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Umurimo unoze, inkingi y’ubwigenge bwuzuye bw’ibihugu bya Afurika

Yanditswe na Gasore Séraphin
Kuya 1 Gicurasi 2021 saa 03:34
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Iyo umuntu atunzwe n’umurimo akorana ubushake n’ubwitange bishingiye ku mbaraga z’amaboko ye n’ubwenge bwe, aba yigenga koko kuko aho yajya hose, uko byagenda kose yashobora kwibeshaho. Iyo umuntu atunzwe n’ineza, inkunga cyangwa ubufasha bw’abandi, baba bibwirije cyangwa bishingiye ku kubasaba, uwo muntu ntaba yigenga, aba asuzuguritse n’agaciro ke ari gake cyane.

Kuri iyi tariki ya Mbere Gicurasi 2021, Isi yose yizihije Umunsi mpuzamahanga w’Umurimo ku nshuro ya kabiri abaturage bagihanganye n’icyorezo cya Covid-19 hirya ngo hino. Ni ibihe bitoroshye ku bantu bose. Icyakora hari icyo umuntu yakwishimira, ni uko byagaragaye ko abantu bose ari magirirane, cyane cyane mu byerekeranye n’ishoramari n’umurimo.

-  Abashoramari n’abakozi baracyenerana

Abahanga bemeza ko ubukungu ari umusaruro uturuka mu ishoramari n’imirimo bijyana. Mu bihugu byinshi cyane cyane ibikennye, abanyemari bafata abakozi nk’ibikoresho, ndetse kenshi ugasanga bahabwa agaciro gacye ugereranyije n’imashini zo mu nganda.

Mu bihugu byinshi hari ibibazo by’ubushomeri bituma abakozi birukanwa kenshi n’abari mu kazi bagahembwa intica ntikize kandi bakagasuzugurirwamo. Ibi bihe bya Covid-19 byerekanye ko umukozi ari uw’ibanze, ko arusha kure agaciro imashini.

Koko rero, igihe ingendo zitashobokaga mu bihugu, abakozi ntibashobore kuva mu ngo zabo, ntabwo imashini zashoboye kwikoresha! Kubera kubura abakozi, ibigo byinshi byarahombye cyangwa ubukungu bwabyo burazamba. Na nyuma y’ibi bihe, bene imari bazahore bazirikana ko umukozi ari uw’agaciro gakomeye, bityo agaciro n’uburenganzira bye bihore byubashywe.

Ku rundi ruhande, abakozi na bo babonye ko iyo inganda n’ibigo by’umurimo bifunze cyangwa bidakora neza, imibereho igorana. Bakeneye gukora kugira ngo bagire icyo binjiza kibatunga bo ubwabo n’imiryango yabo. Na nyuma y’ibi bihe, abakozi bazakomeze kuzirikana ko ibigo bakoramo babifitemo inyungu, bakorane ubushake n’umurava, banoze umurimo bityo bateze imbere ibigo bakorera, bateze imbere imiryango yabo n’ibihugu byabo. Abakozi n’abakoresha ni magirirane.

-  Nta gihugu cyateye imbere bidashingiye ku murimo

Umurimo ushobora kuba uw’amaboko: kubaka no guhinga bya gakondo n’indi. Umurimo ushobora no kuba ushingiye ku buhanga: kwiga imishinga, imirimo ishingiye kuri tekinoloji n’indi. Umurimo ushobora guhuza ibyo byombi: imbaraga n’ubwenge. Umuhinzi mworozi wa kijyambere kugira ngo agere kure mu iterambere ni uko ashobora gukoresha neza imbaraga n’ubwenge bwe.

Iyo mirimo yose irakenewe kandi ni ngombwa ngo igihugu icyo ari cyo cyose gitere imbere. Abantu bateye imbere biboneka ni uko baretse gukora bagamije kubona iby’ibanze bakeneye gusa: ibyo kurya, aho gutura, kwivuza, gushyira abana mu ishuri.

Bagomba gukora bagamije no kunguka, bakazigama kugira ngo na bo bazashobore kuba abashoramari mu mishinga iramba igateza ibihugu byabo imbere. Ni gutyo umurimo n’ishoramari bikozwe neza birema ubukungu n’iterambere birambye.

Nufata buri gihugu cyose cyakataje mu nzira y’amajyambere, urasanga gifite iyo ndangagaciro y’umurimo unoze, ukoranwa ubushake n’umurava. Abaturage babyo muri rusange ntibashaka kubaho neza mbere yo kubona umusaruro w’umurimo cyangwa uw’ishoramari ryabo. Ruswa, kunyereza cyangwa gutungwa n’ibyo bataruhiye, nta bwo biba mu ndangagaciro zabo.

