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Isesengura rya Michela Wrong kuri Congo, ni nk’irya cya kirondwe inka yarariwe kera!

Yanditswe na Marc Hoogsteyns
Kuya 24 April 2023 saa 05:22
Yasuwe :

Mperutse gusoma igitekerezo cyanditswe na Michela Wrong yise ‘Kagame’s revenge’ (Kwihimura kwa Kagame) cyatambutse mu kinyamakuru Foreign Affairs. Iyo mbimenya nari kugira ibindi nikorera kuko cyuzuyemo ibintu bishaje ahora asubiramo. Wagira ngo amaze imyaka icumi ahagaritse gukurikirana amakuru ajyanye n’u Rwanda. Ibijyanye n’u Rwanda na Congo byaramwihishe cyane.

Michela mwubahira ibyo yakoze mu gihe cyahise ndetse nkanenga abamushinja kuba yari umuntu wa hafi wa Patrick Karegeya ndetse ko bashobora kuba bari bafitanye umubano w’ibanga (nubwo mbifata nk’ibirego biciriritse).

Hari byinshi ntemeranya na we mu gitabo aheruka kwandika yise Rwanda “Do not disturb”. Ahanini kutemeranya na we bishingiye ku kuba igitabo cye yaragishingiye ku buhamya yahawe n’abantu bafite uruhande rumwe babogamiye ku Rwanda, ntanashake kumva icyo urundi ruhande rubivugaho kandi yari afite amahirwe yo kubigeraho.

Inyandiko ye yise ‘Kagame’s Revenge’ nayo ni uko imeze, yo noneho irakabya cyane ikarushaho kugusha abasomyi mu mutego bakunze kugwamo iyo bagerageje kumenya ibibazo biri hagati ya Repubulka Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo n’u Rwanda.

Ngo FDLR ni urwitwazo rwa Leta ya Kigali? Iyi mvugo buri gihe ikoreshwa mu kugerageza kumvikanisha ko uyu mutwe w’abahezanguni ntacyo utwaye. Guhera mu 1994 u Rwanda rwakoze ibishoboka byose rubasunikira kure ndetse hafi kubarandura burundu nyamara buri gihe bagiye bongera kwisuganya babifashijwemo na Uganda cyangwa Leta ya Congo nkuko iri kubikora ubu.

Laurent Desire Kabila we yageze aho abategera n’indege abavana mu bice bya kure nka Congo Brazzaville, Angola n’ahandi ngo baza kumufasha guhangana n’imitwe nka CNDP na RDC-Goma.

Joseph Kabila na we nibyo yakoze. Ubwo Felix Tshisekedi yafataga ubutegetsi, FDLR yasaga n’iyongeye gutsindwa burundu. Uyu muyobozi mushya wa Congo yari ahugijwe no gushakisha amaboko i Kinshasa ndetse agaragaza ko hari ibyo akeneyeho Leta y’u Rwanda. Icyo gihe ubufatanye bwa FARDC na RDF bwarushijeho guca intege FDLR. Aba bahezanguni b’Abahutu bahinduye amayeri icyo gihe, imbaraga bazishyira mu bucuruzi mu bibaya bya Rutshuru. Ubu bucuruzi bwa magendu bwabarinze by’igihe gito kuzimira burundu.

Ubwo Museveni na Kagame bwashwanaga mu myaka itanu ishize, FDLR yongeye kubona imbaraga binyuze mu bahezanguni b’Abagande nka Philemon Mateke wari muri Guverinoma ya Museveni na Eugene Serafuli wo muri Congo. Inkunga z’intwaro zabisikanaga buri gihe mu birindiro bya FDLR. Byose byakorwaga ngo barakaze Kagame. Icyo gihe benshi bagaragaza ko u Rwanda na Uganda bishobora kurwanira muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru.

Kagame na Museveni baje kujya inama, banga kugwa muri uwo mutego bagana inzira y’amahoro, gusa FDLR yari yamaze gusubirana imbaraga. Ingabo zayo zavuye kuri 500 zirenga 1000 ndetse hari abavuga ko zageze kuri 2500. Izi nyeshyamba zatangiye kugaba ibitero kuri M23 yari mu kirunga cya Sabyinyo, abandi binjirira muri Uganda bagaba ibitero mu Majyaruguru y’u Rwanda muri Kinigi.

Muri icyo gihe kandi nibwo Uganda n’u Burundi byemereye ihuriro ry’inyeshyamba zirwanya u Rwanda ziyise P5, baziha inzira zijya kwisuganyiriza mu Burundi. Abagabaga ibitero ku Rwanda ni igice cyahoze kuri FDLR cyayoborwaga na Irategeka Wilson, nyuma yo kuvanwa i Masisi bakanyura muri Uganda, bakahava bakomereza i Burundi. Bari barajwe imbere n’ikimanuka muri sinema Paul Rusesabagina wiyemeje kubafasha uko bashoboye kose. Uko byagenze ibara umupfu!

