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Inyurabwenge n’ubucukumbuzi ku ntambara nshya ya Uganda muri Congo n’ingaruka zayo zishoboka ku Rwanda

Yanditswe na Marc Hoogsteyns
Kuya 12 December 2021 saa 05:00
Yasuwe :

Ibyo buri wese yakekaga byarabaye. Ingabo za Uganda, UPDF, zinjiye muri Congo guhangana na ADF-Nalu, umutwe w’intagondwa z’Abayisilamu wayogoje agace ka Beni unashinjwa uruhare mu bitero bimaze iminsi bigabwe mu murwa mukuru wa Uganda, Kampala.

Perezida wa Uganda, Yoweri Museveni, yumvikanye na mugenzi we wa Congo, Félix Tshisekedi ndetse aho tuvugira ubu, abasirikare ba Uganda batangije urugamba rugamije guhashya uyu mutwe.

UPDF yatangiye itera ibisasu biremereye mu gace karimo abo barwanyi ikoresheje n’indege z’intambara za Suhkoi-30. Babikoreye mu maso ya za camera mu kwereka abanyamahanga ko kuri iyi nshuro bagiye kurandura ADF n’imizi yayo yose.

Icyantangaje ni uko iyi operasiyo yahawe umugisha na Loni. Ku nshuro ya mbere, abaturage b’i Beni bari banejejwe n’ibi bikorwa cyo kimwe n’Ingabo za Congo ku buryo molari yari hejuru ko batsinze icya mbere izi nyeshyamba.

Gusa mfite ukundi mbona ibi byose. Mfite impungenge ko iyi myiyerekano mu itangazamakuru ishobora gupfukirana amakimbirane ashobora koreka akarere kose. Iyi operasiyo irimo byinshi bidasobanutse ku buryo uyu munsi abantu bari kuyikomera amashyi birengagije ibyabaye mu myaka yashize.

ADF-Nalu

Mu bigaragara nta muntu uzi neza imiterere y’uyu mutwe, ese ufite abarwanyi bangahe, ni inde uwutera inkunga cyangwa se ukora ute. Icyo tuzi ni uko uyu mutwe washingiwe muri Uganda urwanya Museveni nyuma ukaza kwimukira muri Congo.

Tuzi kandi ko ADF ishinjwa ubwicanyi bwinshi bwakorewe mu bice bya Beni na Ituri. Abasesenguzi bamwe bashinja Leta ya Uganda kuba yarashyigikiye uyu mutwe mu bihe byashize iwuha ibikoresho (nubwo uyu munsi Uganda iri kuwurwanya). Bibaye koko yarawuteye inkunga, ubwabyo ni indi mpamvu yo guteza akaduruvayo muri Kivu.

Kuba ADF yaba ifitanye imikoranire na Islamic State biracyari ihurizo. Igisirikare cya Congo, FARDC, cyananiwe kurwanya uyu mutwe. Ni kimwe n’uko bimeze ku yindi mitwe yiganje mu karere, FARDC ihitamo kutarwana nayo.

Hari abasesenguzi bavuga ko FARDC yateraga inkunga ADF kugira ngo ikomeze guteza akaduruvayo muri ako gace birangaze amaso y’amahanga hanyuma ikomeze kwikorera ubucuruzi bwa maguyi nta muntu ubyitayeho.

Indi mpamvu ni uko kariya gace gatuwe n’abaturage bo mu bwoko bw’Aba-Nande, umuryango ukora ubucuruzi wanga abawitambika baturutse i Kinshasa bituma amaso yabo bayerekeza mu baturanyi bo muri Uganda.

Aba-Nande bamaze igihe mu makimbirane n’abaturage ba hariya bo mu bwoko bw’Aba-Hutu bapfa impamvu za politiki n’ubuyobozi bw’Intara ya Kivu y’Amajyaruguru.

Umwe mu ba guverineri baheruka kuyobora iyi ntara yari uwo mu bwoko bw’Aba-Nande ariko ubu kuva aho Kinshasa yashyiriyeho Guverineri w’Umusirikare uri i Goma, indoto y’ubuyobozi imaze igihe isinziriye.

Ibikorwa by’ubugizi bwa nabi, imiterere ya politiki muri ako gace n’igisirikare, byabaye nk’imvange umuntu adashobora kumenya ibintu biyigize.

Ibyo byose ariko biba mu gihe ADF iri kwica, gusahura, guteza ubwoba abatuye muri ako gace, bityo rero hakwiriye kugira igikorwa. FARDC ntabwo yari ishoboye kugira icyo ikora. Monusco, nk’Ingabo za Loni ziri muri ako gace nazo zirarebera gusa.

