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Guharanira imibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru ni inshingano n’inyungu kuri twese

Yanditswe na Gasore Séraphin
Kuya 1 Ukwakira 2022 saa 06:35
Yasuwe :

Ubwanditsi: Ibikubiye muri iyi nkuru ni ibitekerezo bwite by’umwanditsi, Gasore Seraphin, Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa w’Impuzamiryango, INSP!R Zamuka yita ku mibereho myiza y’abaturage n’imirimo ihesha agaciro umukozi.

Kuvuga ko umuntu ari igikenya, atazisazira, ni ibintu bibi. Umuntu w’umunyamugisha ni ufite amahirwe yo kuramba, akagera mu zabukuru, akaba umusaza cyangwa umukecuru, hanyuma akazagera mu bukambwe.

Hanze aha ni kenshi wumva umuntu avuze ati «Mureke umusaza atambuke!» Wajya kureba uwo musaza ugasanga ni umusore cyangwa umugabo w’injege, icyakora bigaragara ko yifashije. Ugasanga byari uburyo bwo kumwubaha gusa !

Ni ryari umuntu aba ageze mu za bukuru ?

Umusaza cyangwa umukecuru ubundi ni umuntu wese urengeje imyaka 60 y’ubukure, nubwo hari abantu badakunda kwitwa gutyo, badashaka kugaragara nk’abageze mu zabukuru.

Imyaka yo kujya mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru (pansiyo) igiye itandukanye bitewe n’amategeko y’ibihugu. Kenshi ni hagati ya 60 na 65, nubwo hari abajya mu kiruhuko mbere kubera imvune batewe n’imirimo igoranye bakoze, kimwe n’uko hari abarenza imyaka 65 bagikora bitewe n’imirimo. Kenshi abanyapolitiki bajya mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru kubera intege nke z’umubiri, atari ukubera imyaka runaka.

Mu Rwanda, imyaka yo kujya muri pansiyo ni 65. Naho abageze mu za bukuru mu Rwanda bajya kuba ibihumbi 600 kuri miliyoni hafi 13 zituye igihugu.

Imibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru ni inshingano yacu twese

Abageze mu zabukuru ni ababyeyi bacu, ni bakuru bacu. Ni twe ubwacu tugomba kubitaho, mbere y’uko biba inshingano ya Leta n’inzego zayo.

Ku bw’imibanire mbonezabupfura ndetse no ku bw’amategeko, ababyeyi bafite inshingano zo kwita ku bana babyaye kugeza igihe bazashoborera kwirwanaho. Na none, abana bamaze kugira aho bigeza, bafite inshingano zo kwita ku babyeyi babo, cyane cyane iyo batagifite ubushobozi buhagije bwo kwirwanaho.

Ntibigomba no kuba inshingano y’abana ku babyeyi gusa, ni n’inshingano ku baturanyi ndetse n’aho duhurira n’abageze mu zabukuru aho ari ho hose.

Umunyarwanda yaravuze ngo “akebo kajya iwa mugarura.” Mu Ivanjiri na ho haranditse ngo “ibyo wifuza ko abandi bakugirira, nawe ujye ubibakorera.” Koko rero, uyu munsi ni abo basaza n’abakecuru, ni abo bakambwe ariko ejo ni twe, ni jye nawe. Nta bundi buryo bwo kuramba, uretse kwemera gusaza ! Twese ni yo nzira. Kutagerayo ni amahirwe make kandi ugezeyo akenera kwitabwaho n’abagifite intege.

Leta yakoze byinshi tuyishimira

Kuba icyizere cyo kuramba gikomeza kwiyongera ni uko abaturage bashobora kubaho mu mahoro batuje, barya neza, batuye heza, bajijutse, bakirinda indwara kandi barwara bagashobora kwivuza vuba kandi neza.

Gahunda nyinshi z’igihugu zatumye ibi bishoboka, harimo ubwisungane mu kwivuza no kwegereza abaturage amavuriro afite imiti n’ibyangombwa bikenewe.

Mu guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru mu Rwanda, Leta yakoze n’ibindi byinshi birimo kwemeza Politiki y’Igihugu y’Abageze mu za bukuru muri Gicurasi 2021.

Leta kandi yemeje Amasezerano y’inyongera ku Masezerano Nyafurika y’Uburenganzira bwa Muntu ku Burenganzira bw’Abageze mu zabukuru yo kuri 31 Mutarama 2016. Ayo Masezerano y’inyongera akaba ubu abarirwa mu mategeko y’u Rwanda.

U Rwanda kandi rwashyizeho muri 2018 ikigega EJO HEZA gishoboza buri muturage wese uri mu Rwanda, atari abakozi bakorera umushahara gusa, gushobora kwiteganyiriza izabukuru, buri wese mu bushobozi bwe, hatitawe ku myaka umuntu afite.

Itegeko N0 27/2016 ryo kuwa 8 Nyakanga 2016 rigena imicungire y’umutungo w’abashakanye, impano n’ubuzungure, na ryo ryita ku busugire bw’abageze mu zabukuru aho ribaha uburenganzira bwo gukomeza gutungwa n’ibyo baruhiye, rikabarengera mu gihe haba hari abana bashaka kubacuza utwabo.

