00:00:00 IGIHE NETWORK KN KINYARWANDA EN ENGLISH FR FRANCAIS

Ubukemurampaka, ubutabera bwigenga butaramenyerwa cyane mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na

NDAYISABA Daniel

Kuya 11 July 2014 saa 09:21
Yasuwe :

Bisanzwe bimenyerewe ko iyo abantu bafitanye ibibazo akenshi bitabaza inkiko kugira ngo zikemure ibyo bibazo ziciye urubanza. Muri iki gihe haragenda hagaragara iterambere ry’ubundi buryo bukoreshwa mu gukemura amakimbirane hatitabajwe inkiko. Muri ubwo buryo bundi hakaba harimo ubukemurampaka (arbitrage mu Gifaransa cyangwa arbitration mu Cyongereza). Mu iriyi nkuru turagerageza kubagezaho bimwe mu by’ibanze byafasha mu gusobanukirwa n’ubukemurampaka. Mu Rwanda ubu buryo ntiburitabirwa (…)

Bisanzwe bimenyerewe ko iyo abantu bafitanye ibibazo akenshi bitabaza inkiko kugira ngo zikemure ibyo bibazo ziciye urubanza. Muri iki gihe haragenda hagaragara iterambere ry’ubundi buryo bukoreshwa mu gukemura amakimbirane hatitabajwe inkiko. Muri ubwo buryo bundi hakaba harimo ubukemurampaka (arbitrage mu Gifaransa cyangwa arbitration mu Cyongereza). Mu iriyi nkuru turagerageza kubagezaho bimwe mu by’ibanze byafasha mu gusobanukirwa n’ubukemurampaka. Mu Rwanda ubu buryo ntiburitabirwa cyane ugereranyije no mu bindi bihugu.

Ubukemurampaka ni iki?

Hashingiwe ku biteganywa Itegeko N° 005/2008 ryo kuwa 14/02/2008 ryerekeye ubukemurampaka n’ubwunzi mu bibazo by’ubucuruzi, ubukemurampaka busobanurwa nk’uburyo bukoreshwa n’abantu bafitanye ikibazo basaba Umukemurampaka cyangwa Inteko y’Abakemurampaka kubakiranura ku kibazo cy’ubucuruzi gikomoka ku mategeko, ku masezerano, cyangwa gikomoka ahandi bifitanye isano.

Harebwe ubusobanuro rusange twavuga ko ubukemurampaka ari uburyo abafitanye ikibazo bitabaza undi muntu udafite aho abogamiye kandi ukora nk’umucamanza wigenga kugira ngo abakemurire ikibazo afata icyemezo gifatwa nk’urubanza kandi kiba kigomba gushyirwa mu bikorwa.

Hashingiwe kuri ubu busobanuro rusange, ubukemurampaka bushobora no kwifashishwa mu bindi bibazo bitari iby’ubucuruzi gusa. Aha twavuga nko gukemura impaka hagati y’abakozi n’abakoresha n’ibindi.

Ubukemurampaka mu mategeko y’u Rwanda

Nk’uko twabibonye haruguru mu Rwanda hari itegeko N° 005/2008 ryo kuwa 14/02/2008 ryerekeye ubukemurampaka n’ubwunzi mu bibazo by’ubucuruzi. Iri tegeko rigaragaza neza uko ubukemurampaka bugomba kwifashishwa mu gukemura amakimbirane hagati y’abantu bari mu bikorwa by’ubucuruzi n’ibindi bifitanye isano.

Uretse iri tegeko kandi usanga ubukemurampaka buteganyijwe mu yandi mategeko. Itegeko N° 13/2009 ryo kuwa 27/05/2009 rigenga umurimo mu Rwanda riteganya uburyo bwo gukemura ibibazo hagati y’abakoresha n’abakozi hakoreshejwe ubukemurampaka.

Itegeko N° 26/2005 ryo kuwa 17/12/2005 rigamije guteza imbere no korohereza ishoramari n’ibicuruzwa byoherezwa mu mahanga naryo riteganya uburyo bwo gukoresha ubukemurampaka mu gukemura ibibazo hagati y’abashoramari na Leta. Urutonde rw’amategeko ateganya ubukemuramaka ntitwarurangiza ariko ikigaragara ni uko ari uburyo buteganyijwe mu mategeko atandukanye.

By’umwihariko ni ngombwa kuvuga ku mabwiriza No 612/08.11 yo kuwa 16/04/2014 ya Minisitiri w’Ubutabera ashyiraho uburyo bwo gutegura amasezerano, kuyumvikanaho, kuyasabaho ibitekerezo, kuyashyiraho umukono no kuyacunga. Mu byo aya mabwiriza ateganya harimo uburyo bwo gukemura impaka zivutse mu masezerano arimo Leta. Bumwe mu buryo buteganywa harimo n’ubukemurampaka.