Iyo witegereje uko tubayeho mu bihugu byinshi bya Afurika, usanga abenshi bashaka kubaho ubuzima bworoshye, butabavunnye, bifuza gukira byihuse, ku gishoro gito gishoboka, nta mvune bahuye na yo. Ibyo ni kimwe mu bisobanuro bya ruswa no kunyereza byiganje mu nzego nyinshi, abandi bagahora bararikiye iby’abandi, abandi igihe cyabo kinini bakakimara muri za gereza, barahindutse umuzigo kuri Leta.

Tugira amahirwe muri iki guhugu cyacu kuko dufite ubuyobozi budushishikariza gukora cyane. Perezida wa Repubulika abisubiramo kenshi, ni ngombwa kongera amasaha yo gukora kugira ngo dushobore kwikura mu bukene no kwiteza imbere, ari na ko duteza igihugu cyacu imbere.

Koko rero, ngo ak’imuhana kaza imvura ihise. Ibyo bijyana no kurwanya ruswa no kunyereza iby’abandi, kuko buri wese agomba gutungwa no gutezwa imbere n’imbaraga n’ubwenge bye.

Leta zifite inshingano yo kurengera abaturage bazo kurusha abashoramari kenshi baba barangamiye inyungu zabo gusa. Ni gutyo mu kurengera abo baturage harimo no kurengera abakozi n’imirimo yabo. Ntibagomba gufatwa nk’ibikoresho cyangwa ngo agaciro kabo kajye munsi y’ak’imashini bakoresha. Ni ngombwa cyane ko amategeko agenga umurimo yubahirizwa na buri wese bireba.

Ni ngombwa by’akarusho ariko ko uwatanze imbaraga n’ubwenge yungura abandi, na we abona umusaruro ukwiye w’uwo murava we ku murimo. Umushahara fatizo ni ngombwa kugira ngo kunyunyuza imitsi y’abakozi birekere aho mu bigo byinshi, abakozi bareke gukomeza gusaza imburagihe kubera gukora birenze imbaraga zabo, kandi koko abakozi n’imiryango yabo bashobore gutera imbere.

Umushahara fatizo ni inkingi y’agaciro n’iterambere by’umukozi, ni inkingi ikomeye y’ubukungu bw’igihugu kuko abakozi barushaho kwitanga, bahembwa neza bagahaha byinshi, bityo bakishyura imisoro n’inganda na serivisi bikarushaho gukora byinshi; bakiteza imbere ari na ko bateza igihugu imbere.

Umushahara fatizo ugendana n’ibiciro ku isoko wabaye ihame mu bihugu byose byateye imbere. Byumvikana neza ko ari igikoresho cy’ubukungu no guteza imbere umurimo n’imibereho myiza y’abakozi. Umushahara fatizo utuma abakozi biteganyiriza iminsi mibi, bityo haba igihe babuze akazi by’igihe gito cyangwa igihe bageze mu zabukuru ntibabe umuzigo ku miryango yabo no kuri Leta.

Mu Rwanda, turacyategereje Iteka rya Minisitiri w’Umurimo rigena umushahara fatizo nk’uko biteganywa n’ingingo ya 68 y’Itegeko ryo muri 2018 rigenga umurimo mu Rwanda.

-  Inkunga z’amahanga ntizizabuze Abanyafurika gukora cyane

Agenda 2063 ya Afurika Yunze Ubumwe (AU) ivuga mu ngingo yayo ya mbere ko Umugabane wacu ugomba kuzaba ufite uburumbuke n’iterambere bihagije kandi bidasubira inyuma. Mu ngingo ya gatandatu, hakemezwa ko ibyo byose bizashoboka kubera ko abaturage ba Afurika ari bo bazashyirwa ku isonga ry’imigambi n’ibikorwa byose. Ibyo byose ntabwo byazashoboka umurimo udatejwe imbere bihagije ngo n’abawukora mu bushake n’ubwitange bawubonemo umusaruro bawutegerejeho.

Muri uku kwezi kwa Gicurasi, buri tariki ya 25, ni umunsi wahariwe Afurika Yunze ubumwe, Afurika yishyira ikizana.

Afurika ntabwo izigera yishyira ngo yizane, ntabwo izigera itera imbere igishingiye ku nkunga z’amahanga. Inkunga z’amahanga ubundi zishingiye ku mahame abiri y’ingenzi: kurwanya ubukene bukabije no kutubuza gutera imbere ku buryo buhagije.

Bisa n’ibivuguruzanya, ariko ni ukuri. Ibihugu byinshi bikennye cyane, haba ikibazo cy’umutekano muke mu babituye bigasaba ko ibihugu bikize biza guhosha, bakabura isoko ry’ibicuruzwa byabo, kandi bikaba impamvu yo kwimukira iwabo ku bwinshi. Ntibabyifuza na gato. Gutera imbere bihagije na byo byaba ishyano kuri ibyo bihugu byakize kuko byatuma ibihugu byari bikennye bibaho bitagikeneye ibikize.