Leta kandi yashyizeho Urubuga Ngishwanama rw’Inararibonye z’u Rwanda (Rwanda Advisory Elders Forum- REAF), bigaragaza ko yitaye ku ishema n’ubushobozi by’abageze mu za bukuru kuko bagifite umusanzu wo guha igihugu cyabo mu rugendo rw’iterambere.

Mu mwaka wa 2018, Leta y’u Rwanda yafashe icyemezo cyo kuzamura amafaranga ya pansiyo ahabwa abari mu kiruhuko cy’iza bukuru biteganyirije mu kigega cyayo, RSSB. Abakiraga ka pansiyo gato ni bo bongerewe kurusha abakira pansiyo itubutse.

Hari abatakira pansiyo kuko batigeze bakorera umushahara, kimwe n’abakoreye umushahara ariko ntibiteganyirize, nyamara bikaba bigaragara ko bafite ibibazo bikomeye by’imibereho, bakaba batishoboye, kenshi bakaba nta n’uwo bafite wo kubitaho. Abo Leta yabageneye inkunga y’ingoboka ituma bashobora gusindagira, iminsi ikicuma (direct support).

Mu kwereka abageze mu zabukuru ko ari abaturage nk’abandi, ko bagifite umwanya n’uruhare mu gihugu cyabo, Leta yiyemeje kujya ihimbaza umunsi mukuru mpuzamahanga ngarukamwaka w’abageze mu zabukuru. Uwo munsi wizihizwa buri mwaka ku itariki ya 1 Ukwakira. Uyu mwaka uwo munsi uzizihizwa ku ka kabiri, ku itariki ya 4 Ukwakira. Insanganyamatsiko yagenwe na MINALOC ikaba igira iti “Abageze mu zabukuru, isoôko tuvomaho”.

Uwo munsi uzizihirizwa mu tugari twose hirya no hino mu gihugu. Ku rwego rw’igihigu, imihango yo kwizihiza uwo munsi izabera mu Karere ka Nyamagabe, Umurenge wa Musange.

Insanganyamatsiko yatoranyijwe na Loni kuri uwo munsi mpuzamahanga w’abageze mu zabukuru muri uyu mwaka ni “Ubudaheranwa n’umusanzu w’abakecuru mu buzima”.

Abageze mu zabukuru bashimira Leta uko yabitayeho by’akarusho mu bihe byari bigoranye by’icyorezo cya COVID-19. Bahabwaga inkingo mbere y’abandi, baterwa inkunga y’ibyo kurya, bigishwa uko bakwitwara, urubyiruko rw’abakorerabushake na rwo rwabitayeho.

Leta ikorana n’imiryango itagengwa na Leta mu kwita no guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru. Nta shiti ko ubwo bufatanye buzakomeza kuko urugendo rukiri rurerure.

Leta hari ibyo igisabwa gukora

“Umuturage ku isonga” n’abageze mu zabukuru barimo. Leta yiyemeje guteza imbere imibereho myiza ya buri Munyarwanda. Icyerekezo cy’Igihugu 2050 gituma buri wese yizera imibereho myiza mu gihugu gitekanye kandi giteye imbere.

Kimwe n’urubyiruko, abagore n’abakobwa, abafite ubumuga; abageze mu zabukuru na bo bagomba kurebwa nk’icyiciro cyihariye mu muryango nyarwanda. Ni gutyo imiryango nyarwanda yibumbiye muri INSP!R Zamuka isanga ibi bintu bitandatu ari ngombwa cyane, kandi bikaba byihutirwa kurusha ibindi mu guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru.

Gushyira mu bikorwa Politiki y’Igihugu y’Abangeze mu zabukuru

Iyo Politiki igamije ibintu bine by’ingenzi: gukora ku buryo abagize umuryango nyarwanda bose bumva neza ibyerekeye abageze mu zabukuru, gukora ku buryo ubuzima n’imibereho by’abageze mu zabukuru birushaho kuba byiza, gushyiraho serivisi zihariye zituma abageze mu zabukuru barengerwa kandi bakitabwaho uko bikwiye, guteza imbere no gushyira mu bikora indangagaciro z’imibanire n’ubufatanye hagati y’abageze mu zabukuru n’abakiri bato.

Kugira ngo iyo Politiki ishyirwe mu bikorwa ni ngombwa ko hagenwa ingengo y’imari ihagije (mu bushobozi bw’Igihugu) kandi hagashyirwaho Itsinda Nshingwabikorwa nk’uko byagenwe muri iyo Politiki, kugira ngo rikurikirane ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo.

Urwego rwita ku bageze mu zabukuru by’umwihariko

Mu gihe hari Minisiteri y’Urubyiruko, hakabaho Minisiteri yita ku buringanire, abafite ubumuga bakaba bahagarariwe mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko, ni ngombwa ko hajyaho urwego rwita by’umwihariko ku mibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru, kuko ari igice cy’abaturage cyihariye.