Ubukemurampaka n’ubutabera busanzwe: Igereranya

Ubukemurampaka bufite aho butandukaniye n’aho buhuriye n’ubutabera bw’inkiko zisanzwe. Aho bitandukanira twavuga ko ubukemurampaka ari ubutabera bwigenga naho ubutabera bw’inkiko bukaba ubutabera bushyirwaho na Leta. Ubukemurampaka ni ubutabera bwigenga kuko bukoreshwa hakurikijwe ubwumvikane bw’abafitanye ikibazo, aribo bishyiriraho abakemurampaka (twagereranya n’abacamanza), icyicaro cy’urukiko nkemurampaka n’ibindi. Ibi bikaba bitandukanye cyane n’ubutabera busanzwe aho buba bugengwa n’amategeko yashyizweho na Leta kandi ntabwo bukora bushingiye ku ubwumvikane bw’ababuranyi.

Cyakora ubukemurampaka buhurira n’ubutabera busanzwe ku kuba icyemezo gifatwa muri izo nzira zombi gishyirwaho kashe mpuruza kikaba cyashyirwa mu bikorwa ku ngufu za Leta bikozwe n’abahesha b’inkiko baba ab’umwuga cyangwa abatarabigize umwuga.

Ese ibibazo byose bishobora gukemurwa hifashishijwe ubukemurampaka?

Igisubizo kuri iki kibazo ni oya. Hari ibibazo bidashobora gukemurwa hifashishijwe ubukemurampaka. Muri ibyo harimo ibishingiye ku mategeko mpanabyaha, ibishingiye ku mategeko y’irangamimerere y’abantu (Etat civil/civil status). Dutanze urugero, ntabwo abashakanye bashaka gutandukana bashobora kubikora bifashishije ubukemurampaka. Icyo gihe bitabaza inkiko.

Bikorwa gute kugira ngo abafitanye ikibazo bifashishe ubukemurampaka?

Kugira ngo ikibazo runaka gikemurwe hifashishijwe ubukemurampaka bishobora gukorwa mu buryo bubiri. Abagiranye amasezerano bashobora kubiteganya mu masezerano mbere y’uko ikibazo kivuka cyangwa se bakumvikana gukoresha ubukemurampaka nyuma y’uko ikibazo cyamaze kuvuka.

Mu buryo bwa mbere abagiranye amasezerano bayashyiramo ingingo iteganya ko mu gihe havuka impaka hazitabazwa ubukemurampaka. Mu buryo bwa kabiri abantu bashaka kwifashisha ubukemurampaka bashobora kubyumvikanaho nyuma y’uko impaka zavutse. Icyo gihe bashyiraho uburyo ubukemurampaka buzakora, icyicaro, n’ibindi bijyanye nabyo.

Amoko y’ubukemurampaka

Ubukemurampaka bubamo amoko abiri: ubukemurampaka bwihariye kandi budahoraho (ad hoc arbitration) n’ubukemurampaka bukorwa n’ibigo byabugenewe (Institutional arbitration).

Ad hoc arbitration ni ubukemurampaka bukorwa n’umukemurampaka cyangwa abakemurampaka bashyizweho n’abafitanye ikibazo. Abakemurampaka muri ubu buryo bakaba bashobora kuba abantu basanzwe ariko bumvikanyweho.

Institutional arbitration ni ubukemurampaka bucungwa n’ikigo kiba cyarabugenewe. Ikigo nk’iki kiba gifite urutonde rw’abakemurampaka abafitanye ikibazo bagatoranyamo abo bakwifashisha. Ikigo nk’iki gikurikirana imigendekere myiza y’ubukemurampaka gitanga ibikoresho n’ibindi bikenerwa. Ariko ni ngombwa gushimangira ko nubwo icyo kigo gicunga ubukemurampaka, abakemurampaka bashyizweho bakora mu bwisanzure bwabo. Mu Rwanda hari ikigo kimwe gitanga serivisi z’ubukemurampaka aricyo Kigali International Arbitration Center (KIAC).

Ni inde ushobora kuba umukemurampaka?

Umuntu wese udafite imiziro mu rwego rw’amategeko ashobora kuba umukemurampaka. Gusa umwuga w’ubukemurampaka usaba ubunararibonye n’ubunyangamugayo buhagije. Nubwo abanyamategeko akenshi bifashishwa mu bukemurampaka ariko si ngombwa ko buri gihe umukemurampaka aba yarize amategeko. Mu gihe inteko y’abakemurampaka igizwe n’abantu barenze umwe, biba byiza iyo bafite ubumenyi butandukanye bufite aho buhuriye n’ikibazo kigiye gukemurwa.

Ni izihe nyungu z’ubukemurampaka?

