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Urusobe rw’ibiteza ubushomeri mu Rwanda bwatijwe umurindi na Covid-19

Yanditswe na Kanamugire Emmanuel
Kuya 13 Mutarama 2022 saa 07:33
Yasuwe :

Ikibazo cy’ubushomeri ni kimwe mu byari bisanzwe bihangayishije igihugu na mbere y’umwaduko wa Covid-19 ari na byo byatumye hashyirwaho ingamba zitandukanye zigamije gufasha mu ihangwa ry’imirimo by’umwihariko mu rubyiruko.

Covid-19 n’ingamba zo kurwanya ikwirakwira ryayo byagize ingaruka kuri sosiyete nyarwanda n’ubukungu bwarwo mu nzego zose.

Uretse abo cyahitanye hari abandi bahuye n’ibibazo batakaza akazi kari kabatunze abandi basigara bakora amasaha make ugereranyije n’ubushobozi bwabo busanzwe.

Inyigo yakozwe n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare (NISR) yasohotse muri Kanama 2021 igaragaza ko igipimo cy’ubushomeri cyari kuri 19.4% by’Abanyarwanda bageze mu kigero cyo gukora. Muri Gicurasi 2021 ubushomeri bwari bwiyongereye bugera kuri 23,5% ariko kugeza muri Kanama bwari bwagabanutseho 4.1%.

Mu kiganiro IGIHE yagiranye na Visi Perezida wa Komisiyo y’Imibereho myiza y’abaturage mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko y’u Rwanda, Dr Frank Habineza, yavuze ko ikibazo cy’ubushomeri gihangayikishije kuko ibintu bigenda birushaho kuba bibi.

Kwibeshya mu mibare y’abafite akazi

Dr Habineza yavuze ko mu bigenderwaho mu gukusanya imibare y’abafite akazi harimo kwibeshya. Abishingira ku kuba umuntu wese ufite umurima ahinga afatwa nk’ufite umurimo ariko ntiharebwe niba umusaruro uva muri uwo murima ushobora gutuma nyirawo yihaza agasagurira n’isoko.

Ati “Urebye abahinzi benshi dufite barahinga ariko ugasanga na bo ntibafite ibibahaza mu ngo zabo.

Ati “Niba abantu nk’abo nta kindi bafite kibinjiriza amafaranga iyo ubashyize mu mibare y’abafite akazi bizaba bitandukanye n’uko wafata undi muhinzi w’umwuga uhinga imbuto, ibigori, umuceri bikamwinjiriza.”

Abandi bakwiye gufatwa nk’abadafite akazi ni abize bakaminuza nyamara bakora akazi gaciriritse kadahwanye n’urwego bariho.

Aba kandi abahuza n’abakora muri porogaramu za VIUP bakora akazi kadahoraho ndetse kadatuma ba nyirako bagira imibereho myiza.

Ati “Iyi mibare uyibonye muri raporo wakwishima ariko mu buzima bwa buri munsi usanga abantu benshi nta kazi bafite. Ushobora no kubibonera mu Mujyi wa Kigali; abantu baba bicaye ku iseta bategereje ubaha akazi [urubyiruko], abandi barimo kugendagenda n’amaguru. Ibi byose ni ikimenyetso cy’uko nta kazi gahari.”

Guhuza inzego zitanga akazi n'abagakeneye ni kimwe mu byafashaga urubyiruko kwigobotora ubushomeri

Byahumiye ku mirari kubera Covid-19

Dr Habineza yavuze ko ikibazo cy’ubushomeri gikomeye biturutse ku ruhare rwa Covid-19 yatumye n’abari bafite ibyo bakora barisanze byahindutse uhereye igihe ibigo byasabwaga gukoresha 30% by’abakozi, abandi bagakorera mu ngo.

Ati “Uko abakoresha bagenda bamenyera ko abantu bakorera mu ngo babona ko atari ngombwa gukomeza kugira ibiro cyangwa abantu benshi mu biro. Bizarangira hari abantu bagenda batakaza akazi kandi benshi bamaze no kugatakaza mu mabanki n’ahandi.”

Ifungwa ry’imipaka mu bitiza umurindi ubushomeri

Kuba imipaka ihuza u Rwanda n’ibihugu byo mu Karere ifunze ifunze, ni ikindi kintu cyenyegeza ubushomeri nk’uko Dr Habineza akomeza abisobanura.

Ati “Tutaragirana ibibazo na Uganda, Abanyarwanda benshi bari baragiyeyo batangiye kwibonera amasambu bahinga. N’u Burundi na bwo nta muntu ukijyayo, Congo ntiwahisukira nubwo waba warahavukiye, ibintu byabaye gatebe gatoki.”

“Tanzania ntabwo bakunda abantu bavuye hanze, ugasanga rero politiki z’ububanyi n’amahanga no kwihuza n’indi miryango nka EAC na CEPGL bigomba kongerwamo imbaraga kugira ngo niba umuntu abuze akazi hano abe ashobora kujya ahandi kuko ubutaka bw’u Rwanda ntabwo tuzabwongera ariko ububanyi n’amahanga dushobora kubutunganya.”

Uyu mudepite anatunga agatoki politiki y’amakoperative, ko isubiza inyuma
iterambere y’abamuryango aho basabwa ko mu gihe basaruye [abakora ibijyanye n’ubuhinzi] bategetswe kugemura umusaruro kuri koperative ikaba ari yo ibagenera ibyo bakeneye gukoresha mu ngo.

Yagize ati “Na yo ni indi mpamvu izana ubukene. Ikeneye kwigwaho neza kugira ngo ye gutuma abantu bahomba ahubwo bashobore gutera imbere.”