Muri MINALOC hari Ubuyobozi bukuru bwita ku mibereho myiza y’abaturage. Hagiyeho n’agashami bwite kita ku mibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru, byaba byiza, bikagira n’akamaro kurushaho.

Komite z’abageze mu zabukuru

Mu nzego z’ibanze mu gihugu, hari komite z’urubyiruko, iz’abari n’abategarugori, iz’abafite ubumuga n’izindi. Mu rwego rwo kurushaho kwita ku bageze mu zabukuru, ni byiza ko hashyirwaho komite zita by’umwihariko ku bibazi byabo, zishyizweho na bo kandi zigizwe na bo. Ibyo bizatuma bumva bagifite uruhare mu buzima bwabo n’ubw’igihugu, kandi baharanire kwerekana ko bagifite byinshi bashoboye.

Ubuvuzi bwihariye

Politiki y’Igihugu y’Abageze mu zabukuru iteganya ko hagomba gushyirwaho amategeko atuma imibereho yabo irushaho kuba myiza. Hari cyane cyane itegeko rigena uko abageze mu zabukuru bakorana n’ibigo na serivisi by’ubwishingizi, n’itegeko rigena iby’umwihariko mu buvuzi no kwita ku mibereho bigenerwa abageze mu zabukuru. Koko rero, abageze mu zabukuru bakunda kugira indwara zihariye, cyane cyane zimwe zitandura. Ni ngombwa ko bagira n’ubuvuzi bwihariye, hakaba ivuriro n’inzobere ku burwayi bwabo nk’uko bimeze ku bana, nk’uko bimeze ku bagore.

Imyidagaduro

Mu kurwanya ubwigunge butuma abageze mu zabukuru biheba bakabaho nabi, ni ngombwa ko hateganwa uburyo bwo kwidagadura butuma bahura bo ubwabo, bagashobora no guhura n’abakiri bato. Ni ngombwa rwose ko abageze mu za bukuru babaho banezerewe, bakishimira gukomeza kubaho no kwishimira amajyambere y’igihugu bagizemo uruhare.

Gutoza abana agaciro ko kugera mu zabukuru

Nk’uko twabibonye, gusaza ni igice cy’ubuzima. Ni ibya buri wese wagize umugisha wo kuramba. Ni byiza ko mu burere buhabwa abana mu ngo no mu mashuri, batozwa hakiri kare ko kugera mu zabukuru ari iby’agaciro, ko atari impamvu yo guhezwa, ko ahubwo ari ubukungu twese tugomba kwishimira no kubungabunga (Isoôko tuvomaho), cyane cyane ko twese ari ho twerekeza.

Ni inyungu kuri twese

Imibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru hashingiwe ku ngamba za Leta no ku bikorwa by’abagize umuryango nyarwanda bose, ni isoko y’ituze, amahoro n’umunezero mu miryango no mu bayirimo bose.

Mu guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru, u Rwanda ruzagaragara nk’igihugu giteza imbere abagituye bose, nta n’umwe uhejwe. Mu ntego 17 z’iterambere rirambye (SDGs), intego ya mbere ivuga imibereho myiza (Social Protection) kuri bose, iya gatatu ikavuga ubuzima bwiza (good health and well-being) kuri bose, ku myaka yose. Bityo u Rwanda ruzaba igihugu buri wese yishimiye kubamo no gusaziramo.

Guha umwanya abageze mu zabukuru mu iterambere rusange ry’igihugu, ni inyungu za twese. Bituma bumva bagifite akamaro, ubunararibonye n’ubushobozi byabo twese bikatugirira akamaro. Ibyo bituma abageze mu zabukuru bareka kuba cyangwa kugaragara nk’umuzigo ku gihugu n’imiryango babamo, ahubwo bakaba abafatanyabikorwa mu iterambere.

Nk’uko twabibonye, imibereho myiza, iterambere, ubuvuzi n’ibindi, bizakomeza gutuma umubare w’abageze mu za bukuru ukomeza kwiyongera. Twese dufite inyungu ko hafatwa ingamba za ngombwa hakiri kare. Maze ubwo bwiyongere bukazaba impamvu y’ituze n’ubusabane mu miryango, aho kugira ngo buzaremerere imiryango, maze bukaba impamvu y’ubwumvikane buke n’amakimbirane; aho twese twaba tubangamiwe.

Umwanzuro

Ntidushidikanya ko inzego z’igihugu bireba, cyane cyane MINALOC, MINISANTE na MIGEPROF, zikora kandi zizakomeza gukora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo abageze mu za bukuru barusheho kubaho neza. Hakozwe byinshi dushimira ababigizemo uruhare bose ariko na none haracyari byinshi byo gukora. Uyu munsi bisa n’aho tuvugira abandi, bisa n’aho ibikorwa bikorerwa abandi; nyamara nitureba neza turasanga ari twe twivugira, turasanga ari twe twikorera.

Koko rero, abo ibyo byose bigirira akamaro uyu munsi ni abacu; ejo nitwe ubwacu bizagirira akamaro. Guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’abageze mu zabukuru ni ukwiteganyiriza.


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