraga, bagafata Nelson Mandela na bagenzi be muri ANC nk’abakora iterabwoba, bakifashisha abahanga bashidikanywaho ngo bagaragaze binyuze “mu bushakashatsi”, uburyo abazungu bari hejuru y’abandi bantu bose, bakayobya Isi ku byaberaga muri Afurika y’Epfo.

Ikibabaje, Apartheid yarangiye binyuze mu mategeko muri Afurika y’Epfo, ariko ivanguraruhu ntabwo ryarangiye. Umuzimu w’urwango aracyaritse muri benshi, nk’umunyeshuri w’umunyamahanga hariya narabyiboneye.

Mu gihe bibujijwe mu mategeko guha umwanya abashyigikiye Apartheid muri Afurika y’Epfo, bisa n’aho ibinyamakuru byabo byuje ivanguraruhu byabonye ingingo nshya: jenoside ebyiri mu Rwanda.

Kuva RPF yagera ku butegetsi nyuma yo guhagarika Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ibinyamakuru byo muri Afurika y’Epfo byakomeje gufata uruhande rwabyo, rutari urw’intwari cyangwa abarokotse, ahubwo rw’abicanyi, bigatangaza imvugo za buri wese ushaka kugaragaza u Rwanda nka gereza ikinguye.

Mu myaka ishize ubwo Urwego rw’Iterambere mu Rwanda (RDB) rwasinyanaga amasezerano n’Ikipe ya Arsenal yo mu Bwongereza, agamije kumenyekanisha ubukerarugendo, Simon Alison ukorera M&G yanditse igihuha, akesha amakuru raporo y’ikigo cyaterewe icyizere cya Human Rights Watch.

Iyo raporo y’ikigo gifatwa nk’icyapfuye gihagaze, muri Nyakanga 2017, mbere y’amatora ya perezida mu Rwanda, Human Rights Watch yasohoye raporo iriho urutonde rw’abantu yavugaga ko bishwe n’inzego z’umutekano z’u Rwanda kubera ibyaha bito bito nko kwiba ihene, n’ibindi.

Abantu barindwi mu bavugwaga ko bishwe muri raporo ya HRW, barimo Nsanzabera Tharcisse, Majyambere Alphonse, Nyirabavakure Daphrose, Karasankima Jovan, Habyalimana Elias, Nzamwitakuze Donat na Hanyurwabake Emmanuel, bagaragaye mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru nyuma y’iminsi mike; byari IGITANGAZA!

Abandi bari barapfuye bazize urupfu rusanzwe, ndetse bene wabo babanza kuvuga ko bashobora kujyana Human Rights Watch mu nkiko kubera kubakora mu nkovu babashinja ubujura. Ntabwo twongeye kumva HRW kuva ubwo, ahubwo ibinyamakuru byo muri Afurika y’Epfo byafashe umwanya yahoranye.

Ibitekerezo bya Alison byirengagijwe kubera ko na Arsenal igomba kuba yarirengagije ko anabaho, ahubwo muri uwo mwaka, Kigali yaje ku mwanya wa kabiri mu bukerarugendo bwo kwakira inama (MICE), yenda gushyikira Cape Town, ndetse mu magambo umuyobozi mukuru wa RDB yavuze ko ‘bene abo bantu bafite amakuru atari yo cyangwa bagambiriye ibibi, gusa bararwaye.

Mu gihe cy’imyaka myinshi, ibitangazamakuru byo muri furika y’Epfo byakunze gushyira igitutu ku bacamanza ngo batangaze ko u Rwanda ruhamwa n’uruhare mu rupfu rw’uwahoze ari maneko w’u Rwanda, Patrick Karegeya, wishwe anigiwe mu mujyi wa Johannesburg.