Ibihugu byose byaba byishoboye, hakaba ubuhahirane mu bwubahane gusa. Ubwo ibihugu bisanzwe bikize byaba bibuze isoko rihendutse ry’iby’ibanze bakenera mu nganda zabo (row materials) kuko na twe twaba dushoboye kubyikoreshereza mu nganda zacu; kandi bakabura n’isoko batugurishamo baduhenze ibiba byavuye mu nganda zabo, kuko na twe twaba tubyikorera.

Icyo gihe abaturage babo babura imirimo, ubushomeri bukiyongera kimwe n’ingorane za politiki bigendana, imisoro ikaba mike, ubukungu bukazamba, n’izindi ngorane. Ibihugu bikize bizahora bikora ibishoboka byose ngo bitazagera aho.

Iyo ibihugu bikize biha ibikennye inkunga, biba birimo no gusinziriza abaturage babyo bihereye ku buyobozi bwabyo. Amahirwe ni uko mu Rwanda ubuyobozi bw’igihugu bwatahuye ayo mayeri kera. N’ubwo hari igihe inkunga ziba ngombwa, ntizigomba kuzahoraho. Ikigomba kuzahoraho ni ubutwererane hagati y’ibihugu kuko nta mugabo umwe.

Ubutwererane buba mu bwubahane; inkunga itera gusuzugurika kuko igihe cyose ugutera inkunga aba ari hejuru yawe. Nyuma y’Intambara ya II y’Isi yose, Abanyaburayi batewe inkunga ikomeye n’Abanyamerika mu cyiswe “Marshall Plan”. Yarabafashije cyane, ariko ntiyakomeje. Yabashoboje kongera kugera aho birwanaho, ibyo byari bihagije. Ubundi bitabiriye umurimo, ubu bakaba barigejeje ku rugero rw’ubukungu n’iterambere tubaziho.

Ntabwo ibihugu bikennye uyu munsi bishobora gutekereza ko hari umunsi bitazakenera inkunga bikareka gusabiriza no gusuzugurika igihe cyose bitaritabira umurimo uko bigomba. Nk’uko byavuzwe haruguru, inkunga z’ibihugu bikize si umutima mwiza, ni ukwiteganyiriza.

Ibyo bihugu biramutse bihagaritse inkunga, hari ababura uko bifata muri ako kanya, ariko amaherezo amahitamo yazaba gukora cyane, hakaba gukanguka koko. Ibihugu bikize bikeneye ko ibikennye bikomeza kumenyera ubuzima bworoshye, aho ingengo z’imari zizakomeza gushingira ku nkunga n’imyenda, bityo ibihugu bikize bikazahora byubashywe kandi bitinywa, bityo ubuhangange bwabyo bukazaramba.

Mu myaka itari myinshi ishize, u Bushinwa bwabarirwaga mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere. Ubu ni bwo bufite ubukungu bwihagazeho ku Isi inyuma ya Amerika. Ibihugu by’iburengerazuba bw’Isi byakize kuva hambere, birimo gukora ibishoboka byose ngo u Bushinwa budindire. Bose bafite ubwoba ko mu myaka mike, u Bushinwa buzaba ari bwo bukungu bwa mbere ku Isi.

U Bushinwa ntabwo bwatejwe imbere n’inkunga, bwatejwe imbere n’umurimo. Ku Isi hose, Abashinwa bazwiho ko ari abakozi ndetse ntibagire n’umurimo n’umwe basuzugura igihe cyose wagira uruhare mu kwiteza imbere.

Umwanzuro

Kugira ngo ibihugu bya Afurika bitere imbere koko maze byigenge nyakuri, birasabwa guha agaciro gake inkunga n’imyenda by’amahanga, bigashyira imbere umurimo unoze, ukoranwe ubushake n’umurava, ikoranabuhanga n’ubushakashatsi bigatezwa imbere, umurimo ukongera umusaruro w’ibigo n’igihugu, umurimo ugateza imbere umukozi n’umuryango we n’igihugu muri rusange.

Nguko uko tuzagera kuri Afurika twifuza; nguko uko ibihugu byacu byose bizigenga koko maze bizajye biseruka mu ruhando rw’amahanga bifite ishema kandi byubashywe na buri wese.

Iyi nyandiko yubakiye ku gitekerezo bwite cy’Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa INSP!R ZAMUKA, Impuzamiryango iteza imbere umurimo unoze n’Imibereho myiza y’Abaturage, Gasore Seraphin

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa INSP!R ZAMUKA, Gasore Seraphin

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