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Ingabo za EAC mu rungabangabo! Inama yari kubera i Goma yakubise igihwereye

Yanditswe na Adeline Umutoni, Marc Hoogsteyns
Kuya 23 April 2023 saa 07:12
Yasuwe :

Ibikubiye muri iyi nkuru ni ibitekerezo bwite by’abanditsi. Yasohotse bwa mbere mu Gifaransa kuri Kivu Press Agency, ishyirwa mu Kinyarwanda na IGIHE.

Abaminisitiri b’Ingabo z’Ibihugu bigize Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba (EAC) bagombaga guhurira mu nama i Goma ku wa Gatatu tariki 19 Mata 2023. Ni inama yaje gusubikwa ku munota wa nyuma. U Rwanda nk’umunyamuryango wa EAC ntirwigeze rutumirwa muri iyo nama yari yatumijwe na Minisitiri mushya w’ingabo za Congo, Jean Pierre Bemba.

Inama yasubitswe mu gihe Congo ariyo yari yasizoye ishaka ko inama ibera ku butaka bwayo, mu mujyi ugoswe n’inyeshyamba za M23. U Rwanda rushinjwa kuba gashozantambara muri izo mvururu nyamara nirwo rwahaye inzira ingabo za Kenya zoherejwe muri Kivu mu izina rya EAC. Birashoboka ko icyo Bemba yashakaga ari ukumvisha bagenzi be ba EAC icyifuzo cya Congo cyo guhindurira inshingano ingabo z’uwo muryango, zikabasha guhangana mu mirwano na M23. Kinshasa yamaze kugaragaraza ko nta kindi ishaka atari icyo.

Igihe izo ngabo zagombaga kumara muri Congo cyongereweho amezi atatu y’agateganyo, kandi Perezida Tshisekedi yamaze kuvuga ku mugaragaro ko izo ngabo zizaba zitagikenewe icyo nikirangira mu gihe zitemeye gufasha icyo gihugu kurwanya M23. Muri iyi minsi, Ingabo za EAC zakomeje kuzongwa n’ingabo za Congo (FARDC) zashatse guhangana na M23 zinyuze ku mbibi z’aho ingabo za EAC zigenzura. Hiyongeraho ingabo za Angola zigomba koherezwa muri Congo, nyamara ntaho zihuriye n’iza EAC ndetse n’ikizigenza kikaba kitumvikana.

Ingabo za EAC ziri mu rungabangabo nyuma y'uko igihe zahawe cyo kuba muri RDC kirangiriye

Kugeza ubu nta cyigeze gitangazwa ku isubikwa ry’inama y’abaminisitiri b’ibihugu bigize EAC, gusa bisa nk’aho bamwe muri bo bari bamaze kubona umutego wa politiki Bemba yashakaga kubagushamo. Biravugwa ko inama bashaka kuyisubukura ariko ikabera mu kandi gace kadafite aho kabogamiye, nubwo amazi atari ya yandi.

Bemba

Bemba icyo ategerejweho na Leta ya Kinshasa muri iyo nama ni ukuza azanye amasezerano mashya yo guhangana na M23, ibintu ibihugu bya EAC byamaze kugaragaza ko bizakora ari uko imitwe yose irwanyijwe n’iri ku ruhande rwa FARDC nka Nyatura, FDLR, Mai Mai n’indi. Ku wa Mbere ushize abagaba b’ingabo za EAC batangaje ku mugaragaro ko M23 yamaze kubahiriza ibyo isabwa, iva mu duce twa Kibumba, Kishishe, Tongo, Kitchanga n’ahandi.

Bikekwa ko uwo mutwe wabikoze ngo ukoze isoni Bemba, kugira ngo ibyo ashaka gusaba bitumvikana. Bemba kandi afite irindi hurizo, kuko FDLR nayo iri mu mitwe igomba kurwanywa no kwamburwa intwaro, nyamara niyo FARDC ishyira imbere ku rugamba kuko abasirikare bayo nta bushobozi, umuhate ndetse n’ikinyabupfura bafite byo kurwana.