Ibitero biheruka bya grenade zatewe i Kampala, byashinjwe uyu mutwe ugendera ku matwara y’idini ya Islam gusa hari n’abavuga ko ari Guverinoma ya Uganda yabikoze mu isura yo gushaka guharura inzira ziyiganisha kongera gusubira muri Congo.

Perezida Museveni ari kugera mu za bukuru, abo bakorana bakunze kumushinja ko ari umunyabugugu. Yahize bukware abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwe mu matora aheruka ndetse ubu igihugu kiri mu bibazo bishingiye ku ihungabana ry’ubukungu. Intambara yose yatuma yongera kurambura imitsi ye yaba nziza kugira ngo amaso y’abamureba abe ahuze gato yaba Abanya-Uganda n’abandi baturage n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga.

Amakimbirane n’u Rwanda

Amakimbirane n’u Rwanda ni yo yabyaye ifungwa ry’umupaka uhuriweho n’ibihugu byombi. U Rwanda rushinja Museveni gufasha imitwe itandukanye irurwanya irimo nka FDLR, RNC n’indi. Hari ibihamya by’uko Uganda iha ibikoresho RNC na FDLR muri Congo.

Museveni ari kugerageza kandi gushaka uko ubukungu bwa Kivu y’Amajyaruguru abuyobora abwerekeza muri Uganda. Nanditse indi nyandiko kuri iyi ngingo mu minsi ishize.

Binyuze ku wahoze ari Minisitiri muri Uganda, Philemon Mateke, n’umukobwa we usigaye uri muri Guverinoma, Abahutu bo muri Kivu ya Ruguru babona imfashanyo yo kuzahura umuco wabo wa kera, mu nsengero no mu mashuri ku buryo ikoreshwa ry’ururimi rw’i Kihutu ryongeye gushyirwamo imbaraga binyuze muri gahunda yo kwanga Kigali n’Abatutsi.

Eugène Serafuli, wahoze ari Guverineri wa Kivu y’Amajyaruguru akaba n’umuntu wo hafi wa Mateke, yavukiye i Kisoro hafi ya Congo. Ari kugira uruhare rukomeye muri ibi byose. Ibimenyetso bimwe bigaragaza ko ari kuzahura umutwe w’abarwanyi ba Nyatura Hutu.

Abarwanyi ba Nyatura bagizwe n’abahutu bo muri Congo kandi bagirana umubano wa hafi n’intagondwa z’abahutu zo mu Rwanda. Iyi mikorere igamije gushyigikira abatavuga rumwe n’u Rwanda bari muri Diaspora bashaka kurushora mu ntambara ikomeye kugira ngo umuryango mpuzamahanga uzabyinjiremo usabe ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda kugirana nabo ibiganiro.

Ibyo kandi byiyongera ku biganiro byose bivuga ku mutwe wa M23, ugizwe n’Abatutsi kandi badafitanye ikibazo n’ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda, wirukanywe muri Congo mu myaka ishize.

M23 yahungiye mu Rwanda no muri Uganda. Gusa Guverinoma ya Congo ntabwo yigeze itera intambwe n’imwe yo kongera gusubiza abawugize mu buzima busanzwe. Byatumye abarwanyi bawo barakara, bamwe bava mu nkambi muri Uganda bajya muri Pariki ya Virunga hafi y’Umupaka w’u Rwanda na Uganda. Mu kwezi gushize, bagabye ibitero bitandukanye kuri FARDC.

Nahoze nibaza ikindi kintu cyatuma Museveni abona inzira yo gusubira muri RDC. Icyashobokaga cyonyine ni ADF. Ntimunyumve nabi. Niba koko ADF ari icyo bamwe batekereza, niba kandi koko ariyo iri inyuma y’ibitero bimaze iminsi bigabwa i Kampala, UPDF ishobora kuba iri gukora akazi keza. Ariko...

I Kigali, iyi ntambara ya ADF-UPDF iri gucungirwa hafi. Abarwanyi ba ADF bigeze gufatirwa i Kigali bagerageza gutera ibisasu. RDF iri kurwanya imitwe y’intagondwa z’Abayisilamu muri Cabo Delgado. Birashoboka ko abo barwanyi bashobora kuba bifitemo Abanye-Congo bakorana na ADF.

