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Mobutu yari igisambo cya ntibindeba, Kabila ayoboza intege nke; Tshisekedi azasiga inkuru ki i musozi?

Yanditswe na Musangwa Arthur
Kuya 22 May 2024 saa 06:56
Yasuwe :

Urwishe ya nka ruracyayirimo muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo nyuma y’imyaka itandatu Felix Tshisekedi wafatwaga nk’agakiza k’icyo gihugu, agiye ku butegetsi intebe yabwo ikamushyuhana, bikaba biri gushyira ubuzima bw’abaturage benshi mu kaga.

Congo, igihugu kinini gifite ubutaka buhishe ubukungu busumba ubwa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, kiracyaza mu bya nyuma bikennye ku Isi aho kurya kabiri kuri benshi mu batuye icyo gihugu, ari inzozi.

Hejuru y’ubukene bunuma mu gihugu gitunze, Congo imaze imyaka hafi 30 mu mvururu n’intambara z’urudaca, zavukiyemo imitwe isaga 260 yitwaje intwaro, imyinshi yuhirwa ikanabagarirwa n’abanyapolitiki bamunzwe na ruswa bicaye i Kinshasa, nkuko biherutse gushimangirwa na Christophe Mboso wayoboye Inteko Ishinga Amategeko icyuye igihe.

Ubutegetsi bwa Felix Tshisekedi uri muri manda ya kabiri, bwatangiye kureberwa mu ndorerwamo y’abamubanjirije basize Congo mu manga, aho bukera we akaba ashobora gusiga ayishyinguye.

Mobutu na Kabila, igisambo n’umunyantege nke bagwirirwe n’ubutegetsi

Mu buryo bugaragara Congo imaze kuyoborwa n’abakuru b’igihugu banewavuga ko aribo shingiro ry’ibibazo cyangwa ibyiza byagezweho muri icyo gihugu kimaze imyaka 64 kibonye ubwigenge.

Joseph Desiré Mobutu, Laurent Desiré Kabila, Joseph Kabila na Felix Tshisekedi nibo babonye umwanya uhagije wo kuyobora Congo, ku buryo ibiyiberamo uyu munsi nta n’umwe muri bo wahakana ko bimuri ku mutwe.

Mobutu yagwiririwe n’ubutegetsi kuko yafashijwe kwikiza Patrice Emery Lumumba waharaniraga ubwigenge bw’ako kanya bwa Congo, akirukana abanyaburayi igihugu kikigenera ejo hazaza.
Ikosa rya Lumumba ryabaye umubano wihariye yari afitanye n’aba-Communiste cyane cyane Leta Zunze Ubumw ez’Abasoviyeti zari zihanganye n’Abo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi mu cyiswe ‘Intambara y’Ubutita’.

Lumumba yishwe n’Ababiligi ku itegeko ryatanzwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Mobutu wahoze ari inshuti ye y’akadasohoka akaba n’Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo abigiramo uruhare rukomeye.

Igitabo The Great African War kigaragaza ko Mobutu kujya ku butegetsi kwe byabaye impanuka kuko byaturutse ku ntambara y’ubutita, Abanyaburayi bakabona ko aho gushyigikira Lumumba, bashaka undi ubumvira bazamura.

Mobutu akigera ku butegetsi yahise abusinda, yiyita amazina y’ibitangaza nk’Umwami wa Zaïre n’andi ateye ubwoba, yigwizaho umutungo karahava!

Mu myaka ya 1970, Mobutu yahinduye politiki y’ubukungu y’icyo gihugu, ibigo bya Leta byakoraga ubucuruzi abivana mu maboko y’abashoramari b’abanyamahanga, abigabira inshuti ze, umuryango we n’abasirikare b’abizerwa.

Ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu bwamaze imyaka 32, bwasize umugani wo kumunga Congo yitwaga ‘Zaire’ icyo gihe, ku buryo ibinyamakuru nka Financial Times mu 1997 byanditse ko Mobutu yari ifite imitungo yigwijeho ingana na miliyari $4 z’amadolari mu gihe abandi bavuga ko asaga miliyari $7.7.

Mobutu afatwa nk'umugambanyi woretse Congo kuva ikibona ubwigenge, agakoreshwa mu kwikiza abari bafitiye Congo ejo hazaza heza

Uretse gusahura igihugu ashyira mu mufuka we, yasize igihugu mu madeni adashira ya miliyari $14. Mu gihe cye kandi ubukene bwarushijeho kunuma mu baturage, kuko Banki y’Isi igaragaza ko mu myaka ya 1960 ubwo Congo yabonaga ubwigenge umuturage wayo yabarirwaga kwinjiza $380 ku mwaka ariko mu 1990 ubwo Mobutu yari mu minsi ye ya nyuma, umuturage wa Zaire yabarirwaga ko yinjiza $240.

Mu 1996 ubwo Laurent Desiré Kabila yatangizaga urugamba rwo kuvana Mobutu ku butegetsi ashyigikiwe n’ingabo z’u Rwanda na Uganda, Zaïre ya Mobutu yasaga n’iyamaze kuba umurambo.