Mu gihe Tshisekedi yashakishaga uwo yagerekaho ibibazo byari bimuremereye i Kinshasa, amacumu yayatunze M23 ndetse n’Abatutsi bose bari mu Karere. Leta ya Congo yakunze kwirengagiza amasezerano yagiye igirana na M23, biba mu gihe uyu mutwe wari umaze kwisuganya kubera ibitero wagabwaho na FDLR. Leta y’u Rwanda yongeye gushinjwa gufasha M23 ariko icyo gihe bibanza kuvugwa mu matamatama.

U Rwanda rwari rucumbikiye impunzi z’Abatutsi b’abanye-Congo mu nkambi za Kiziba na Gihembe. Mu gihe gito cyane, M23 yagaragaje ko ingabo zayo ntaho zihuriye n’iza leta ya Congo (FARDC).
Nyuma y’ifatwa ry’umujyi wa Bunagana, FARDC na Tshisekedi baguye mu kantu, basanga nta yandi mahitamo atari ugutera inkunga FDLR yari isigaye irwana no gukomeza kugenzura uduce icukuramo amabuye y’agaciro, imirima ihingamo n’amashyamba itwikamo amakara byoherezwa mu mijyi ya Goma na Bukavu.

Nibwo ibisasu byatangiye kugwa mu Kinigi, byica abasivile. FDLR yongeye gushaka kwinjira mu Rwanda ikoresheje amayeri ya kera y’abacengezi. Ubu ndabizi Michela ari kuvuga ko nabaye umuvugizi wa Leta ya Kigali, ariko ibi ni amakuru mpamo yagaragaye mbere gato y’inama ya CHOGM yabereye i Kigali.

Ibya FDLR-Foca na Omega

Aya makuru namaze iminsi myinshi ku misozi yo ku mupaka nyishakira. Imikorere ya Ceceka yari yagarutse kandi inzego z’ubutasi z’u Rwanda na FDLR ubwayo bari baryamiye amajanja. Ceceka ni ijambo rikoreshwa n’abashyigikiye FDLR (ku mipaka), ryo kutabavamo ngo bamene ibanga ry’amabi bari gukora cyangwa bateganya gukora kugira ngo babone uko batera, rimwe na rimwe bakanabafasha. Abahezanguni batavuga rumwe n’u Rwanda bari i Burayi, batangiye gukwirakwiza ubutumwa n’inkuru zigamije kumvikanisha ko ubufatanye bwa Leta ya Tshisekedi na FDLR nta kibazo, gusa baje kunanirwa.

Kugeza ubu FDLR ibarirwa abarwanyi bari hagati ya 3000 na 4000, igice kinini cyabo kuri ubu kiri kurwana ku ruhande rwa FARDC, mu myambaro y’ingabo za Congo. Niyo mpamvu imibare Michela Wrong avuga mu nyandiko ye abeshya.

Kagame yaba ari kwivanga mu bibazo bya Congo ngo abone amabuye y’agaciro?

Gukoresha iyi mvugo kwa Michela Wrong, nabyo bigaragaza ko ibitekerezo bye bikibereye mu myaka icumi cyangwa 15 ishize. Yibagiwe kuvuga no ku cyiswe ‘Congo desk’ cyashyizweho Kabila amaze gufata ubutegetsi, u Rwanda rukirukanwamo rushinjwa gufasha CNDP ya Laurent Nkunda.

Iyo Congo desk yari yashyizweho ngo ibangamire intambara u Rwanda rwari rurimo muri Congo. Nkeka ko ubu abayobozi bakuru muri RPF babona neza amakosa bakoze mu myaka yashize ubwo M23 ya Makenga yemeraga guhagarika imirwano ikajya muri Uganda. U Rwanda rwabonaga ko hari izindi nzira kandi zishoboka.

Kagame n’abantu be bari barajwe ishinga no guteza imbere igihugu, banga kwivanga mu bibazo by’ibihugu baturanye haba mu Burundi na Congo. Bifuzaga umubano ushingiye ku bucuruzi, nta buryarya. Muri ibyo bihe u Rwanda rwari rwaramaze kwinjira mu itsinda ry’ibihugu bya Afurika birangwamo ruswa nke, kimwe mu byo ruzira. Rwari rugeze aho rwubaka uruganda rutunganya zahabu ndetse ibiganiro byari byaratangiye kugira ngo Leta ya Congo ijye iza gushongeshereza zahabu yabo mu Rwanda. Urwo ni urugero rumwe.