Kuri iyi ngingo, Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Amakoperative, Prof. Jean Bosco Harelimana, yavuze ko itegeko risaba abanyamuryango ba koperative gukorera hamwe inyungu bakaba ari yo bagabana bitewe n’igishoro umuntu yashyizemo.

Ngo nta na hamwe abanyamuryango basabwa kujyana umusaruro wabo kuri koperative batabanje kwihza.

Ati “Dusagurira isoko kubera ko ubwacu twamaze kwihaza. Uwo ni wo murongo ngenderwaho kandi haba mu buhinzi, mu bworozi, mu bucuruzi…ni uko bihagaze.”

Mu rwego rwo kurema akazi, Prof. Harelimana yasobanuye ko itegeko ry’amakoperative ryavuguruwe muri Mata 2021 rikagabanya umubare w’abashobora gukora koperative bakaba batanu mu gihe mbere bari 10.

Abakorera muri koperative bakangurirwa gukora ubwizigame bubabashisha gukora ishoramari ribyara akazi.

Kugeza ubu mu Rwanda habarizwa amakoperative arenga 10374 agizwe n’abanyamuryango basaga miliyoni 5,3. Yose ahamagariwe gukoresha abanyamwuga by’umwihariko mu icungamutungo bikaba bigira uruhare mu guhanga akazi nk’uko Harelimana yabisobanuye.

Nubwo bimeze bityo, Covid-19 yakomye mu nkokora imikorere y’amakoperative kuko nk’afite inganda umusaruro wazo wagiye ubura amasoko.

Akangurira abahuye n’ubushomeri babitwe no gutakaza akazi bari bafite [abari abfite akazi kadahoraho] kwishyira hamwe bagahuza imbaraga, bagashaka ibyo bakora byavamo ishoramari kuko byabafasha guhindura imibereho yabo.

Ingamba zo gukemura ikibazo cy’ubushomeri

Umuyobozi Mukuru Ushinzwe Umurimo muri Minisiteri y’Abakozi ba Leta n’Umurimo (MIFOTRA), Mwambari Faustin, yavuze ko ikibazo cy’ubushomeri ari icyo kwitabwaho bigizwemo uruhare n’inzego zose zaba iza leta n’abafatanyabikorwa bayo.

Mwambari yavuze ko mu ngamba zigamije gukemura ikibazo cy’ubushomeri harimo gushyira ingufu muri gahunda yo guhanga umurimo. Mu 2019 havuguruwe politiki y’umurimo ndetse hashyirwaho gahunda igamije kongerera abanyarwanda ubumenyi no kongera ihangwa ry’umurimo.

Hari kandi gushyiraho uburyo bufasha urubyiruko n’abagore bafite imishinga n’ibitekerezo kubona igishoro mu buryo buboroheye; gukomeza gushyira imbaraga mu mikoranire n’abikorera, amashuri, inganda ndetse n’abashoramari mu kwimenyereza umwuga no gutanga amahugurwa abera ku murimo aho umubare munini w’abahugurwa ari urubyiruko.

Ikindi ni ugufasha urubyiruko rwarangije amashuri rufite ibitekerezo byafasha mu ihangwa ry’imirimo kubona igishoro cyane cyane hibandwa ku buhinzi butanga umusaruro kandi bugamije isoko; gukomeza kubaka ubushobozi bwo gukurikirana ibikorwa bigamije guhanga imirimo mu nzego zitandukanye hibandwa cyane cyane ku bakozi bashinzwe umurimo mu nzego zegerejwe abaturage n’ibindi.

Urwego rw'ubwubatsi ruri mu zigomba gutezwa imbere mu rwego rwo kurwanya ubushomeri

MIFOTRA ivuga ko kuva mu 2017 kugeza mu 2020, hahanzwe imirimo 778.136 irimo iy’urubyiruko ingana na 658.630 binyuze muri gahunda na NEP Kora Wigire (yavuguruwe) yageze ku bantu 147.667 barimo urubyiruko rwongerewe ubumenyingiro rungana na 30.732 n’abafashijwe kugera ku ishoramari, ibikoresho, ubujyanama mu bushabitsi byose bifasha mu ihangwa ry’imirimo bangana na 116.945.

Mu rwego rwo kwihutisha ihangwa ry’umurimo, leta y’u Rwanda yihaye intego yo guhanga imirimo 1.500.000 bitarenze umwaka wa 2024.

Ibyiciro by’imirimo bigaragaza ko byihutisha iterambere kandi bigatanga n’akazi ku bantu benshi bizatezwa imbere. Ibi birimo gutunganya ibikomoka ku buhinzi n’ubworozi, ubuhinzi bw’indabo, imboga, n’imbuto, inganda, gucukura no gutunganya amabuye y’agaciro, ubwubatsi, ubukerarugendo n’izindi.

MIFOTRA ivuga ko ihungabana ry’ubukungu n’umurimo kubera COVID-19, uburezi butanga ubumenyi butarahura neza n’ibikenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo, umuco wo kwihangira imirimo no guhanga udushya utarimakazwa mu rubyiruko biri mu bibangamiye gahunda yo guhanga imirimo.

Ibindi birimo ubushobozi buke mu rubyiruko butuma rutuzuza ibikenerwa na banki n’ibigo by’imari ngo ruhabwe inguzanyo zo kwihangira imirimo, igiciro kinini cyo gukora ubucuruzi cyane cyane ku bucuruzi buto n’ubuciriritse.

Umuyobozi Mukuru Ushinzwe Umurimo muri Minisiteri y’Abakozi ba Leta n’Umurimo (MIFOTRA), Mwambari Faustin, yavuze ko ikibazo cy’ubushomeri ari icyo kwitabwaho bigizwemo uruhare n’inzego zose

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