Mu gihe cy’imyaka irindwi, bahojeje inkuru mu binyamakuru, bagaha ijambo abakora iterabwoba b’abanyarwanda bahunze ubutabera, umugore n’abana ba nyakwigendera, ariko igikomeye, bagaha ijambo abavoka b’uwapfuye hamwe n’umushinjacyaha muri icyo kibazo, ariko mu nkuru bakabagarukaho babita “urukiko”.

Nta na rimwe bigeze bavuga ibirego nk’uko biri: ni ibirego, kugeza ubwo umucamanza wo muri Afurika y’Epfo wari urambiwe iyo kururu kururu, icyo kirego akivanye mu nzira kubera ko nta maperereza ahagije yakozwe.

Biratangaje kuba ibyaha by’ubwicanyi buregwa RPF butavugwamo Umuyobozi Mukuru wa RPF, abakomiseri n’abayobozi mu bya gisirikare, bifatanyije n’urugamba rwa gisirikare kuva rwatangira.

Uretse abarangwa n’ivangura batazi cyangwa bazi bike cyane ku mateka y’u Rwanda, bashobora gufata RPF nk’igikorwa cyatangije n’Abatutsi. ‘Umuryango w’Abanyarwanda’ wari ufite abayobozi b’Abatutsi, Abahutu n’Abatwa.

Mu gitabo Pedagogy of the Oppressed, umwanditsi Paulo Freire agaruka ku bibi byo kwigisha abantu kumira bunguri ibintu runaka n’ingaruka zabyo ku bantu, by’umwihariko mu mashuri no mu makoraniro rusange (mu binyamakuru).

Uyu mwanditsi ukomoka muri Brazil atanga nk’umuti, imyigishirize igamije kubaka mu bantu uburyo bwo kumenya neza ikintu runaka, ni ukuvuga kubaha ubushobozi bwo kubasha gufata ibintu byaba ibya politiki, umuco n’imibereho, bakabihuza n’aho isi igeze.

Mu myumvire ya Freire, munyemerere ntange isomo ku mateka y’u Rwanda ku buntu, nk’umuti ku myumvire y’abo bantu niba igihe kitararenga… Mu 1959, ntabwo ari Abatutsi birukanywe, ni Abarunari, abanyamuryango ba UNAR: ‘Union National Rwandais’. Abarunari bari abagize ishyaka ryarwaniraga ibintu bibiri:

• Ko hahita habaho ubwigenge ku Babiligi kandi budafite andi mabwiriza abuherekeza
• Ko ubwami bugumaho mu Rwanda.

Abarunari bari barimo Abatutsi, Abahutu n’Abatwa. UNAR yari iyobowe n’umugabo witwaga François Rukeba, umuhutu wari ushyize imbere indangagaciro z’ubunyarwanda. Ubwo yari amaze kwirukanwa mu gihugu hamwe n’abandi barunari, Rukeba yagiye kuba i Bujumbura, agafasha impunzi z’Abanyarwanda kujya mu mashuri.

Mwene wacu Faustin Kagame, umwanditsi w’umuhanga muri Jeune Afrique, yabashije kuya muri collège kubera Rukeba. Yanandikiye inyandiko nyinshi Umunyamabanga Mukuru w’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, amusobanurira akababaro k’Abatutsi.

Nkeka ko bitari nabyo kujya kumuvuga ukotsa ko ari Umuhutu, izina rye nyakuri ni Rukeba, umunyarwanda w’indashyikirwa, mfashe uyu mwanya ngo mushimire ibikorwa bye.

Ku rundi ruhande hari APROSOMA (Ishyaka rishinzwe guteza imbere rubanda nyamwinshi), na MDR-Parmehutu: Nk’uko iburango byombi bibigaragaza, ayo mashyaka yari agenewe abahezanguni b’Abahutu mu buryo bw’umwihariko, bari bafite intego yo kwikiza Abatutsi kandi bishimiye ikomeza ry’ubukoloni – nk’uko ibyapa bibigaragaza hano hasi, bafatanyije n’Ababiligi kwirukana Abatutsi.