Rero byashoboka ko bashobora gutera u Rwanda. Gusa Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Iperereza n’Umutekano, NISS na Polisi y’u Rwanda, babibonye kare. Kigali izi neza ko Museveni yashakaga impamvu nziza yamwinjiza muri RDC kandi birasa n’aho yayibonye.

Byageze n’aho Perezida wa Uganda yumvisha Guverinoma ya Congo ko hagomba kujyaho ubufatanye muri uru rugamba rwo kurwanya ADF none n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga hamwe na Loni baramushyigikiye. Birasa n’aho, Umuryango Mpuzamahanga n’Ingabo za Loni ziri muri RDC, bari kwemera mu buryo buteruye ko ntacyo bamaze.

Imiterere y’urugamba

Ikinyamakuru cyo mu Rwanda giherutse gutambutsa inkuru yari irimo impuguke mu bya gisirikare yavugaga ko UPDF iri kwerekana ko ifite ubushobozi mu ntwaro ku buryo bisa n’aho ibi bikorwa byo kurwanya ADF ari nk’imyitozo ikomeye ku ntambara z’ahazaza.

Abandi basesenguzi mu bya gisirikare bo bakeka ko Kampala iri gukora ikosa rikomeye mu gukomanga ku muryango wa ADF kugira ngo abarwanyi bayo bihishe mu mashyamba ari hafi aho hanyuma bahunge ibitero biri kubagabwaho.

Imitwe nka ADF ishobora kwiyoberanya mu gihe yivanze n’abaturage, isubira inyuma iyo igabweho ibitero cyane, ikihisha mu bihuru, ikongera ikisuganya mbere yo kugenda mu dutsinda duto duto ubundi igashoza urugamba.

Ikoresha imbaraga zishobora gutuma abaturage bahura n’ibibazo byinshi. Nta muntu uzi ikigero ibisasu bya UPDF byagize mu kwangiriza abaturage.

I Kigali bamwe mu basirikare bakuru bafashe iyi ntambara ya UPDF muri RDC nko kuburira u Rwanda ngo ntirujye muri ibi bikorwa. Gusa ntabwo bishimiye uburyo yateguwe.

Umwe mu bayobozi b’i Kigali twaganiriye yangereranyirije Museveni n’ingagi iri “kwikomanga ku gatuza n’urusaku rwinshi’ angaragariza ko ibikorwa nk’ibi bye byari byitezwe kandi ko nta bwoba biteye u Rwanda.

Ati “Twari twiteze umwanzuro nk’uyu rero ntabwo uduteye ubwoba. Turabizi, dukurikira intambwe imwe ku yindi.”

Abandi basesenguzi bambwiye ko ari uguhembera no gutegura intambara ku Rwanda akoresheje ukuboko kumwe akarwanya imitwe y’intagondwa z’abayisilamu akoresheje ukundi.

Ibi ni ukuri kuko navuganye n’abatangabuhamya batandukanye babimpamirije. U Rwanda rwamenyeshejwe mbere ibijyanye n’ibi bitero ndetse n’imikoranire n’ingabo za UPDF.

Ariko Guverinoma ya Congo yari yarasinyanye amasezerano n’iy’u Rwanda yo gukorera hamwe mu kurwanya no guhagarika ibikorwa bya FDLR na RNC. RDF na FARDC bari mu rugamba rwo guhashya FDLR imaze igihe mu karere gusa kubera ubufasha uyu mutwe ukura kuri Uganda, byatumye wongera kwisuganya.

Urusaku rw’intambara yo muri Kivu rukwira hose umunsi ku wundi. Ibinyamakuru by’i Kampala byandika buri munsi ko u Rwanda rutera ADF inkunga y’amikoro .

Ejo hashize nasomye inkuru mu kinyamakuru cyo muri Uganda ko Uganda yashyize icyuma gisaka intwaro n’ibintu biturika ku mupaka wayo n’u Rwanda. Mu gukora ibyo yumvikanishaga ko u Rwanda rwatanze ibisasu byakoreshejwe mu bitero by’i Kampala.

Natunguwe kandi n’uko nta muntu wigeze uvuga mu buryo bweruye ko Monusco ishyigikiye iyi ntambara. Ibi ubwabyo byerekana ubushobozi buke bwayo. Miliyoni z’amadolari zimaze gutangwa mu bikorwa byo kugarura amahoro ariko Monusco irekera imirwano abandi.

U Rwanda na Uganda byakunze kunengwa mu bihe byashize ku bwo gushoza intambara muri RDC. Baromètre Securitaire du Kivu yabwiye Televiziyo yo mu Bufaransa ko umusanzu w’ingabo za Uganda ari ingirakamaro ku baturage ba Congo kurusha uw’u Rwanda.

