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Peteroli mu marembera: Abantu bazabaho bate batagikoresha ibiyikomokaho?

Yanditswe na Nshuti Hamza
Kuya 4 June 2024 saa 08:02
Yasuwe :

Inzobere mu by’ubumenyi bw’Isi zigaragaza mu myaka itari myinshi iri imbere, ibikomoka kuri peteroli bizaba iyanga. Ni ingingo iteje impagarara kuko habarwa ko nibura ibikoresho 6,000 nkenerwa buri munsi mu mibereho ya muntu, bikorwa hifashishijwe ibikomoka kuri peteroli.

Femke Nijsse wigisha iby’ikirere, ingufu n’ubukungu muri Kaminuza ya Exeter mu Bwongereza, asobanura ko ikoreshwa ry’ibikomoka kuri Peteroli rizagabanuka kugeza kuri 95% mu 2065.

Icyo gihe ngo ni indege n’ubwato bizaba bisigaye bikenera ibikomoka kuri peteroli.

Umwarimu wigisha ibirebana na Peteroli muri Kaminuza ya Aberdeen mu Bwongereza, David MacDonald, we asobanura ko nko mu 2050 ikoreshwa ry’ibikomoka kuri peteroli rishobora kuzaba ryaragabanutseho kimwe cya kane, ariko agashimangira ko ari igabanuka rizaba ridakabije.

Kugabanuka kw’ikoreshwa ry’ibikomoka kuri peteroli ntikuzaterwa n’uko izaba yashize aho icukurwa. Abashakashatsi bemeza ko rizaturuka ku kwimakaza ikoreshwa ry’ingufu ziturutse ku yandi masoko, rikomeje gushyirwamo imbaraga nyinshi hirindwa iyangirika ry’ikirere.

Bijyanye n’uko izindi ngufu ziboneka ku giciro cyo hasi ugereranyije n’ibikomoka kuri peteroli, impuguke zimwe zemeza ko mu myaka ya vuba ibihugu byinshi bizaba bitacyemera gutanga ikiguzi kiri hejuru ku bikomoka kuri Peteroli kandi byangiza n’ikirere, ko ahubwo bazahanga amaso ubundi buryo butandukanye bubyara ingufu.

Nubwo ibikomoka kuri Peteroli bikenerwa cyane, igiciro cyabyo kiracyari hejuru. Ibyo bituruka ahanini ku kiguzi bitwara mu icukurwa ryabyo.

Ikibazo gisigara cyibazwa ahangaha, ibikomoka kuri Peteroli nibidakenerwa nk’isoko y’ingufu, ibindi bintu nkenerwa nk’imiti, ibinini n’ibikoresho byo mu ngo no kwa muganga, ndetse n’ibyo gupfunyikamo byose bikorwa ari yo ibigizemo uruhare, nibibura hazacura iki?

Aha umuntu ntiyanakwirengagiza ko na bimwe mu bikoresho byifashishwa mu gutunganya ingufu ziturutse ku yandi masoko nk’umuyaga cyangwa Izuba, bikorwa hifashishijwe ibikomoka kuri Peteroli. None niba itagicukurwa, ibyo bikoresho byo bizajya biboneka bite?

Iyo ngingo ni yo ituma Kevin Book, Umuyobozi w’Ikigo ClearView gikora ubushakashatsi ku by’ingufu, yizera ko aho kugira ngo icukurwa rya Petreroli rihagarare, hazimakazwa ubwenge bw’ubukorano (Artificial Intelligence,AI) n’irindi koranabuhanga rigezweho mu koroshya uko icukurwa n’itunganywa ry’ibikomoka kuri Peteroli.

Yemeza ko icukurwa rya Peteroli ritahagarara, kugeza ikoranabuhanga rishobora kwifashishwa ritagihari.

Abashakashatsi benshi ntibabasha gutekereza ngo bagaragaze neza uko ubuzima ku Isi buzaba bumeze mu gihe ibikomoka kuri Peteroli bizaba bitacyiyambazwa.

Bamwe bemeza ko icyo gihe kizageza kandi vuba aha, abandi bakabona kitazagera.

Dr. Jodi Sherman uyobora Yale Program muri Healthcare Environmental Sustainability, asobanura ko kwiyumvisha ukuntu serivisi z’ubuvuzi zatangwa nta bikoresho bya “plastiques” bigoye.

Ibyo bikoresho bikorwa hifashishijwe ahanini ibikomoka kuri Peteroli.

Ati “Ndavuga nshize amanga ko ‘plastiques’ zabaye ingenzi cyane mu bikoresho by’ubuvuzi, kandi n’ubu ni ko bikiri.”

Haba ibinyabiziga, gare ya moshi, amato n’indege byose bikoresha ibikomoka kuri Peteroli.

Iyubakwa ry’imihanda ya kaburimbo, naryo nishoboka hitabajwe ibikomoka kuri Peteroli.

Bivugwa ko mu myaka 40,000 ishize ari bwo abari batuye Syrie y’ubu bakoresheje ibikomoka kuri Peteroli. Ntabandi biramenyekana ko bayitabaje mbere yaho.

Abahanga mu bya siyansi basobanura ko Peteroli ituruka ku ruvange rwa “carbone” na “hydrogène” ruturuka ku bisigazwa by’ibimera n’inyamaswa biba byararohamye bikagera hasi cyane mu bishanga, mu biyaga cyangwa inyanja. Iyo hashize imyaka myinshi umucanga cyangwa urutare rubitwikiriye, bigira ubushyuhe bwinshi maze bikabyara Peteroli na gaz.

Hari impungenge ko icukurwa rya Peteroli mu myaka mike iri imbere rishobora kuzaba ritacyitaweho cyane

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