Bemba asa n’uri gushyirwa mu mazi abira i Goma: Hashize iminsi mike we na mugenzi we Vital Kamerhe Perezida Tshisekedi abakuye mu bishingwe abaha imyanya muri Guverinoma, agamije kwigwizaho imbaraga i Kinshasa. Icyakora, Bemba wahoze ari inyeshyamba irwanya ubutegetsi bwa Joseph Kabila, akeneye ikindi cyuhagiro kugira ngo ahanagure izina rye ryanduye. Ashinjwa kuba yarayoboye batayo ebyiri z’abacanshuro zakoze ibara muri Repubulika ya Centrafrique. Yamaze imyaka afungiwe mu Rukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha mu Buholandi, nyuma aza kugirwa umwere kuko urukiko rwabuze ikindi rumumaza.

Mu gihe yari muri gereza, Joseph Kabila yabashije kwigarurira bamwe mu banyamulenge bahoze bari mu nyeshyamba ze ndetse bamwe baza guhabwa amapeti manini muri FARDC. Iyo batabyemera, bari gushinjwa ibyaha by’intambara bakoreye muri Centrafrique, Bemba akarekurwa vuba. Kwifatanya na Tshisekedi nibwo buryo bwonyine Bemba yari asigaranye ngo akomeze ibyifuzo bye bya politiki.

Tshisekedi yashyize Bemba ku mwanya wa Minisitiri w'Ingabo ku bw'inyungu ze za Politiki

Kinshasa iyo iza kubasha gutuma iyo nama ibera i Goma, yari kuba ikoze ikintu cy’ubwenge, dore ko u Rwanda rwari kuba rutayirimo. Mu minsi ishize abajyanama babiri b’ingabo za EAC bakomoka mu Rwanda, birukanywe muri Congo, ibintu byababaje cyane ingabo za EAC. Bemba yari kuba yikomanga mu gatuza iyo inama ibera i Goma, nyamara byarangiye bimupfubanye kuko inama itakihabereye.

U Rwanda

U Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu byashyigikiye kare iyoherezwa ry’ingabo za EAC muri Congo. Rwahaye inzira ingabo za Kenya zambukana ibikoresho agahishyi, zica i Gisenyi kugira ngo zigere i Goma. Bamwe mu bayobozi bakuru mu ngabo z’u Rwanda (RDF) twabajije niba Minisitiri w’Ingabo w’u Rwanda yari kujya mu nama i Goma, bavuze ko atari yatumiwe kandi ko ibyo RDC irimo batemeranya nayo. Icyakora icyo kibazo bagisuje baseka, bigaragaza ko kukibaza dusa nk’abigizaga nkana, natwe igisubizo tukizi. Ibyo bigaragaza ko abayobozi b’u Rwanda ntacyo bagitegereje kuri Kinshasa.

U Rwanda ruri mu bihugu bitanga inkunga ikoreshwa n’ingabo za EAC kuko ari umunyamuryango wa EAC n’uwa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe (AU). Ibyo bivuze ko rufite ubushake bwarwo mu gukemura amakimbirane mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo. Icyakora, ubwo bushake nabwo bukomeje kugenda bugabanyuka. Mu gihe EAC yagwa mu mutego wa w’ubuhezanguni wa Kinshasa wo kwemera kurwanya M23 gusa, ubushake bwa Guverinoma y’u Rwanda bushobora kuyoyoka.

Ibibazo byo kwinyuramo

Icyo abayobozi ba Kinshasa bashaka nacyo kigenda gihindagurika kubera kwinyuramo, kubeshya, n’uburyo ibintu bisanzwe bigaragara, babifata bakabihindurira inyito ngo bakomeze gushyushya imirishyo mu mbyino z’icengezamatwara za Tshisekedi, aho abarimo Patrick Muyaya bigaragariza.