Kuvuga rero ko icyo Kagame akeneye muri Congo ari amabuye y’icyo gihugu, ni ibihuha bisa. Icyo bashaka ni ubucuruzi bunyuze mu mucyo, aho kwitwikira ijoro nk’abajura. Muri icyo gihe nibwo Kagame yashyize imbaraga mu gufasha ibihugu nka Centrafrique na Mozambique mu bijyanye n’umutekano, kugira ngo abaturage batekane. Byamutwaye imbaraga nyinshi za dipolomasi ngo abigereho, yunguka inshuti nyinshi mu Burayi, ibintu byariye mu mutwe abamurwanya. Yeretse Isi ko abanyafurika bashobora kwikemurira ibibazo byabo. Michela rero akwiriye kumenya ko Kagame nta mabuye ya Congo akeneye kugeza ubwo ajya kwivanga mu bibazo byayo imbere.

Ibibazo bya RDC byari byakemutse ubwo M23 yashyiraga intwaro hasi mu 2013?

Oya! Mu gihe Makenga n’ingabo ze bajyaga muri Uganda, hari indi mitwe myinshi yitwaje intwaro yavutse mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo, imyinshi igashinjwa bigizwemo uruhare na FARDC. Imitwe y’inyeshyamba nka CODECO, ADF na Yakutumba imaze guhitana benshi cyane kurusha M23 cyangwa CNDP ya Laurent Nkunda. Kinshasa byose ibyegeka ku Rwanda na M23, ko ariyo mpamvu yananiwe guhashya iyo mitwe imyinshi inaterwa inkunga n’abayobozi bakomeye. Gusa koko M23 ishobora kugira ingaruka ku tundi duce tw’igihugu amatora ntabe, nk’aho Katanga iri mu bibazo kuri ubu kubera Moise Katumbi uhavuka wiswe umunyamahanga.

Tshisekedi ashobora kwifashishwa urwitwazo nk’urwa M23 mu tundi duce tw’igihugu, igihugu akagisambura mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya. Hari indi mitwe nka Bunda Dia Congo iryamiye amajanja muri Bas-Congo ngo iyogoze ibintu, mu gihe agace nka Kwamouth ko ariho kerekeza.

Haba hari ibimenyetso by’uko RDF iri kurwana ku ruhande rwa M23?

Nta bimenyetso bihari ndetse ibimenyetso Leta ya Congo na Loni bakomeza gukwirakwiza ntabwo bihagije ngo wemeza ko ibyo bavuga ari ukuri. Nk’amashusho bavuga ko yafashwe na drones (yerekana abantu bambaye gisirikare bitwa ingabo z’u Rwanda), nta kigaragaza ko ariyo. Icyo ubona gusa ni umurongo w’ingabo zigenda umwe inyuma y’undi. Ibindi FARDC yagaragaje ni impuzankano ivuga ko yafashe ndetse n’abasirikare babiri byaje kuvumburwa ko bashimutiwe ku mupaka w’ibihugu byombi.

Kuvuga ko ngo M23 itari gushobora kwisuganya gutyo ndetse ngo irwane mu buryo burimo ikinyabupfura, nabyo ni amagambo. Icya mbere ni uko benshi mu basirikare ba M23 bigeze kuba mu gisirikare cya RDF mu myaka yashize, abandi bakaba barabaye muri CNDP ya Laurent Nkunda yabanje gutozwa na RDF. Ni abantu nzi neza, bari baravuye mu gisirikare cy’u Rwanda mbere yo kwinjira mu cya Makenga. Ni abanye-Congo bafashe imbunda ngo barinde imiryango yabo. Niyo mpamvu n’abashya binjijwe muri M23 bahabwa iyo myitozo ya gisirikare isa nk’itangwaga mu gisirikare cy’u Rwanda (kuko ababatoza bigeze kubamo). Kuba abo basore ba M23 bafite icyo barwanira, bibaha izindi mbaraga kurusha aba FARDC badafite icyo bahomba.

Ntabwo ikibazo M23 ifite ari ibikoresho ku ngabo zayo zibarirwa hagati ya 3000 na 4000, ndetse ikaba ikiri kwinjiza abandi basore. Uyu mutwe ibikoresho wari ufite mu myaka yashize byari bikibitse, ukongeraho ibyo bafata mu duce birukanyemo FARDC. Ibikoresho uyu mutwe udafite ni ibihanura indege z’intambara kandi nabyo bishobora guhinduka vuba. Imbunda zirasa ibisasu nka Sam 7 n’izindi zikorwa n’Abashinwa biroroshye kuzigura mu buryo bwa magendu. M23 iramutse izifite biroroshye guhanura indege nka Sukhoi zishaje FARDC yigamba.

