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Ishusho y’iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga ry’u Rwanda mu myaka 20 ishize

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 14 Werurwe 2021 saa 01:30
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Isaha yabaraga saa 5:00 z’umugoroba ubwo ninjiraga muri Gare ya Downtown mu karere ka Nyarugenge, urubyiruko rw’abakorerabushake rwibutsaga abahinjira kubahiriza amabwiriza yo kwirinda COVID-19 ariko ahakarabirwa intoki ni ukuzitega amazi akizana. Aho imodoka zinjirira hari icyuma kihazitiye ariko zirahagera kikizamura ikinjira maze kigasubira uko cyahoze.

Muri gare, ku murongo muremure cyane w’abasubira imuhira, 13 muri 15 bari imbere yanjye bafite telefoni zigezweho mu ntoki bigaragara ko bahuze. Inyuma, iburyo n’ibumoso aho amaso abasha kugarukira nibura 25 muri 30 bategereje imodoka bahugiye muri telefoni nk’izo. Kwinjira mu modoka ni ikarita ikozwa ku mashini nk’uburyo bwo kwishyura.

Hari uwavuze ngo “Ikintu cya mbere ni amakuru.” Birumvikana ay’uko u Rwanda ubu rufite robots zisukura ahantu bikekwa ho hari Coronavirus n’izifasha kwita ku bayirwaye warayumvise. Ay’indege nto zitwara amaraso ku bitaro hirya no hino mu gihugu urayibukijwe kandi camera zo ku mihanda itandukanye ushobora guhamya ko zagabanyije impanuka.

Iyi nkuru usoma ikwibutsa ibyo byose mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya, mbere y’imyaka 20 ishize Umunyarwanda ntiyabashaga kuyisoma bimworoheye. Usibye ko no kubimenyekanisha ku miyoboro myinshi byari bigoranye, internet yihuta yamubashishaga kubigeraho byoroshye nkawe yari hafi ya ntayo. Ariko kandi ntiwakwirengagiza ko n’abenshi batari babijijukiwe.

Iyo havugwa iterambere ry’igihugu, agace, akarere cyangwa umugabane runaka, bipimirwa mu ngeri zitandukanye. Mu Isi ya none, ubukungu n’ikoranabuhanga ni byo bisigaye birebwaho cyane mu gusobanura iterambere ry’ahantu runaka kuko ahanini ari byo nkingi ya mwamba ubuzima bw’uyu munsi n’ahazaza bwubakiyeho. Izindi ngeri z’ubuzima zubakira kuri ibyo.

Uwakubaza ibyo wishimira u Rwanda rumaze kugeraho, nubwo umutekano wawushyira ku isonga ariko nta gushidikanya ko icya kabiri udasanze ari ubukungu wasanga ari ikoranabuhanga.

Mbere ya 2000, byari bigoranye ko Umunyarwanda utuye i Rubavu yamenya ikiri kubera i Nyagatare kitaranarangira. Byari ngombwa gutegereza ko isaha y’amakuru ya radio cyangwa televiziyo [nazo zabarirwaga ku ntoki] igera.

Birumvikana ko n’ubuke bw’ibyo bitangazamakuru butatumaga amakuru yose amenyekana kuko nabyo nta bushobozi byari bifite bwo kuyageraho, cyangwa n’igihe kikaba cyaba gito.

Umuntu yashoboraga kurenganywa bikamara imyaka irenga itanu bitazwi, cyangwa nk’utuye mu ntara akabura serivisi akeneye mu nzego nkuru za Leta bitewe no kurambirwa guhora mu mayira n’amikoro make yatumaga bamwe batabona n’amatike ya buri gihe.

-  Nk’iyo icyorezo cya COVID-19 kigera mu Rwanda mu 2000 byari kugenda bite?

Birumvikana ko inyinshi muri serivisi zaba iza Leta n’iz’abikorera ziba zimaze umwaka usaga zidahabwa abazikeneye, icyorezo cyashoboraga kwibasira igihugu by’indengakamere kubera amakuru make rubanda bagifiteho, iby’urukingo byo ni indi nkuru ku ruhande kuko usibye no kurugura uburyo bwo kurubika no kurukwirakwiza bwari kugorana cyane.