Abanyamakuru b’abanyamahanga bagerageza gushyira ukuri hanze bagaragaza ibinyoma bya Kinshasa, bahambirizwa riva. Ni kimwe n’abashakashatsi cyangwa inzobere zizi byinshi kuri iyo dosiye, zihitamo kwicecekera cyangwa se zigahakana ibyo zibona, ngo bucye kabiri. Abanyamakuru b’abanye-Congo badashaka kuba ibikoresho bya Muyaya barafungwa. Hari abashyirwa muri kasho iminsi runaka, bakavamo bayamanitse, baseka, bishimye, basingiza ubutegetsi buriho, ubundi abaturage babakurikira muri Congo bakamira ubwo burozi.

Ku bijyanye n’inama yari kubera i Goma, ibyari kuyivugirwamo byari byamaze kumenyakana kuva ubwo Congo yatangazaga ko ishaka kuganira ku hazaza h’ingabo za EAC. Perezida w’u Rwanda ubwo yari muri Bénin, yabwiye abanyamakuru ko ikibazo cya M23 kidashobora kumvikana neza mu gihe kidaherewe mu mateka y’akarere kose. Inzobere mu mateka y’akarere k’ibiyaga bigari zizi neza aho igice kimwe cy’Abanyarwanda cyometswe kuri Congo kikajyana n’abaturage barwo, nyamara mu binyejana byose bahamaze bakaba barimwe uburenganzira bwabo. Hari abandi banyarwanda bajyanywe mu ntara ya za Kivu guhinga mu mirima y’icyayi y’abakoloni b’Ababiligi, abo biyongereye ku bandi bavuga Ikinyarwanda bari bahasanzwe.

Ijambo rya Perezida Kagame, abacengezamatwara ba Kinshasa baryise gashozantambara, nyamara icyo we yashakaga kugaragaza ni uko ikibazo gikomeye cyane kurusha uko benshi mu banyamahanga babitekereza, kandi kugira ngo ubyumve neza, bisaba kubanza kumenya amateka.

Ndetse n’abarwanya Kagame ku mugaragaro nka Filip Reyntjens na Michela Wrong ntibajya batinyuka guca hejuru ayo mateka asharira. Nyamara ingabo z’ibinyoma za Kinshasa ziyita intiti, bahora basubiramo ibinyoma byabo nta kugaragaza ibimenyetso. Ikindi ni uko benshi mu banye-Congo batazi ibibera muri Kivu, bishoboka ko na Tshisekedi ari nako abizi dore ko amashuri ye agerwa ku mashyi kandi akaba atarigeze akandagira mu bice nka Masisi na Rutshuru.

Twitter yamaze kuba igikoresho gikomeye cy’abacengezamatwara ba Kinshasa. Ubu Kagame ari gushinjwa kuba yarashatse kumvikanisha muri Bénin, ko intara za Kivu zahoze ari uduce tw’u Rwanda, nyamara buri wese azi ko ibyo bamuhimbira atari byo. Kuba Muyaya akomeje kwenyegeza umuriro, bishobora kurushaho kubakomerana.

M23

M23 yagaragaje ubushake ubwo yemeraga kuva mu duce tumwe na tumwe. Ni uduce dushobora kuba nta kinini tuvuze kuri bo, ariko bakajya hafi gucunga ku buryo urugamba rwongera kwambikana mu gihe FARDC na FDLR barenga ku biri mu masezerano cyangwa se ingabo za EAC zikananirwa kubuza FARDC kwinjira muri utwo duce. Izo nyeshyamba (M23) si ibicucu, nubwo baba byo ntibaba byo kabiri. Barabizi ko ibyo bari bijejwe mu gihe cya Laurent Nkunda bitashyizwe mu bikorwa, mu 2013 bongera gutsindwa ubwo Makenga yemeraga gusubira inyuma. Twabivuzeho mu nkuru ziheruka, mu gihe ingabo za EAC zava mu duce zirimo, hanyuma ingabo za FARDC zigashaka kuhigarurira, intambara izongera irote.