Bari bayobowe n’abantu babiri b’abahezanguni n’abacurabwenge ba Jenoside: Gitera na Kayibanda.

Kuva yashingwa, RPF ntabwo yigeze iba igikorwa cy’Abatutsi ahubwo cy’Abanyarwanda barimo Abahutu, Abatutsi n’Abatwa. Gusa barwaniraga kwemerera Abatutsi n’abandi banyarwanda bahunze kugaruka mu rugo, ndetse ingingo ebyiri mu munani zigize porogaramu zayo zari, kandi zikomeje kuba: Kubaka ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda no gukuraho impamvu zose zitera ubuhunzi.

Ubwo urugamba rwagendaga rukomeza, RPF yakomeje kwinjiza mu ngabo zayo abasirikare b’Abahutu bari mu gisirikare ku butegetsi bwa Habyarimana. Ingabo za RPA zarabafataga, zikabigisha ku bumwe bw’igihugu, ubundi bakongerwa mu rugendo rwo kubohora igihugu.

Nta hantu na hamwe RPF yigeze iba umwihariko ku Batutsi. Muri make ntabwo nigeze mbona, ngo numve cyangwa nitabire inama za RPF zigizwe n’ubwoko bumwe gusa; nta n’umwe wabibonye, inama nk’iyo ntibaho mu Rwanda.

Kimwe na UNAR yayibanjirije, RPF yayobowe n’Umuhutu, nyakwigendera Alexis Kanyarengwe, uturuka mu majyaruguru y’igihugu. Nzi ko yari umuhutu kubera ko ari we wari Lt. Colonel mukuru mu basirikare icyenda bitwaga ‘Camarades du 5 juillet’, bafashije perezida Juvenal Habyarimana guhirika ubutegetsi ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973, ubwo bakuragaho Gregoire Kayibanda, undi muhutu w’umuhezanguni, wabaye perezida wa mbere w’u Rwanda rumaze kubona ubwigenge.

Kanyarengwe yaje kutemeranya na Habyarimana, biza gutuma ahungira muri Kenya mu Ukuboza 1980.

Ubwo FPR yashingwaga, ubuyobozi bwayo bwegereye Colonel Kanyarengwe ngo abe umuyobozi mukuru w’urugendo rwo kubohora igihugu, ndetse kimwe mu bikorwa bya mbere by’ingabo za RPA byari ukubohora gereza ya Ruhengeri, aho Habyarimana yari yarafungiye abanyapolitiki batavugaga rumwe na we, barababohoza.

Muri abo harimo Major Theoneste Lizinde, Commandant Leonidas Biseruka, Muvunanyambo n’abandi. Abo bose baje kwinjizwa mu buyobozi bukuru bwa RPF.

Ubwo RPF yari imaze gufata ubutegetsi, yinjije mu ngabo abasirikare 1000 bakuru bo ku butegetsi bwari bwatsinzwe, bagumana amapeti yabo ndetse bashyirwa mu buyobozi bwa za brigade n’indi myanya ikomeye mu buyobozi bw’ingabo.

Nta mutwe ugamije gukora jenoside wakora ibi, ku buryo bitumvikana uko abo basirikare bagambana cyangwa bakitabira kwica bene wabo.

Nashoboraga gukomeza ku isomo rikomeye ry’amateka y’urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda, nzasubukura ubutaha, ariko ndifuza gushimangira ingingo imwe: RPF Inkotanyi ni ‘Umuryango w’Abanyarwanda’: Nizo mbaraga za wo n’ibanga rituma ikomeza gutsinda.

Igikorwa cyose cyaba kigamije kwibasira itsinda rimwe cyangwa irindi ry’Abanyarwanda, kizatsindwa, haba muri Mail and Guardian yo muri Afurika y’Epfo, FDLR mu mashyamba ya Congo cyangwa Jambo ASBL mu Belgium, bose bazatsindwa.


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