Muri rusange iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga ririgaragaza kandi ritanga umusanzu ufatika mu ngeri zose z’ubuzima bw’abanyagihugu. Muri iyi myaka isaga 20 ishize, haba mu burezi, ubuzima n’imitangire ya serivisi haragaragaramo ikoranabuhanga.

Itumanaho ryabaye nko guhamagarana muri mu nzu imwe, amakuru agerera ku bayakeneye ku gihe, yewe hari na rubanda ruhabwa ubutabera n’inzego nkuru bitagombye kuva mu rugo.

Ubwo umurwayi wa mbere wa COVID-19 yabonekaga mu Rwanda muri Werurwe, ibihuha byari byinshi ku makuru yerekeye iki cyorezo. Ikoranabuhanga nubwo ryabigizemo uruhare ariko ryanafashije mu guca intege urwo ruhererekane rwabyo bituma abaturage babona amakuru mpamo.

Ibi kandi ni nako byagenze ku guhangana nacyo kuko iryo koranabuhanga haba mu gukurikirana abarwayi no kubitaho ryari rikenewe cyane.

-  Internet yihuta ya 4G

Inkuru uri gusoma kuyigeraho byagusabye internet. Bitewe n’uburyo wakoresheje ushobora kuba wayigezeho vuba cyangwa bikakugora bivuze ko internet itihuta ikerereza uyikoresha kugera ku makuru cyangwa ibindi bintu yashakaga mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga riyifashisha, yaba yihuta bikaba nko guhumbya.

Ubwo yagezaga ijambo ku bitabiriye Inama ya Transform Africa yabereye i Kigali mu Ukwakira 2013, Perezida w’u Rwanda, Paul Kagame yavuze ko internet iri mu bintu nkenerwa cyane kuri rubanda.

Yagize ati “Internet ni ikintu nkenerwa cyane ku bantu nk’amazi n’amashanyarazi.”

Iyo yabaye intero muri iyi myaka 20 ishize, igihugu cyimakaza politiki yo kwagura ikoranabuhanga ryifashisha internet mu ngeri zose haba no mu miyoborere, ari nako hubakwa umuyoboro wa Internet igezweho kugeza ku ya 4G Abanyarwanda barigukoresha ubu.

Mu 2010 u Rwanda rwashyizwe ku mwanya wa gatatu mu bihugu bifite internet yihuta cyane muri Afurika, ruza ku mwanya wa 87 ku Isi mu 180 byari byakoreweho inyigo na Ookla.

Nubwo byari bimeze bityo, icyo gihe rwakoreshaga internet ya 2G nayo yagerwagaho n’ababarirwa mu 823.494, bangana na 8% by’abaturage igihugu cyari gifite.

Ushobora kubifata nk’aho byari hasi cyane ugereranyije n’uyu munsi, nyamara zari impinduka zihambaye ugereranyije no mu 2000, aho abakoreshaga internet bari 5.040 bangana na 0,1% by’abari batuye urwa Gasabo nk’uko Internet Live Stats ibyerekana.

Nyuma yo kubona iya 4G mu 2014 rubifashijwemo n’Ikigo cy’Abanyakoreya y’Epfo, KT Corporation, abakoresha internet bageze kuri 1.202.204 bangana na 10,6% by’abari batuye igihugu.

Mu ntego u Rwanda rwari rwarihaye kugeraho mu cyerekezo 2020, harimo ko rugomba “kuzamura ubukungu bushingiye ku bumenyi n’ikoranabuhanga” aho kuba gusa ubushingiye ku buhinzi n’ubworozi.

Nta gushidikanya ko internet yagombaga kugira uruhare runini kugira ngo iyo ntego igerweho, ari nayo mpamvu yakomeje kongerwamo ingufu cyane.

Imibare igaragaza ko kugeza ubu abasaga gato miliyoni 4 ari bo bakoresha internet muri miliyoni 13,15 z’abaturarwanda. Ni mu gihe aharenga 95% mu gihugu hagerwa na 4G.

-  Gusaba no gutanga serivisi za Leta n’iz’abikorera binyuze mu ikoranabuhanga

Nyuma yo kubona internet yihuta yaje ifitiwe inyota, zimwe muri serivisi za Leta zitangwa vuba hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga mu buryo bworohereza abazikeneye batagombye gusiragira mu mayira bagana ibiro bizitanga.