Ruswa yari yararangije igihugu ihereye mu bategetsi n’abasirikare, ku buryo ubwo urugamba rwatangiriraga mu Burasirazuba, nta musirikare n’umwe wa Mobutu wari ugishaka kurwana ari nayo mpamvu gufata Kinshasa byijyanye.

Urubanza rwananiye Laurent Desiré Kabila yarusigiye umwana we

Ihanantuka ry’ubutegetsi bwa Mobutu kuwa 16 Gicurasi 1996, ryasize ibyishimo byinshi mu ngo n’imihanda bya benshi muri Congo, bari barambiwe iterabwoba n’igitugu cya Mobutu mu myaka 32 yari ishize.

Laurent Desiré Kabila wari ugeze ku butegetsi yitwaje umunwa w’imbunda, imvugo yari isize umunyu ko ibya kera bigiye kwibagirana umugani wa ‘Bibiliya’, ariko ryabaye intangiriro y’inzira ya kabiri y’umusaraba Congo ikikoreye kugeza ubu.

Umunyabigwi w’indwanyi yo muri Cuba, Ernesto Che Guevara yari yarabivuze mu 1965 ubwo yazaga gufasha inyeshyamba za Kabila guhirika ubutegetsi, ariko akaza gutenguhwa ku munota wa nyuma.

Ubwo Ernesto Che Guevara yazaga gufasha Laurent Desire Kabila kurwana intambara muri Congo, yabajijwe niba abona Congo ishobora kiugira umuyobozi muzima uganisha igihugu aheza.

Mu gitabo Che Guevara yanditse ku mezi atatu yamaze muri Congo afasha Kabila gutegura inyeshyamba nziza, yagize ati “Umuntu nabonaga ufite ubushobozi bwo kuba umuyobozi ni Kabila ariko ntabwo nanone waba umuyobozi mwiza udafite indangagaciro z’ingenzi zikugira Umuyobozi wazana impinduramatwara nziza. Icya mbere ukwiriye kuba uri umuntu wihagazeho, ufite umurongo w’ibitekerezo bishobora gushyirwa mu bikorwa, ufite umutima w’ubwitange uherekeza ibyo bikorwa. Kabila yagaragaje ko izo ndangagaciro ntazo afite.”

Nyuma y’umwaka umwe gusa afashe ubutegetsi, Laurent Desiré Kabila yahise bigaragaza ubwo yihindukaga ingabo z’u Rwanda n’iza Uganda zamushyize ku butegetsi.

Byakurikiwe no kwica, kumenesha no guhiga abavuga Ikinyarwanda cyane cyane abo mu bwoko bw’Abatutsi n’Abanyamulenge batuye mu bice by’i Burasirazuba bwa Congo, abenshi kuva ubwo bisanze mu buhungiro, abahasigaye magingo aya utarapfuye arara rwantambi.

Laurent Desire Kabila ashinjwa kutumvira inama z'abandi no kwibwira ko intambara n'amacakubiri ari cyo gisubizo kuri Congo

Imitwe yitwaje intwaro iyogoje Congo kugeza ubu, inkomoko yayo yose ni ku gihe cya Laurent Desiré Kabila, wamaze gushwana n’u Rwanda agaha ‘karibu’ FDLR, akayiha intwaro n’amafaranga ngo imufashe mu ntambara ya kabiri ya Congo mu 1998.

Imitwe itandukanye yitwaje intwaro yatangiye kuvuka ari nako yigarurira imijyi itandukanye y’igihugu, Kabila yingingirwa kujya mu biganiro ariko ararahira arirenga.

Nubwo Kabila afatwa nk’intwari ya Congo kugeza ubu, igitabo The Rise and Fall of Laurent Kabila cya François Ngolet, kigaragaza ko yavuye ku butegetsi mu 2001 yanzwe n’abaturage kurusha Mobutu.

Ati “Kubera kunanirwa gukora amatora muri Mata 1999 nkuko yari yabisezeranyije, Kabila yari yaratakaje igikundiro muri Kinshasa. Ubutegetsi bwe bwari bubi kurusha ubwa Mobutu, asuzugura abatavuga rumwe na we no gushwanyaguza abo batumvaga ibintu kimwe ari nabyo byatumaga abanzi be imbere mu gihugu biyongera.”

“ Yari asigaye agenda nijoro atinya ko abagenda n’amaguru Bambara ubusa imbere y’imodoka ze bamukwena bamwereka ko bashonje.”

Igitabo gikomeza kigira giti “Kabila ntacyo yari yagakoze ngo arangize intambara […] Yageragezaga gukora ikintu cyose cyaburizamo imbaraga zashoboraga gutuma ibintu bikemuka mu buryo bwa dipolomasi. Ntabwo yigeze ashaka ibiganiro, yari arajwe ishinga no gushaka abamufasha mu bya gisirikare barimo n’abo wabonaga ntacyo kumufasha bafite.”

Kabila yiciwe mu biro bye tariki 16 Mutarama 2001, yicwa n’umwe mu bamurindaga. Ibibazo yasanzemo Congo yayisigiye ibirenze, abiraga umuhungu Joseph Kabila, aka wa mugani w’urubanza rwakunaniye!

Joseph Kabila wari ufite imyaka 30 yarahanyanyaje, ariko ibibazo bya Congo bimurusha intege ahitamo guterera iyo.

Kabila yari umuyobozi w’intege nke haba mu byemezo yafataga n’imyaka yajyanye ku butegetsi, ariko yakomeje guhanyanyaza kugeza mu 2019 ubwo yashyikirizaga uwo mutwaro Felix Tshisekedi, umwana wamaze imyaka myinshi y’ubuzima bwe i Bruxelles mu Bubiligi.

Joseph Kabila na we ntiyaviriyemo aho kuko yayoboye igihugu gifite munsi y’ubutaka hadasabiriza umunyu. Inyandiko ziswe “Congo Hold-up” zakozwe n’imiryango mpuzamahnaga itegamiye kuri Leta n’itangazamakuru, zagaragaje ko umuryango wa Kabila wanyereje miliyoni 140$ hagati ya 2013 na 2018.

Zigaragaza ko kuva yajya ku butegetsi, Kabila yagize uruhare mu kwigwizaho umutungo we n’umuryango we.

Raporo yakozwe Congo Research Group (CRG) at New York University 2017, igaragaza ko Kabila n’umuryango we bari bafite imigabane cyangwa bihariye imigabane yose muri sosiyete zirenga 80 mu gihugu no mu mahanga.

Joseph Kabila yari umunyantege nke mu guhangana n'abashaka guhoza RDC hasi

Tshisekedi wamusimbuye avuga ko aje guhindura amateka na we yarahageze asanga Congo ni inkono ihiye, aricara yikoreramo. Ruswa, umutekano muke, ubugizi bwa nabi byakomeje kwiyongera kugeza ubu imitwe yitwaje intwaro yikubye kabiri, ikaba igeze ku 260.

Umwaka ushize ikinyamakuru Le Soir cyatangaje ko Tshisekedi yaguze inzu y’agatangaza mu Bubiligi ifite agaciro ka $5,3, wongeyeho umushahara we kugeza n’ubu utazwi umubare.

Ruswa yahawe intebe kwa Tshisekedi aho abanyapolitiki barusha abandi gutanga amaturo aribo bagororerwa imyanya ikomeye, ubundi bakiba nta nkomyi.

Mu 2023 Congo yakiriye imikino ya Francophonie aho byari biteganyijwe ko izatwara miliyoni $48 ariko byarangiye mu cyumweru kimwe itwaye miliyoni $324. Icyo ayo mafaranga yiyongereye yakoreshejwe, ntabwo cyagaragajwe, icyakora bivugwa ko yanyerejwe. Nta wagejejwe mu butabera.

Haherutse kugaragazwa ko Minisitiri w’Imari yagize uruhare mu kunyereza miliyoni zisaga $300$ yatanzwe mu kubaka amariba y’amazi no kugura amatara yo ku muhanda, ku giciro kiri hejuru cyane y’icyo mu busanzwe byari gutwara.

Vital Kamerhe wahoze ari Umuyobozi w’Ibiro bya Tshisekedi na Minisitiri w’Ubukungu, mu mezi atatu ya mbere y’ubutegetsi bwa Tshisekedi ashinjwa kuba yaranyereje asaga miliyoni $50, ariko yaje kugirwa umwere anasubizwa muri politiki.

Mu gihe Tshisekedi n’abamuri hafi bakomeje kuba abaherwe, ubukene mu baturage bo hasi bwo buranuma.

Ibarura gereranya ry’ubutunzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro buri m butaka bwa Congo, bugaragaza ko hari ubutunzi bufite agaciro ka miliyari ibihumbi $24. Ayo mabuye aramutse abyajwe umusaruro, nibura buri muturage wa Congo yaba afite amadolari 240,000, nta gihugu ku Isi gifite umuturage winjiza ako kayabo k’amafaranga ku mwaka.

Igihugu gifite urugomero rwa Inga rufite ubushobozi bwo gucanira Afurika yose, abafite umuriro ntibarenze 19%.

Ikirenze ibyo, Tshisekedi yasubiriye amakosa yakozwe na Mobutu ndetse na Desiré Kabila ari nayo yabarangije, yo kwanga kumva amarira y’abavuga Ikinyarwanda ahubwo bakibasirwa.

Kugeza ubu Tshisekedi yararahiye arirenga ko atazaganira n’umutwe wa M23 urwanira uburenganzira bw’abavuga Ikinyarwanda, nyamara uwo mutwe ukomeje kwigarura uduce twinshi utsinze ingabo za Congo zifatanya na FDLR, ingabo z’u Burundi, iza SADC n’abandi.

Perezida Tshisekedi yamaze kujya mu murongo nk'uwabamubanjirije bakoreshejwe mu nyungu za mpatsibihugu mu kwangiza RDC

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