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Amasomo umunani y’umuhanga Socrates yagufasha kumva neza ubuzima

Yanditswe na Cyiza Joseph
Kuya 23 May 2024 saa 04:48
Yasuwe :

Gusobanukirwa ubuzima bishobora rimwe na rimwe kugufasha kumva ushaka kugerageza gukemura urujijo rukomeye.

Reka tuvuge kuri umwe mu banyabwenge akaba n’umwe mu babyeyi b’icengeramitekerereze (Philosophers) uri mu bakomeye w’bihe byose, Socrates

Socrates wo muri Athens ni umwe mu bantu bazwi cyane mu mateka y’isi kubera uruhare yagize mu iterambere ry’icengeramitekerereze ya kera y’Abagereki yatanze intangiriro n’urufatiro rwa Philosophie yo mu Burenger’zuba bw’isi.

Aya ni amasomo umunani ya Socrates yafasha umuntu kumva neza ubuzima.

1. Imenye
Imwe mu nyigisho zikomeye za Socrates ni ijambo, “Kwimenya.”

Ibi birasa nk’imvugo yoroshye, ariko yuzuyemo ubwenge bwimbitse. Ni ijyanye no gusobanukirwa abo turi bo, imbaraga zacu, intege nke zacu, ibyifuzo, ubwoba, nibindi byose.

Socrates yizeraga ko kwimenya ari ishingiro ry’ubuzima bufite intego, bikadufasha gufata ibyemezo bihuye natwe ubwacu, aho gutwarwa n’ingaruka zituruka hanze yacu.

2. Baza byose

Socrates azwiho kubaza ibibazo bidasubirwaho. Yizeraga ko mu kubaza buri kintu cyose, twiyambura umwambaro wo gukekeranya kandi tugera ku mutima w’ikibazo.

Kuri Socrates kubaza niyo nzira yonyine yo kumenya no kugera ku gisubizo cya nyacyo cy’ibibazo wibazaga.

3. Emera ko utazi byose

Socrates n’ubwo yari afite ubwenge n’ubumenyi bwinshi, yakunze gutangaza ati "Icyo nzi cyo ni uko nta cyo nzi." Aya magambo ntabwo ari ukwatura ubujiji, ahubwo ni ukwemera kwaguka kutagira imipaka ku bumenyi no gusobanukirwa ibihari. Kwakira iyi mitekerereze bidukingurira gukomeza kwiga no gukura.

Igishimishije, Socrates yatangajwe na Oracle wa Delphi ko ariwe muntu ufite ubwenge muri Atenayi. Kubera iki? Kubera ko we wenyine yari azi ubujiji bwe.

Muri iyi si yuzuye amakuru yuzuye, biroroshye kugwa mu mutego wo gutekereza ko tuzi byose. Ariko ukuri ni uko, buri gihe hariho byinshi byo kwiga.

4. Baho ubuzima bwiza

Ku bwa Socrates, kubaho ubuzima bwiza ni uburyo bwo hejuru bw’ibyishimo. Yizeraga ko ingeso nziza nk’ubunyangamugayo, ubutwari, ubwenge, n’ubutabera ari ingamba nyazo z’ubuzima bwiza.

Kubaho mubuzima bwiza bijyanye no guhuza ibikorwa byawe n’indangagaciro zawe. Ni ugukora ikintu cyiza, nubwo ntawe ureba. Ni ugushakisha ukuri no gukora neza, ntabwo ari ibihembo cyangwa kumenyekana, ariko kubera ko ari ikintu cyiza cyo gukora.

Kubaho ubuzima bwiza ntibishobora guhora byoroshye. Bikunze kudusaba koga urubura no gufata ibyemezo bikomeye. Ariko iyo umunsi urangiye, bizana umunezero mwinshi kuramba no gutunga bidashobora gutanga.

5. Ibyishimo nyabyo biva imbere muri wowe

Socrates yizeraga ko umunezero nyawo udaterwa n’uburyo bwo hanze, ahubwo biva imbere.

Mu Isi aho dukunze gupima umunezero ku bintu bifatika, imibereho, cyangwa isura igaragara, ubu bwenge bushobora gusa naho bukabije, ariko iyo ducukumbuye cyane bibutsa cyane aho twibanda.

Ibyishimo biterwa n’ibintu byo hanze birahita kuko ibintu birahinduka. Akazi dukunda uyu munsi ntigashobora kubaho ejo. Ibintu dukunda bishobora gutakara. Ariko iyo umunezero uturutse imbere, kuva ku kubaho ubuzima bwiza, kuva twimenye ubwacu, ibyishimo biba bihamye kandi biramba.

6. Guhinduka nibyo byonyine bihoraho

Socrates yigishije ko ibintu byose mu buzima bihora bihindagurika. Nta kintu gihoraho iteka ryose.

Ntukarwanye impinduka. Emera, reka bikureme, bikuyobore, kandi bikingure inzira nshya kuri wowe. Nyuma ya byose, ubuzima ni urugendo rwo guhindagurika.

7. Ubwenge ningeso nziza cyane

Socrates yari afite ubwenge kuruta indi mico myiza. Yabonaga ko ari inzira imwe y’ukuri yo gusobanukirwa ubuzima no gufata ibyemezo bifatika.

Kuri we, ubwenge ntabwo ari ugukusanya ubumenyi ahubwo bwari ibijyanye no kubaza ku byerekeye gucengera, kubyerekeye imiterere y’ibintu n’umwanya dufite ku isi.

8. Imbaraga zo kuganira

Socrates yizeraga ko kwishora mu biganiro byo kungurana ibitekerezo ari bumwe mu buryo bwiza bwo guhishura ukuri no kunguka ubwenge. Yabayeho hafi y’ubuzima bwe ahantu rusange ashishikariza abantu mu biganiro by’ubuzima, ingeso nziza, na kamere yubumenyi.

Ibiganiro bidutera inkunga yo kwibaza ku myizerere yacu, gutekereza ku bitekerezo bitandukanye, no kunonosora imyumvire yacu. Binyuze mu biganiro duhanganye n’ibitekerezo, dutezimbere ubuhanga bwo gutekereza neza, no kwagura ibitekerezo byacu.

Inyigisho n’ubuhanga butajegajega bya Socrate byagize ibitekerezo by’icengezamitekerereze mu binyejana byinshi. Ubwenge bwe bwibanze ku kwitegereza, ingeso nziza, no gushaka ubumenyi, bikomeje kuba ingirakamaro muri iyi si ya none.

Kwinjira mu bwenge bwa Socrates ntabwo ari imyitozo yo kwiga gusa. Ni urugendo rwo gukura ku giti cyawe. Urugendo rudufasha kuyobora ubuzima hamwe no gusobanukirwa byimbitse no kumva intego zacu.

Mugihe utekereje kuri aya masomo, ibuka amagambo ya Socrate, "Ubwenge bw’ukuri ni ukumenya ko ntacyo uzi." Uku kwicisha bugufi kwemera no kutamenya kwacu gukingura inzira yo gukomeza kwiga, gukura, n’ubwenge.

Reka rero twakire ubwenge bwa Socrate. Reka twibaze byinshi, dushake gusobanukirwa, kandi duharanire ubuzima bushingiye kumico myiza no kwitegereza.

Socrates, umwe mu bagabo b'abahanga babayeho mu isi kugera aho yitirirwa kuba Se wa philosophie

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