Ubu umuturarwanda anyuze ku batanga serivisi za “Irembo” ziboneka hose mu gihugu, ahabwa serivisi za Leta zirimo, iz’umuryango, iz’irangamimerere, iz’abinjira n’abasohoka, iz’ubutaka ndetse n’iza polisi.

Ashobora kandi guhabwa zimwe muri serivisi za noteri n’iy’igazeti, iz’ubuzima, iz’imitegekere, iz’uburezi, iz’ingoro ndangamurage z’u Rwanda, iz’ubwikorezi, iz’ubushinjacyaha no kwandikisha ibitangazamakuru.

Korohereza abaturage kugera kuri serivisi bakenera biri muri gahunda Leta y’u Rwanda yari yarihaye yo guteza imbere imiyoborere yimakaje ikoranabuhanga (e-governance), ibyari byitezweho kugeza igihugu mu bifite ubukungu buringaniye mu cyerekezo 2020.

Uretse serivisi za Leta, inzego z’abikorera nazo zayobotse iy’ikoranabuhanga mu kumenyekanisha amakuru y’ibanze no gutanga serivisi ku bazigana.
Ingero zifatika n’iz’ibigo bicururiza kuri internet, aho umukiliya asaba serivisi cyangwa igicuruzwa ashaka mu biba byagaragajwe, maze akaranga aho aza kubishyikirizwa bikamugeraho.

Kwiyandikisha mu mashuri na za kaminuza n’ibindi bigo bitandukanye, gutanga ubusabe bwo kwitabira igikorwa runaka no gusaba akazi, byasabaga nyir’ubwite kujya ku cyicaro mu myaka 20 ishize. Ubu birakorwa mu gihe gito kandi bitagombye ingendo ku bw’iterambere rikomeye mu ikoranabuhanga ry’u Rwanda.

Intambwe iheruka guterwa mu rwego rwa serivisi zitangirwa ku ikoranabuhanga, ni iy’icyamunara yasabaga abapiganwa kujya aho ikiri butezwe giherereye. Ubu buri wese yabasha kwitabira icyo gikorwa yibereye iwe kandi ntibigire icyo bihungabanya.

-  Inama zikozwe mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga (Video conference) zarimakajwe

Kuva mu mpera za 2019 ubwo icyorezo cya Coronavirus cyabonekaga mu Bushinwa bikamenyekana ko gikwirakwira vuba binyuze mu kwanduzanya, Isi yose yayobotse iyo gukora inama n’indi mihango itandukanye hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga aho bishoboka.

Ntabwo byari bimenyerewe cyane mu myaka yabanje, ariko ubu inama nyinshi zabaye mu mwaka ushize zifashishije ikoranabuhanga ry’amashusho.

Mu Rwanda si ubwa mbere byari bibayeho kuko no mu myaka yabanje mu ntara hashyirwagaho site z’abantu barateraniraho bagakurikirana inama y’igihugu Umushyikirano n’izindi zikomeye.

Ubu ho byafashe indi ntera kuko umwaka usaga ushize icyorezo cyugarije Isi watumye n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Rwanda isigaye iterana hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga, ibintu bibayeho bwa mbere mu mateka yayo.

Umukuru w’Igihugu yitabiriye inama zitandukanye za Afurika Yunze Ubumwe, Afurika y’Uburasirazuba, Umuryango w’Abibumbye n’izindi hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga ry’amashusho. Raporo Mpuzamahanga zaratanzwe, amasezerano atandukanye ashyirwaho umukono muri ubwo buryo.

Ni umuco wamaze gukwira mu bandi baturage, haba ibigo bifite abakozi inama nyinshi zibera ku ikoranabuhanga, amashuri amwe yigisha hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga n’ibindi.

Mbere y’imyaka 20 ishize, ikoranabuhanga ryagendaga biguru ntege ndetse riri no mu nzego zari inyuma ku buryo ibyo kwitabira inama nk’izi byari kuba ingorabahizi.

-  Robots na drones mu rwego rw’ubuvuzi

Mu 2017 ni bwo mu Rwanda hagejejwe indege zitagira abapilote (drones) zakozwe na Sosiyete y’Abanyamerika, Zipline International, zifashishwa mu rwego rw’ubuzima aho zigeza imiti, inkingo n’amaraso mu bitaro biri mu bice by’igihugu bigoye kubigeramo vuba.