Bibagiwe kuvuga impamvu u Rwanda rwagiye muri Congo mu myaka 20 ishize, impamvu rwarwanyije Mobutu n’impamvu rwafashije Laurent Desiré Kabila kugera ku butegetsi.

Impamvu y’ibi irumvikana. Abanye-Congo bemereye intagondwa z’Abahutu kongera kwisuganya zigatangira kugaba nanone ibitero mu Rwanda. Icyo gihe Ingabo za Loni zari zihari ariko ntacyo zigeze zikora mu kubihagarika.

Byahatiriye u Rwanda kwinjira muri RDC. Ni ukuri ko hari amakosa yakozwe muri ibyo byose ariko hari n’ay’uko rujyayo rwashinjwaga ibintu byose bitagenda neza kugeza no kuvuga ko arirwo rwatumye Mobutu yicisha inzara abaturage be. Ni mu gihe Uganda yo injiye muri RDC bwa mbere ifite izindi mpamvu, zari ubucuruzi gusa.

Kwiyumvamo imbaraga

Kwiyumvamo imbaraga no kwikomanga ku gatuza kwa Museveni kwakumvikana mu gihe UPDF yaba iteganya kuguma muri RDC igihe kirekire. Ubu bari Uganda iri muri gahunda yo gusana umuhanda munini uhuza imijyi minini yo muri Kivu ya Ruguru. Ntabwo mbona hafi yanjye ko iyi ntambara itazamara igihe kirekire kugira ngo uku kuguma muri RDC guhabwe igisobanuro.

Ikindi kandi ni uko Uganda ishobora kubona urwitwazo rwo kuva mu Majyaruguru ya Kivu ikerekeza mu Majyepfo.

Mu gihe Uganda yashinja u Rwanda gufasha ADF, bavuga ko ADF yahungiye mu majyepfo, bakabona ibyo babwira isi yose ko uyu mutwe uri kwigarurira ibice by’intara by’Amajyepfo. Bajya bavuga ngo inkoni yo gukubita imbwa uyibona aho ariho hose!

Munyemerere ngaragaze uko ibi bintu bibi byagenda kuko byatuma akarere kose kaba umuyonga. U Rwanda rushobora ahari kutabyihanganira kubona ingabo za UPDF hafi y’umupaka warwo ku mbibi za Congo.

Birashoboka ko RDF ifite ibikoresho, morali n’imyitozo iruta iya UPDF. Abanya-Uganda bafite indege, ariko Abanyarwanda bafite ibisasu byo kuzihanura, ibifaru ni igikoresho kidafite akamaro kanini mu bice by’imisozi nka Kivu. Ingabo z’u Rwanda zifite imyitozo ihambaye ndetse n’ubunararibonye mu mirwanire. Nibwira ko Kigali ifite uburyo bwinshi cyangwa se butatu bwo kurwanya ibi bikorwa.

Ubwa mbere ni ukumvisha Guverinoma ya Congo ko RDF ishobora gushyira ibirindiro i Rutshuru no mu nkengero za Masisi kugira ngo ibuze UPDF kwerekeza i Goma no kubuza UPDF kwisuganyiriza ku mupaka wa Congo wa Ishasha-Bwindi na Jomba-Kisoro.

Aha rero, Museveni byamusaba gutekereza kabiri mbere y’uko atanga amabwiriza. Guverinoma ya Congo yaba isigaranye inshingano zo kuba nk’umusifuzi. Umuryango mpuzamahanga waba ufite uburyo bwo kubigiramo uruhare binyuze wenda nko mu biganiro bya dipolomasi. U Rwanda rwakoresha uyu mwanya mu kurwanya umwanzi warwo, FDLR.

Uburyo bwa kabiri, ni uko UPDF yagana mu kibaya cya Rutshuru, RDF yahita ako kanya ifunga ubufasha bwayo bwari guturuka muri Uganda ku mipaka yayo. Muri icyo gihe, RDF ntiyakwemerera UPDF gukoresha Ikibuga cy’indege cya Goma. Byatuma habaho nk’intambara yo mu kirere.

Ubundi buryo bwa gatatu bushoboka bijyanye n’uko u Rwanda rudashobora kwizera umuryango mpuzamahanga ko hari icyo warokora. U Rwanda rwakwemerera Abanya-Uganda gutwara ibifaru byabo i Goma n’indege zayo za S-30 kugwayo.

