Inkomoko y’itegeko ry’ubutaka mu Rwanda (Byinshi kuri iri tegeko)

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Grace Mugiraneza Ubaruta

Kuya 15 Ugushyingo 2013 saa 01:58
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Ku butaka bungana na km2 26338, butuwe n’abaturage barenga million 11 (11,689,696 Ku bwa Nyakanga 2012) n’ubwiyongere bungana na 2,8%, u Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika gituwe nabaturage benshi ku butaka buto. Kugeza ubu kuri km2 imwe ituweho n’abaturage 340, ndetse umuntu umwe abarirwa ko yinjiza amadolari ya Amerika 900 (ibihumbi 600 by’Amanyarwanda) ku mwaka.
Hakurikijwe ibibipimo biri haruguru aha, u Rwanda ni kimwe mubihugu bikennye ku mugabane wa Africa. Ibi bituma imikoreshereze (...)

Ku butaka bungana na km2 26338, butuwe n’abaturage barenga million 11 (11,689,696 Ku bwa Nyakanga 2012) n’ubwiyongere bungana na 2,8%, u Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika gituwe nabaturage benshi ku butaka buto. Kugeza ubu kuri km2 imwe ituweho n’abaturage 340, ndetse umuntu umwe abarirwa ko yinjiza amadolari ya Amerika 900 (ibihumbi 600 by’Amanyarwanda) ku mwaka.

Hakurikijwe ibibipimo biri haruguru aha, u Rwanda ni kimwe mubihugu bikennye ku mugabane wa Africa. Ibi bituma imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka, mu Rwanda iba ikibazo gikomeye.

Abanyarwanda benshi batuye mu byaro, ibyo bigatera igitutu mu mikoresherezwe y’ubutaka bwo guturaho n’ubwo guhingamo. Ibibazo by’ubutaka ni ibibazo by’ingenzi kuri sosiyete iyo ariyo yose, cyane cyane ikibazo cyo kubutunga no kubutunganya, kuko umusaruro wabwo niwo utunze benshi mu baturage. Bityo rero bigaragarira buri wese ko u Rwanda rukwiye kugira ingamba zihamye ku butaka bwarwo n’uburyo bukoreshwamo.

Dushingiye kuri ibyo, ubutaka bwabaye ikibazo gikomeye cy’u Rwanda. urugero, mu 1996, habayeho inama y’igihugu yagombaga kwiga ku bibazo by’ubutaka mu Rwanda, inama irangiye hemejwe ko hajyaho itegeko ngenga rigenga ubutaka.

Nyuma y’imyaka myinshi y’akazi ka guverinoma, itegeko ryaje gushyirwaho ariryo itegeko ngenga nº08/2005 ryo kuwa 14/07/2005 rigena imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka mu Rwanda, nkuko ryavuguruwe n’itegeko ngenga nº43/2013 ryo kuwa 16/06/2013.

Amateka y’amategeko y’ubutaka mu Rwanda

Mbere y’ubukoloni:

Amategeko y’ubutaka yagegwaga n’isangiramutungo ku butaka, uburenganzira ku butaka bwabaga bufitwe nabaturage muri rusange, nta muntu ku giti cye wari wemerewe gutunga ubutaka ahubwo bari bemerewe kubukoresha gusa. Ubutaka bwari bushingiye ku buhinzi n’ubworozi. Imiryango yashyirwaga mu moko, buri bwoko bukagira umutware. Byaje gusakara mu gihugu hose (Aya moko ni amwe ya kera y’Abanyiginya, Abega n’andi menshi), aya moko akagira uburennganzira ku butaka mu buryo bukurikira;

Ubukonde

Ni uburenganzira bwahabwaga ubwoko bwabaga bukoresheje ubwo butaka mbere y’andi moko (first occupant/Premier occupant), umutware w’ubwo bwoko yemereraga bamwe mu miryango ayoboye, bitwaga “abagererwa”, uburenganzira bwo gukoresha ubwo butaka mu buhinzi cyagwa ubworozi hakurikijwe amategeko y’umuco.

Igikingi

Ni uburenganzira bwahabwaga imiryango y’aborozi bororaga amatungo, bwatagwaga n’umutware w’umukenke.

Inkungu

Ni uburenganzira umutware(political leader) yagiraga bwo gutunga ubutaka cyangwa akabutungira undi, akenshi bwabaga ari ubutaka bwatawe na banyirabwo. Ubu butaka bwabaga buteganyirijwe abantu bari mu kaga (people in need).

Gukeba cyangwa Kugaba

Bwari uburenganzira ku butaka, abatware bari bafite bagaha ubwo butaka abantu bororaga amatungo ngo babwororereho.

Igisigati cyangwa Igikorera

Ubu burenganzira ku butaka bwashyizweho n’ubuhake, bwemereraga abantu guhindura ubutaka bwahigwagamo bukaba ubwo kororeramo amatungo.

Mu gihe cy’ubukoloni:

Muri iki gihe amategeko agenga ubutaka, yari mu bice bibiri, aha wasangaga abakoloni b’Abadage bakolonije u Rwanda bwa mbere mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19 kugeza 1916 batarashishikajwe n’ibyerekeranye n’ubutaka, kuko ubwo bubasha bwose bwagumanwe n’umwami.

Abamisiyoneri Gatulika n’abaporotesitanti, nibo bambere baguze ubutaka ku giti cyabo. Mugihe cy’ubukoloni bwaba ubw’Abiligi byinshi mu miyoborere y’igihugu byarahindutse, aho byari bigamije kwica umuco gakondo. Mubyerekeranye n’amategeko abakoloni b’Ababiligi bashyizeho, amategeko yanditse yaturukaga iwabo. Kubyerekeranye n’ubutaka, hashyizweho ordonance/order yo 1885 igenga imitungire y’ubutaka. Iyi ordonance yibandaga kubintu bibiri bikurikira;

1. Umucoloni ushizwe irangamimerere niwe wenyine ufite uburenganzira bwo gutanga uburenganzira bwo gutunga ubutaka. Abandi bakoloni cyangwa abanyamahanga bashaka gutura ku butaka bw’u Rwanda babisabaga abakoloni, kandi bagakurikiza amategeko yanditse yo gutunga ubutaka binyuze mu masezerano.

2. Gutunga ubutaka byasabaga icyemezo cy’ubutaka. Abanyarwanda ntibagombaga kwamburwa ubutaka bwabo bari bafite mbere, ubutaka budafite nyirabwo bukaba ubwabakoloni.

Mu 1959, nibwo amakimbirane akomeye yaje mu baturage b’u Rwanda. Muri iki gihe biturutse mu bibazo bya politike, habayeho impunzi za mbere zivuye mu Rwanda, bituma imitungo yimukanwa n’itimukanwa isigara mu Rwanda.

Itegeko ry’ubutaka nyuma y’ubwigenge

Ugereranyije no mu gihe cy’ubukoloni ntacyahindutse cyane, kuko kugeza n’ubwo 90% by’ubutaka bw’ubuhinzi ntibwari bwakandikishijwe, bwari bukigengwa n’amategeko y’umuco. Mu gihe cya Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri,uburenganzira ku butaka bwahawe amakomine, aribwo hashyizweho itegeko rya komine ryo kuwa 23/11/1963 rigenera ububasha amakomine kwandika ubutaka.

Haje gushyirwaho n’iteka rya perezida no 09/76 rigena uburenganzira bwo kugura no kugurisha ubutaka bugegwa namategeko y’umuco. Hagati mu 1960, Leta y’u Rwanda yibanze kuri gahunda y’ibikingi, kuyimenyekanisha ndetse no gutwara ubutaka bw’abantu bahunze muri 1959 na nyuma yaho.

Mu 1970 no 1980, habayeho iyimuka ry’abanyarwanda mu duce twari dutuwe kurusha utundi mu Rwanda, muri icyo gihe, nibwo guverinoma yazanye gahunda yo gutuza Abanyarwanda mu midugudu yitwaga ‘paysannant’, kugira ngo hagabanywe ikoreshwa ry’ubutaka bwari butangiye kuba buto kubera ubwiyongere bw’abaturage.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, abarenga milliyoni imwe barishwe, bituma habaho umubare munini w’abakuwe mu byabo, ndetse hanabaho n’itahuka ry’impunzi zo muri 1959.

Itahuka ry’impunzi za 59, ryari ryarashyizwe mu mirongo migari mu masezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha, nk’ingingo ya 2 y’amasezerano hagati ya guverinoma y’u Rwanda na FPR, mu gutahuka kwimpunzi, yavugaga ko “Buri wese uzagaruka iwabo afite uburenganzira bwo gutura aho ashaka mu gihugu atabangamiye uburenganzira bwa mugenzi we.” Ingingo ya 3 ikavuga ngo “mu rwego rwo gusubiza impunzi zitahutse mu byazo, guverinoma y’u Rwanda izatanga ubutaka budatuweho n’abandi.”

Ingingo ya 4 yavugaga ko “Uburenganzira ku butaka burangana ku banyarwanda bose, impunzi zifite uburenganzira bwo gusubirana imitungo yahoze ari iyazo.” ariko mu rwego rwo kwimakaza ubumwe n’ubwiyunge, impande zombi zemeranyije ko impuzi zahunze, hakaba hashize imyaka irenga 10 zitarasubirana imitungo yazo yatwawe n’abandi. Mu kugaruka, guverinoma yari izabahe ubutaka bwo guturaho.

Itahuka ry’impunzi zo muri 1959, ryari rimaze guteza ikibazo gikomeye cy’ubutaka, bitewe na ya masezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha yahagaritswe na Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994.

Mu gihe gito impunzi zo muri 1959, zatujwe ku butaka bwatawe, bahunze igihugu muri 1994, byatumye hajyaho itegeko ryo mu 1996 rigena imikoreshereze y’ubutaka bwatawe na ba nyirabwo. Guverinoma yafashe icyemezo cyo gutanga ubutaka bubarizwa mu mutungo rusange wa Leta, ndetse n’ubutaka butagira nyirabwo kugirango abo bantu babashe gusubira mu buzima busazwe no gutangira kububyaza umusaruro.