Ni intambwe ikomeye yishimiwe cyane kuko byarokoye ubuzima bwa benshi, cyane ko zikoresha igihe gito ugereranyije n’icyo imodoka zakoreshaga muri icyo gikorwa, bityo mu gihe hari umurwayi urembye akaba yatabarwa byihuse. Nk’aho imodoka yagendaga amasaha ane, drones zihagenda iminota 35.

Uretse kwihutisha izo serivisi, drones zanakemuye ikibazo cy’inkingo n’imiti byashoboraga kwangizwa no kuba imodoka ibitwaye igenda yicunda mu mihanda itameze neza cyangwa amakorosi.

Ikoranabuhanga mu buvuzi rinagaragarira kuri robots zikoreshwa mu guhangana na COVID-19, zirimo eshanu zazanywe muri Gicurasi 2020 zifite ubushobozi bwo gufata ibipimo, kugeza ibiribwa n’imiti ku barwayi, gufata amakuru yabo no kuyamenyesha muganga.

Hari kandi izindi eshatu zahawe Minisiteri y’Ubuzima muri Gashyantare 2021, zifashishwa mu gusukura no kwica udukoko ahahurira abantu benshi hagamijwe kurwanya ikwirakwizwa ry’icyorezo. Zibikora mu gihe gito kandi mu buryo bwizewe 100% kurusha uko abantu babikora.

-  Guhererekanya, kubitsa, kubikuza no kwishyurira kuri telefoni

Urwego ikoranabuhanga rigezeho, biroroshye ko Umunyarwanda haba utuye mu mujyi cyangwa mu cyaro ashobora kumva akamaro ko guhererekanya amafaranga hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga.

Mu gukaza ingamba zo kwirinda Coronavirus, kwishyurana hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga byagizwe itegeko, maze n’abadafite konti mu mabanki bakoresha mobile money mu guhererekanya amafaranga. Byazamuye imyumvire ya benshi bigera aho barivuga imyato.

Imibare ya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) yerekana ko kugeza muri Kamena 2020 abafatabuguzi ba serivisi zo kwishyurana hakoreshejwe telefoni bari bageze kuri miliyoni 15. Ni umubare wazamutseho 31% ugereranyije n’umwaka wabanje.

BNR kandi igaragaza ko kugeza muri uko kwezi ibikorwa miliyoni 333 byishyuwe hifashishijwe telefoni, bikaba bifite agaciro k’amafaranga miliyari 3.842 Frw. Iyo mibare yatumbagiye ku gipimo cya 87%, kuko ibyo mu 2019 byari bifite agaciro ka miliyari 2.058 Frw.

Uretse kuba n’ingamba zo guhangana n’icyorezo zaragize uruhare mu kongera ihererekanya ry’amafaranga hifashishijwe telefoni, abaturarwanda benshi bamaze gusobanukirwa akamaro kabyo ku buryo babikora batikandagira.

-  Kubikuza amafaranga amasaha 24 na ATM

Mbere ya 2000 byari bigoye kubwira Abanyarwanda ko babikuza amafaranga isaha iyo ari yo yose bashakiye batagombye kujya guhagarara imbere y’umukozi wa banki. Ubu byarasobanutse n’utabibwirwa amaso yamwihera, igihe cyose ushaka wajya kuri ATM ukayatahana nubwo abakozi baba batashye.

Uretse kwihutisha serivisi kandi ikaboneka igihe cyose, byongeye umutekano w’amafaranga y’abakiliya kuko imashini uyikoresha uri wenyine bityo amakuru ya konti yawe agakomeza kuba ibanga.

Iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga mu mabanki rinafasha abayagana kumenya amakuru y’uko konti zabo zihagaze bitagombye ingendo, binyuze muri purogaramu zitandukanye zahanzwe zigashyirwa muri za telefoni hagamijwe kuborohereza.

-  One laptop per child mu Burezi

Ibyafatwaga nk’inzozi ku bana biga mu mashuri abanza cyane cyane mu duce tw’ibyaro mbere ya 2000 byaje kuba impamo mu 2008, bahabwa mudasobwa zibafasha kuvugurura imyigire yabo ikajyana n’ikoranabuhanga.

Imibare y’Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Uburezi (REB) igaragaza ko mudasobwa zisaga ibihumbi 275 ari zo zatanzwe ku bigo by’amashuri 1523 biri hirya no hino mu gihugu.