FARDC izahita ivanwa bidasubirwaho muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru kandi ntabwo ingabo za Angola zizagira icyo zikora. Nta ngabo ya M23 itazi ubugambanyi bwa Angola ubwo umutwe wa RCD ufatanyije n’u Rwanda bari mu rugamba i Kinshasa na Kitona mu myaka yashize. Ingabo za Angola zari zijeje RCD ko nta kibazo bakomeza bakarwana, ibintu biza guhinduka ubwo RDC yari isatiriye Kinshasa. Byashoboka ko bageze aho bakizezwa ibirombe byo gucukura.

Hari abasirikare benshi ba RCD n’u Rwanda bahaguye, bishwe n’ibitero by’indege za Angola. Mu gihe ingabo za Angola zashaka kwijandika mu bibazo byo muri Kivu, iyo nzika ishobora kugaruka.
Hashize iminsi Tshisekedi avuze ku mugaragaro ko ingabo za Angola ari zo zizasimbura iza EAC mu duce yagenzuraga. Abanye-Congo bazi ibyabereye Kitona ku buryo kubigenza batyo ari ukwirahuriraho amakara.

Igisubizo gishoboka

Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba cyangwa se EAC nibaramuka bahisemo guhindura inshingano z’ingabo z’uwo muryango cyangwa se mu gihe Kinshasa yakomeza kwitambika inzira yo gukemura ikibazo mu mahoro, hazakomeza kubaho icyizere ko ibintu byagera aho bigahinduka. Iyo abanyamaboko aribo bafite uburenganzira bwo gufata umwanzuro w’igihe cyo kurwana n’icyo guhagarika imirwano, inzirakarengane nizo zikomeza kuhatakariza ubuzima.

Joseph Goebels wari umuyobozi w’icengezamatwara ry’aba-Nazi ashobora kuba aho ari na we yicinya icyara iyo abona Patrick Muyaya amuyingayinga mu binyoma no mu buhezanguni bw’irondamoko.

Martin Kobler wahoze ayobora ingabo za Loni muri Congo, ukiyita ko yari agiye gukemura burundu ikibazo cy’inyeshyamba z’abatutsi za Sultan Makenga mu 2013, aherutse kuvuga ko hakenewe ingabo nk’izarwanyije M23 mu 2013 kugira ngo ikibazo gikemuke burundu. Ibyo kuri we bivuze ko umwanzi ari M23. Yabivugiye i Goma turi kumwe, nibaza niba kuba bararwanyije M23 gutyo bitarapfuye ubusa kuko nubundi barongeye bagota Goma. Yari yavuze ko ikibazo cya FDLR bazakijyaho bamaze kurangiza icya M23.Namubwiye ko FARDC idashobora kubyemera kandi koko ntibyigeze biba. Kobler asa n’uwibagiwe ko nyuma yo gutsindwa kw’ingabo za Loni muri RDC, ibyo yita ihuriro ry’ingabo ry’ibihugu bitatu ariryo ryabyinjiyemo.

Biragoye ko Afurika y’Epfo yakwemera kongera kwijandika mu bibazo by’aka karere mu gihe ingabo z’u Rwanda (RDF) ari zo zibarinze muri Mozambique. Ubushobozi bw’ingabo za Afurika y’Epfo bwagiye buyoyoka mu myaka mike ishize. Tanzania yo isanganywe ingabo muri Monusco kandi nta gahunda yo guhindura manda bafite.

Martin Kobler nakomeze yirire amafaranga ya pansiyo kuko inama ze zidashinga nizo zitumye tukiri mu kibazo nk’iki. Turacyahamya dushikamye ko ibintu bikimeze nabi, by’umwihariko nyuma y’iri subikwa ry’igitaraganya ry’inama y’abaminisitiri yagombaga kubera i Goma.

Patrick Muyaya ni umwe mu bacengezamatwara ba Kinshasa, badashaka kuvuga ukuri ku kibazo kiri mu Burasirazuba

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