Rwagira icyo rukora mu gihe cyonyine UPDF cyangwa se indi mitwe yatewe inkunga igerageje kurenga umupaka w’u Rwanda na Congo. Aha Umuryango Mpuzamahanga ushobora guhaguruka ukumvisha Uganda ko ikwiriye kuva mu karere.

Mu gihe Uganda yagerageza gutera u Rwanda muri ubu buryo bwose, byabyutsa amakimbirane atazarangirira ku butaka bwa Congo gusa.

Ubushotoranyi

Mbona Guverinoma ya Congo yarakoze ikosa rikomeye ryo kwemerera UPDF kwinjira ku butaka bwayo, ikahagera ifite indege 30 z’intambara, ibisasu bikomeye n’ibifaru. Ntabwo hakenewe intwaro zingana gutyo mu gutsintsura ADF.

Gukoresha ubwenge, ibikorwa by’umutwe w’ingabo kabuhariwe no kugaba ibitero biteguye kandi biyobowe neza byakora ako kazi neza.

Kuba abasirikare bakuru b’u Rwanda bagereranya Museveni nk’uri kwikomanga ku gatuza ushaka kwiyerekana neza birivugira; abantu benshi mu Rwanda babona ibikorwa bya UPDF nk’ubundi buryo bw’ubushotoranyi.

Kuba Loni iri guha umugisha ibi bikorwa byashoboka ko ari rimwe mu makosa akomeye yakoze kuva yazamura ibendera ryayo ku butaka bwa RDC mu myaka yashize.

U Rwanda rugoswe n’ibihugu rutabanye nabyo neza. Umuntu yahera ku kuvuga u Burundi na Uganda.

Muri iki gihe Kigali ishobora kuba iri kubona mu buryo bwihuse amakuru y’ibiri kubera hariya kurusha na Museveni ubwe. Izi UDPF imbere n’inyuma ndetse izi neza n’intege nke zayo. RDF ntitewe ubwoba no kurwana na UPDF.

Mu by’ukuri, RDF yakubise inshuro UPDF i Kisangani mu myaka yashize. Bishobora guhinduka kuri ubu ndetse UPDF ikaba yiteguye cyane ariko Museveni agomba gutekereza kabiri mbere yo kohereza ingabo ze guhangana na RDF.

Iyo mvuganye n’Abanyarwanda benshi, ni uko biteguye kurwanira igihugu cyabo. Mu nyandiko y’ubushize narababuriye ko iyi nkono iri gutogota cyane ariko ubu amazi yareze inkombe.

Mu gihe UPDF yava mu duce dukikije amashyamba ya Beni na Ituri, ingabo zayo zikerekeza ahagana mu Majyepfo, intego z’ukuri za Museveni zizahita zigaragara.

Intasi za Museveni i Kampala zishobora kuba zidashaka kurwana n’igisirikare cya RDF gifite gahunda, ikinyabupfura n’umurava mu mikorere yacyo. Byashoboka ko intambara yashoza ku Rwanda ishobora kuba intangiriro y’iherezo ry’ingoma ye.
Abatavuga rumwe n’uyu mukambwe muri Uganda bararushaho kugwiza imbaraga.

Nk’igihugu kitavuga rumwe n’u Rwanda, mu gihe nk’Igisirikare cy’u Burundi cyangwa Imbonerakure zagerageza gutera Amajyepfo yarwo, iminsi y’ubuyobozi bwabo ku butegetsi yabo ibarirwa ku ntoki. Ni ko byagendekera Guverinoma ya RDC na yo izabazwa ku ruhare rwayo mu gihe yakwemerera Abanya-Uganda gukoresha ubutaka bwayo mu gutera cyangwa guhungabanya u Rwanda. Ntiwanenga Abanyarwanda mu gihe bagerageje guhagarika izo mvururu kuri ubwo butaka ndetse Tshisekedi azaba ashyize abaturage be mu kaga.

Tubitege amaso…

Ubwanditsi

Ibikubiye muri iyi nyandiko ni ibitekerezo bwite bya Marc Hoogsteyns. Uyu ni umunyamakuru wabaye ndetse akorera mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari igihe kirekire.

Azi amateka y’ibihugu byo mu Karere ndetse yakoze inkuru zitandukanye zijyanye na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 ndetse n’intambara zo muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo.

Muri iki gihe ntagikora inkuru zoroheje zo muri aka gace ariko akurikiranira hafi ibikaberamo ndetse avugana bya hafi n’abo bakoranye mu myaka yashize.

Amatsiko ni menshi ku maherezo y'urugamba Museveni yashoje muri RDC

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