Mu gihe abana benshi bakoraga kuri mudasobwa bwa mbere bageze mu yisumbuye, ubu n’uwo mu wa gatatu w’abanza abasha kuyikoraho, akagira ubumenyi bw’ibanze bujyanye nayo.

Ibi byatumye abanyeshuri bazamukana imbaduko nziza mu ikoranabuhanga, ku buryo iyo bageze mu myaka yo hejuru byorohera abarimu kubigisha ibijyanye naryo.

Uruhare rw’ikoranabuhanga mu burezi rwagaragaye muri ibi bihe by’icyorezo ubwo amashuri yafungaga imiryango, amwe agakomeza kwigisha binyuze ku ya kure (online). Atararyubatse mu buryo buhamye yagowe no kwigisha ariko ayarishyizemo ingufu yakomeje amasomo abanyeshuri n’abarimu bari mu ngo zabo.

Muri rusange uruhande urwo ari rwo rwose wateraho ijisho wahabona impinduka zabaye mu myaka 20 ishize, zigizwemo uruhare n’ikoranabuhanga.

Ubu kwishyura itike y’imodoka mu Mujyi wa Kigali birakorwa hifashishijwe ikarita n’imashini kandi abagenzi bagahabwa internet y’ubuntu, kwishyura moto ni mubazi, mu gihe mu nyubako zimwe na zimwe gusaka abahinjira bikorwa n’ibyuma bigezweho.

Kwirengagiza camera zo ku mihanda zicunga ibinyabiziga bigendera ku muvuduko wo hejuru kwaba ari ukwigiza nkana. Iryo koranabuhanga ryagabanyije impanuka, kuko ikinyabiziga kizinyuzeho gifite umuvuduko uri hejuru zigifotora pulake, maze bigafasha abashinzwe umutekano wo mu muhanda kumenya nyiracyo no kumuhana.

Uduce 400 two hirya no hino mu gihugu tuzwiho kuberamo impanuka z’ibinyabiziga cyane, twashyizwemo camera zifata amashusho y’ibyarengeje umuvuduko mu 2020. Byakozwe hagamijwe kugabanya impanuka zo mu muhanda ku gipimo cya 80%. Izo zaje ziyongera ku zari zisanzwe ku mihanda itandukanye zikora akazi nk’ako.

Ibyagezweho muri rwego rw’ikoranabuhanga mu myaka 20 ishize ni byinshi cyane kubirondora bwakwira bugacya, ariko ibigikinewe nabyo biracyari byinshi.

Iterambere igihugu kimaze kugeraho ryirahirwa n’amahanga, ryubakiye ahanini ku gushyigikira no kubaka ikoranabuhanga. Intambwe imaze guterwa ni nziza cyane kandi ni indashyikirwa ariko ntabwo intsinzi iragerwaho ku buryo rikwiye kuhaguma.

Abanyeshuri bo mu mashuri abanza batangiye gukoresha mudasobwa kuva mu 2008 muri gahunda ya One laptop per Child/ Ifoto: The New Times
Abafatabuguzi ba serivisi zo kwishyurana hakoreshejwe telefoni ngendanwa bageze kuri miliyoni 15 mu Rwanda
Aho Umunyarwanda ari hose mu gihugu abasha guhabwa serivisi nyinshi za Leta anyuze ku Irembo/ Ifoto: Ububiko
Inteko Ishinga Amategeko isigaye iterana hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga mu gihe icyorezo kitaracogora
Internet ya 4G igera kuri 95 by u Rwanda kuva mu 2014 ifasha abayikenera kubona ibyo bashaka byihuse
Camera hirya no hino ku mihanda zarongewe mu kugabanya impanuka z'ibinyabiziga/ Ifoto: Ububiko
Kwishyura amafaranga y'urugendo rwa moto mu Mujyi wa Kigali bikorwa hifashishikjwe mubazi/Ifoto: Ububiko
Perezida Kagame yitabiriye inama zitandukanye mu bihe bya Coronavirus hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga. Aha yari mu yahuje ibihugu 20 bya mbere bikize ku Isi/Ifoto: Village Urugwiro
Urwego rw'ubuzima rwagejejwemo ikoranabuhanga rya robots zunganira abaganga

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