Ubukemurampaka bufite inyungu ndetse abahanga benshi mu by’amategeko bemeza ko bushobora no kuba bufite inyungu nyinshi ugereranyije n’ubutabera busanzwe cyane cyane mu byerekeye ubucuruzi.

Zimwe muri izo nyungu ni izi zikurikira:

1. Kwihutisha ubutabera: kuba ubukemurampaka bushyirwaho ku bwumvikane bw’abantu, bugacungwa nabo, bakishyiriraho aho bubera n’ibindi, bituma icyemezo cy’abakemurampaka (arbitral award) ishobora kuboneka mu gihe gito. Ibi kandi byiyongera ku kuba hari igihe usanga mu nkiko zisanzwe harimo ibirarane byinshi by’imanza bigatuma ababuranyi bahabwa amatariki yo kuburana ya kure mu gihe mu bukemurampaka ho ikibazo cy’ibirarane bitoroshye kuba cyabaho.

2. Kuba ubukemurampaka bwiyambazwa ku bwumvikane: iyi ni inyungu kuko bituma abafitanye ikibazo bishyiriraho uburyo bubanogeye bwo ku gikemura ikibazo bakurikije umwanya bafite n’ubushobozi. Byongeye kandi ubu buryo bworohereza abantu kuko impinduka zumvikanyweho zishobora kwemerwa (ubukemurampaka bushobora gukorwa muri weekend, amasaha ya nijoro n’ibindi). Ibi rero ntabwo byoroshye kuba wabibona mu butabera busanzwe kuko inkiko ziba zifite gahunda yazo zigenderaho idapfa guhinduka, ibiteganywa n’amategeko biba bigomba kubahirizwa mbese nta bwinyagamburiro bupfa kuboneka.

3. Icyemezo cy’ubukemurampaka kigira ingufu nk’izurubanza rwaciwe n’inkiko zisanzwe: Icyemezo cyafashwe n’abakemurampaka gishyikirizwa urukiko rukagishyiraho kashe mpuruza iyo rusanze cyujuje ubuziranenge. Icyo gihe rero kiba gishobora gushyirwa mu bikorwa hifashishijwe abahesha b’inkiko basanzwe. Abahanga mu mategeko bemeza ko gushyira mu bikorwa icyemezo cy’abakemurampaka hanze y’igihugu byoroha bitewe nuko hari amasezerano mpuzamahanga yashyiriweho umukono I New York mu 1958 yerekeye iyemerwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’ibyemezo-mvamahanga by’abakemurampaka (Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards).

Ibyiza by’ukukemurampaka byo ni byinshi ugereranyije n’inzira zo kujya mu nkiko. Ariko ntawabura kuvuga ko rimwe na rimwe usanga gukoresha ubu buryo bitwara amafaranga menshi ku buryo hari igihe abadafite ubushobozi bitaborohera kubugeraho. Ku rundi ruhande ariko abayafite cyane abacuruzi mu bindi bihugu usanga babwitabira cyane. Ibi bigaterwa nuko cyane cyane mu bucuruzi gutakaza igihe nabyo bifatwa nk’igihombo gikomeye mu gihe iyo hakoreshejwe ubu buryo ikemurwa ry’ibibazo ryihuta.

Ikoreshwa ry’bukemurampaka ku rwego mpuzamahanga

Ku rwego mpuzangamahanga hari ibigo bizwi mu gatanga serivisi z’ubukemurampaka. Muri ibyo hari International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), JAMS International, the British Columbia International Commercial Arbitration Centre (BCICAC, Canada), the International Centre for Dispute Resolution (ICDR), the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA), the Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre na Singapore International Arbitration Centre (SIAC). Ibyo bigo byose usanga byitabirwa cyane.

Nk’uko twabibonye haruguru, mu Rwanda hari ikigo kimwe gitanga serivisi z’ubukemurampaka kikaba cyarashyizweho n’itegeko No 51/2010 ryo ku wa 10/01/2010. Raporo y’umwaka wa 2012-2013 y’icyo kigo yerekana ko mu mwaka wa 2013 cyari kimaze kwakira ibibazo makumyabiri (20) byasabirwaga gukemurwa binyuze mu bukemurampaka.Nubwo iki kigo wenda kitamaze imyaka myinshi ugereranyije n’ibyavuzwe haruguru ariko biragaragara ko abantu benshi batari bakitabira. Bityo bigatuma umuntu yavuga ko imyumvire y’Abanyarwanda ku bukemurampaka itaratera imbere. Ibi kandi bigaragazwa no kuba usanga akenshi abagirana amasezerano bakunda gushyiraho ingingo ivuga mu gihe havuka amakimbirane mu iyubahirizwa ry’amasezerano bazitabaza inkiko.

[email protected]


Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .