Kutizerwa n’ibigo by’imari, ubukene n’ibindi: Imbogamizi zikeneye gukurwaho mu guteza imbere umugore

Yanditswe na Evariste Nsengimana
Kuya 10 Werurwe 2020 saa 01:46
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Buri wa 8 Werurwe, u Rwanda rwifatanya n’Isi mu kwizihiza Umunsi Mpuzamahanga w’Umugore aho by’umwiharimo uyu mwaka wa 2020 wahawe insanganyamatsiko igira iti “Umugore ku ruhembe rw’iterambere.”

U Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu bishyize imbere Politiki yo guteza imbere umugore mu mfuruka zose, yaba kumufasha kugira uruhare mu bikorwa bimufasha kwiteza imbere no guteza imbere igihugu muri rusange, kumuha urubuga rwo gutanga ibitekerezo no kugira amahirwe yo kujya mu nzego zifatirwamo ibyemezo.

Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda rishimangira ko abagore bagomba kugira nibura 30% by’imyanya mu nzego zifatirwamo ibyemezo.

Mu mpera za 2019, umubare w’abagore bari mu myanya ya politiki ifatirwamo ibyemezo bari 61%; mu nzego zirimo urw’ubuzima (53.9%), ubuhinzi (54.6%) mu gihe abagera kuri 53.2% bari mu mashuri yisumbuye na 52.7% muri kaminuza.

Ku bijyanye n’imikoreshereze y’ubutaka, umugore n’umugabo bashyingiranywe mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko bafite uruhare n’uburenganzira bingana ku butaka.

Gusa nubwo hari byinshi byakozwe mu guteza imbere umugore kandi bigatanga umusaruro ugaragarira buri wese, Umunyarwandakazi aracyahura n’inzitizi zitandukanye zikumira bamwe mu gutanga umusanzu wabo mu kubaka igihugu, zikeneye gufatirwa ingamba.

Inyinshi muri izo nzitizi zigaragara cyane mu bijyanye n’ubukungu ziterwa ahanini no kutagira ubumenyi buhagije bufasha abagore kugera ku isoko ry’umurimo, ku nguzanyo n’ibindi.

Mu badafite akazi, abagore nibo benshi

Ubushashatsi buheruka gukorwa ku miterere y’akazi mu Rwanda bwerekanye ko umubare munini w’Abanyarwanda bafite n’abashaka akazi ari abagabo kuko mu Ugushyingo 2019 abagabo bari 64.2% mu gihe abagore bari 46.8%.

Bugaragaza ko mu bantu barenga miliyoni 3.4 bari bafite akazi mu Ugushyingo 2019, abagabo bari bihariye 55.2% mu gihe abagore bari 38.8%. Bugaragaza kandi ko by’umwihariko abagore badafite akazi bari 17.1% mu gihe abagabo bari 14.0%.

Abagore bari mu bukene baracyari benshi

Ubushakashatsi bwa Gatanu ku mibereho y’Ingo mu Rwanda (EICV5) bugaragaza ko Abanyarwanda 38.2% bari mu bukene naho 16.0% bari mu bukene bukabije.

Bugaragaza ko by’umwihariko umubare w’abagore bari mu bukene baruta abagabo kuko abakuze bari ku gipimo cya 34.8% abari munsi y’imyaka 16 bari mu bukene bari kuri 44.8% mu gihe abagabo bakuze bari kuri 31.6%, naho abari munsi y’imyaka 16 bari 44.2%.

Gukorana n’ibigo by’imari

Inyigo zitandukanye zigaragaza ko nubwo hari byinshi byakozwe mu gufasha umugore kugira uruhare mu bikorwa byo kwiteza imbere no guteza imbere igihugu, ariko umubare w’ababasha gukorana n’ibigo by’imari ukiri hasi ugereranyije na bagenzi babo b’abagabo.

Mu 2018 umubare w’abagore bari bamaze kwitabira Umurenge SACCO wari 46% mu gihe abari bafite konti zo kubitsa no kuzigama bavuye kuri bari bageze kuri 44%.

Inyigo Ikigo giharanira kugeza serivisi z’imari ku Baturage (Access to Finance Rwanda, AFR) giheruka gushyira ahabona mu 2017, yerekanye ko umubare w’abagore badakorana n’ibigo by’imari uri hejuru y’uw’abagabo kuko ari 32.2% mu gihe abagabo ari 22.4%.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe muri Gashyantare 2016 n’Ikigo gishinzwe Amakoperative mu Rwanda (RCA) bwagaragaje ko umubare w’abagana ibigo by’imari bamaze gufunguza konti abagabo ari 51.5%, abagore bakaba 39.5% na ho amatsinda akaba 9.1%.

Ni mu gihe kandi abagabo bamaze guhabwa inguzanyo bangana na 68.9% na ho abagore ni 26.8%, mu matsinda bageze kuri 4.3%.

Abagore mu buhinzi budasagurira amasoko

Urwego rw’ubuhinzi ni rumwe mu zifatiye runini ubukungu bw’igihugu kuko bwihariye hafi kimwe cya gatatu cy’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu ariko by’umwihariko 76% by’imirimo ikorwa mu buhinzi ikorwa n’abagore.

Gusa nubwo bimeze gutya abakurikiranira hafi iby’uru rwego bavuga ko usanga abagore nta jambo bagira ku musaruro ubukomokaho, ku butaka, ku mbuto no ku mishinga ibutera inkunga nk’uko abagabo barigira, bigatuma bisanga mu buhinzi budasagurira amasoko.

Ubushakashatsi bwashyizwe ahabona mu 2017 bwerekanye ko abagore aribo benshi bari mu buhinzi butari ubw’umwuga ndetse budasagurira amasoko kuko bari 82% ugereranyije n’abagabo bari 61.4%.

Abagore mu masomo y’imyuga

Imibare kandi igaragaza ko abagore bajya kwiga amasomo y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro ‘TVET’ mu Rwanda bakiri bake cyane.

Ubwo hizihizwaga Umunsi Mpuzamahanga w’Umugore mu 2018, Minisitiri w’Abakozi ba Leta n’Umurimo, Rwanyindo Kayirangwa Fanfan, yavuze ko abagore bitabira inyigisho zifitanye isano n’ubumenyingiro n’Ikoranabuhanga bagera kuri 23% gusa.

Ubwo yari mu Nama Mpuzamahanga yiga ku Buringanire y’iminsi itatu yateraniye mu Mujyi wa Kigali kuva ku wa 25 Ugushyingo 2019, Madamu Jeannette Kagame yasabye ko abagore bahabwa ibyo bakeneye n’amahirwe abafasha gukuraho imbogamizi ziri mu nzira zabo.

Yagize ati “Birasaba uruhare rwacu, abakobwa n’abagore tugomba kwitegura no kuba abarinzi ba bagenzi bacu. Urubyiruko rugomba kugira uruhare mu gufata ubuzima mu biganza byarwo no kwamagana ubusumbane. Mufite ibikenewe mu guhatana muri iyi Isi yihuta bwangu.’’

Abagore mu mirimo idahemberwa

Imibereho y’abagore cyane cyane mu byaro, ituma baguma mu mirimo ibaherana nko kuvoma amazi, kumesa, gushaka inkwi, guteka, kurera abana n’abantu bakuze, guhinga, kwita ku barwayi n’indi mirimo itandukanye yo mu rugo ivunanye ariko idahabwa agaciro.

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Action Aid Rwanda mu 2015, bwagaragaje ko abagore 91% bo mu Rwanda bakora imirimo idahabwa agaciro nk’akazi ka buri munsi. 41% by’igihe cya buri munsi cy’abagore ngo bakimarira mu mirimo irimo gutora inkwi no kuvoma amazi.

Ibi kandi bikurura n’amakimbirane mu miryango kuko umugore ahora yitwa umunebwe, utinjiza amafaranga mu rugo. Bitewe n’umunaniro akuramo, hari ubwo umugabo amusaba kuzuza izindi nshingano z’urugo ntibigende neza bakabipfa.

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