Mu mezi ya mbere ubwo FARDC yarwanaga na M23, RDF ntacyo byari biyibwiye. Ubwo ibintu byarushagaho gukomera, bikagaragara ko FDLR iri kwisuganya ngo itere u Rwanda, bishobora kuba byarahindutse.

Ingabo za M23 ntabwo ari Abanyarwanda ariko imyitwarire yazo imeze neza nk’iy’ingabo z’u Rwanda n’imyambaro bafite ni nk’iyazo, ahanini bagiye bagura hanze cyangwa bene wabo bari mu Burayi bakayibagurira. Ejo ushobora no kubabona mu myambaro y’ingabo za Amerika, iz’u Bubiligi cyangwa Abaholandi.

Ubufasha bunini M23 ishobora kuba ivana muri bene wabo baba mu Rwanda, ni ukubashyigikira mu buryo bwo kubereka ko babari inyuma. Benshi mu Banyarwanda biyumvamo M23 ndetse hari n’aboherereza uwo mutwe ibiribwa cyangwa amafaranga. Barabizi neza ko aba baturage bahoze bafatiye runini Kivu y’Amajyaruguru, benshi imiryango yabo yarishwe cyangwa irameneshwa, imitungo yabo irasahurwa.

Kuvuga rero ko Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ishyigikiye M23, mbona ari ubujiji cyangwa se icengezamatwara rya Leta ya Kinshasa mu guhuma amaso umuryango mpuzamahanga. Hari ibihugu bikomeye bikomeje kwibeshya bitekereza ko gushyira igitutu ku Rwanda ngo ruhagarike gufasha M23 bizakemura ikibazo. Ni ukwibeshya kuko icya mbere nta nkunga n’ubundi u Rwanda rwahaga uwo mutwe, icya kabiri ni uko ibya M23 byamaze kuba ikibazo cy’Abatutsi aho bari hose ku isi, bayiyumvamo.

Ikindi birengagiza ni uko n’iyo ikibazo cya M23 cyazinzikwa uyu munsi, nyuma y’imyaka runaka kizongera kibyuke, bose barabizi.

Igisubizo cyonyine gishoboka kiroroshye: Guverinoma ya Kinshasa ikwiriye gutangira kuganira na M23, amasezerano bagiranye mu 2013 agashyirwa mu bikorwa. Tshisekedi ari kwibeshya kwibwira ko mu gihe gito abagize M23 azaba yabafungiye mu nkambi muri Maniema. Ibintu bishobora kuba bibi kurushaho, nubwo wasanga aribyo Leta ya Congo ishaka.

Umwanzuro?

Wrong asoza inkuru ye yongera gusubiramo inkuru zishaje, ngo u Rwanda nirwo buri gihe rutera ibibazo muri Congo, ndetse agasubiramo ibya bagenzi be nka Denis Mukwege by’uko u Bwongereza n’u Bufaransa bafite ikindi bashaka kwifashishamo Kagame.

Ibintu byose Michela Wrong avuga, hari ibimenyetso bibinyomoza. Kuvuga ko Kagame ashaka kwihorera kubera ko nta jambo akigira mu bibera muri Congo, ni ugukabya guteye ubwoba.

Wrong ndabizi agisoma iyi nkuru azavuga ati ‘dore ba bavugizi ba Kagame badashishoza’. Ndabizi ko afite uburenganzira bwo kwandika ibyo ashaka, kandi nanjye simunenga kubera kwihorera.

Ibyo navuze hano bishingiye kubyo niboneye n’uko mbona ibintu. Mba i Kigali ariko nkurikirana intambara ya Congo ndi ku ruhande rwa M23, ibintu bidashimisha na mba Leta ya Kinshasa. Leta y’u Rwanda ifite amakosa yayo ariko ibyo Kagame na Guverinoma ye bagezeho birigaragaza. Kuba rero yahitamo kwenyegeza intambara muri Congo, arabizi ko ari ibyasubiza inyuma ibyagezweho.

Ikibazo ni uko abantu nka Wrong batumva ikibazo FDLR iteje. Ibibazo bya Congo n’u Rwanda byamaze kurenga imitekerereze ya Wrong kuko nta makuru yaho akimenya. Icyo akwiriye kumenya, nta muntu wakwiyemera ngo ni we ufite amakuru ya nyayo ku bibazo bya Congo, waba uri umwanditsi w’ibitabo w’igitangaza (nka Wrong) cyangwa uri umuntu usanzwe.

Michela Wrong asanzwe ari umwe mu banenga cyane imiyoborere y'u Rwanda, ari nayo mpamvu abogamiye cyane kuri RDC

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