Nyuma y’ibi byose, hasigaye abantu benshi badafite ubutaka bwo guturaho ndetse nubutaka bw’imfubyi n’abapfakazi bugakoreshwa nabi. Ibi bibazo hamwe nibindi byose by’ubutaka byasabye ko hashyirwaho politiki ihamye y’ubutaka.

Ibibazo byari bihari mbere y’ishyirwaho ry’itegeko rya 2005

1 ikoreshwa ryitegeko ryanditse n’iritanditse:

Mu buryo bw’amategeko, u Rwanda rwakoresheje amategeko abiri icyarimwe. Bityo rero ubutaka bwose mu Rwanda ntibwakurikizaga amategeko amwe. Abanyarwanda bose ntibaribafite uburenganzira bungana ku butaka, kuko usanga bamwe bararengerwaga n’itegeko ryanditse ryashizweho nabakoloni, bigatuma bibaha gutekana (garanti) ku butaka bwabo naho abandi bagakurikiza amategeko y’umuco.

2.amategeko yanditse mubitabo bitandukanye:

Amategeko nubwo yari yanditse, yari mu bitabo byinshi bitandukanye kandi byarashyizweho n’abakoloni, bigatuma abanyarwanda batamenya neza aya mategeko agenga ubutaka, ndetse ntibanayemere.

Ubutaka nta gaciro bwari bufite, ndetse amwe mu mategeko ntiyakoreshwaga, kuko ntabihano yagiraga. Aha ni nk’itegeko ryo kuwa 30/03/1982, rigena kongera agaciro ubutaka, hamwe n’iryo kuwa 05/12/1988, rigenga amashyamba mu Rwanda.

Habayeho ivugurura ry’aya mategeko, ndetse no kuyashyira mu gitabo kimwe, kandi agagenga ubutaka bwose mu Rwanda. Ibi byatumwe abaturage b’u Rwanda bakomeza guha agaciro no gukoresha amategeko y’umuco.

3.Ibibazo mu nzego za leta:

Ku rwego rw’igihugu, imicungire y’ubutaka yari itandukanye bigateza ibibazo byinshi. Byakomereye abaturage kumenya urwego rufite ububasha bwo kwakira ibibazo by’ubutaka, kuko wasangaga itegeko riterekana aho ububasha bw’inzego z’ibanze bugarukira, bigateza amakimbirane hagati y’inzego z’ibanze n’inzego zo hejuru n’umuturage.

3. Ivangura rishingiye kugitsina:

Ikindi kibazo cyagaragaye mu itegeko rya kera ry’ubutaka ni ivangura rishingiye kugitsina, aho wasangaga ab’igitsinagore nta burenganzira bari bafite ku butaka. Mu muco nyarwanda gutunga no gukoresha ubutaka ndetse no kuzungura, byari byemerewe abagabo n’abahungu gusa.

Ibi rero byatumaga umugore wapfakaye adatunga ubutaka, ahubwo yarabukoreshaga gusa kugeza igihe abahungu be bakuze bakabuzungura. Ariko hari uburyo igitsina gore cyatungagamo ubutaka biciye mu mpano. Mu buryo bukurikira;

Urwibutso: Iyi ikaba yari impano umupfakazi yahabwaga na se kuko yapfakaye.

Intekeshwa: Yo yari impano y’ubukwe, umukobwa yahabwaga na sebukwe kuko yashyingiwe.

Inkuri: Yari impano umugore yahabwaga na se yagiye iwabo kwerekana umwana we w’imfura.

Ingarigari: Ni ubutaka bwabaga bwarabitswe n’umutware w’ubwo bwoko, akazabuha indushyi (umugore watandukanye n’umugabo we;umugore wahukanye)

Izi mpano zose zagumaga kuba iz’umugore kugeza igihe abahungu be bazamuzungurira.

Ibisubizo kuri ibi bibazo

Mu gukemura ibi bibazo byavuzwe haruguru, byaterwaga n’itegeko ry’ubutaka, ibisubizo byinshi byaratanzwe.

Urugero, ni uko amategeko yakubiwe mu gitabo kimwe, abanyarwanda bose barengerwa n’itegeko, ndetse n’ubutaka buhabwa agaciro.

Mu gushyiraho itegeko ry’ubutaka, hahujwe amategeko yanditse n’amategeko y’umuco. Itegeko rigena uburinganire hagati y’umugabo n’umugore mu mikoreshereze, no mu gutunga ubutaka, ndetse iri tegeko ryerekana neza inzego zishizwe gukemura ibibazo by’ubutaka, uhereye ku karere kuzamura ku rwego rw’igihugu.

Mu gusoza, navuga ko itegeko rishya ry’ubutaka ryakemuye byinshi mu bibazo by’ubutaka ndetse rikanavugura zimwe mu ngingo nyinshi, haba mu itegeko rya kera n’iryo muri 2005. Ibi bikaba byagaragazwa no gusesengura itegeko ngenga nº43/2013 rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda, ndetse n’ayandi mabwiriza yerekeranye n’ubutaka.

Grace Mugiraneza Ubaruta ni Umunyeshuri mu mategeko

[email protected]


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