Umurunga w’amateka yakongeje urwango rwagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 13 Mata 2019 saa 12:36
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Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi si ishyano ryabyutse ngo rigwe, ryakomotse ku ruhererekane rw’ingengabitekerezo yigishijwe Abanyarwanda igihe kirekire, bumvishwa ko atari bamwe mu mbwirwaruhame, birandikwa, mu mashuri birigwa, bishyirwa no mu byangombwa.

Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yabibwe mu Banyarwanda kuva mu myaka myinshi, aho bigaragara byeruye ni uguhera mu 1956.

Ni inkubiri yari ifitanye isano n’ibindi bihugu byinshi bya Afurika byasabaga abakoloni ubwigenge. Muri Ghana iyo gahunda yari irangajwe imbere na Kwame Nkrumah, muri Sénégal hari Léopold Sédar Senghor, Patrice Lumumba muri RDC n’ahandi bityo bityo.

Abo bose bari bamaze kurambirwa imikorere y’ubukoloni kandi barize muri za kaminuza nyinshi z’i Burayi, batangira kwandika basaba abakoloni kugenda.

Mu Rwanda naho abari barize bishyize hamwe basaba ko ubukoloni buhagarara, bandika inyandiko bise ‘Mise au point’, yatumye abakoloni na bamwe mu bamisiyoneri ba Kiliziya Gatolika b’abanyamahanga barakara, bumva ko bagiye kwirukanwa mu gihugu.

Abanditse iyo nyandiko benshi bari Abatutsi, maze abakoloni na bamwe mu bayobozi ba Kiliziya Gatolika barangajwe imbere na Musenyeri Perraudin, baca inyuma bakorana n’agatsiko k’Abahutu ngo barwanye abatangije urugamba rwo gushaka ubwigenge.

Mu kiganiro yahaye abapolisi ku wa Kane, Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside, Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène, yavuze ko aho ari ho hatangiye ihangana ry’amoko mu buryo bweruye, binyuze mu nyandiko ‘Manifeste des Bahutu’.

Ati “Abanditse ‘Mise au point’ ntabwo bigeze bazanamo ikibazo cy’amoko, bo basabaga ko igihugu n’ibyacyo bigomba kuyoborwa n’Abanyarwanda, ariko abakoloni na Kiliziya Gatolika bashyigikira agatsiko kaje gasaba imiyoborere ishingiye ku bwoko, muri iyo nyandiko yanditswe ku wa 24 Werurwe 1957.”

“Iyo nyandiko ya Manifeste y’Abahutu tugomba kuyifata mu mateka y’u Rwanda, niho njye mbona intangiriro y’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside kuko niyo nyandiko ya mbere mu rwego rwa Politiki yaje yigisha ko uburenganzira bw’Abanyarwanda bufitwe n’Abahutu gusa.”

Mu gihe bamwe basabaga ubwigenge, abandi bahise bazamura ijwi bavuga ko bakeneye gukuraho ikandamizwa ry’Abatutsi.

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y'Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside, Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène, yagaragaje uko abakoloni baciyemo ibice Abanyarwanda kugeza na bo batangiye gusubiranamo

Abazungu babanje guteza ubusumbane

Mbere y’uko ibyo bigera, abakoloni babanje guteza ubusumbane hamwe na Kiliziya Gatolika kuko guhera igihe binjiriye mu Rwanda, bavugaga ko Abatutsi ari bo bazi ubwenge kurusha abandi, ko Abahutu baremewe gutegekwa.

Muri icyo gihe bafashe abana b’Abatutsi aba aribo bashyira mu mashuri gusa, barangiza amashuri abakoloni bakabaha akazi, Abahutu bagakora imirimo isanzwe.

Dr Bizimana ati “Ni icyo rero ba Bahutu bise ikandamizwa ry’Abahutu bose, ni ukuvuga ko hari abana b’Abatutsi bacye abakoloni bafashe, barangiza amashuri yabo bakaba abakozi b’abakoloni. Noneho iki kibazo umukoloni yateye akagikoresha Abatutsi bakeya, cyitirirwa bose nyamara hariho ab’abakene, Abatutsi badafite ibyo batunze cyangwa batunzwe na bikeya nk’abandi bose.”

“Abo Bahutu rero banditse Manifeste y’Abahutu banditse ko Abahutu bose barenganye kandi bakarenganywa n’Abatutsi. Ubwo rero murumva ko ikibazo cyari icy’imibereho y’abantu, cyitiriwe ubwoko bwose bw’Abatutsi.”

Inyandiko y’Abahutu imaze gusohoka hashinzwe amashyirahamwe, irya mbere riba APROSOMA (Association pour la Promotion Sociale de la Masse) yitwaga ko igamije kurengera imibereho myiza ya rubanda nyamwinshi yashinzwe mu 1958 na Joseph Habyarimana Gitera, hakurikira irindi ryiswe Mouvement Social Muhutu.

Hanavutse UNAR (Union National du Rwanda) yashinzwe n’abenshi b’Abatutsi ariko harimo n’Abahutu, urugero nk’Umunyamabanga Mukuru wayo Michel Rwagasana, akaba mwene se wa Gregoire Kayibanda.

Muri Gashyantare 1959, abakoloni b’Ababiligi bemeye ko amashyaka ya politiki avuka, ya mashyirahamwe yose aza guhinduka amashyaka. Aprosoma yagumanye izina ryayo, Mouvement Sociale Muhutu ihinduka Parmehutu (Parti du Mouvement de l’Emancipation Hutu), bivuze ishyaka ry’ihuriro rigamije ukwiteza imbere kw’Abahutu.

Dr Bizimana ati “Byatangiye gutyo hari Abanyarwanda bamwe bumva ko bagomba gukorera icyiciro kimwe gusa cy’ubwoko bumwe baherereyemo, ko abandi atari Abanyarwanda, abandi batarebwa n’igihugu.”

Ibyo binahuzwa n’igihe Kayibanda yari agiye gushinga Parmehutu mu nama yayoboreye muri Hotel Faucon i Butare ku wa 25 Nzeri 1959, aho yateruye ati “Ishyaka ryacu rirareba inyungu z’Abahutu bakandamijwe, bagasuzugurwa, bagapyinagazwa na Gatutsi wihaye igihugu. Tugomba kuba urumuri rwa rubanda nyamwinshi, tugomba gusubiza igihugu benecyo, igihugu ni icy’Abahutu.”

Muri icyo gihe ivangura ryari rimaze gufata indi ntera ku buryo ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside yari itangiye kwigishwa mu buryo bweruye.

APROSOMA ya Gitera na yo ni wo murongo yagendeyeho kuko nayo ku wa 25 Nzeri 1959 i Ngoma ya Butare, mu gutangaza ishingwa ryayo hatangarijwe amategeko 10 y’Abahutu, yateshaga agaciro Umututsi. Gitera yanashyize Gregoire Kayibanda muri komite y’ishyaka nk’umujyanama.

Ni naho yavugiye ko umubano w’Umuhutu n’Umututsi ari ‘umufunzo ku kuguru, umusonga mu rubavu n’umusundwe mu mubiri.’

Habyarimana yaje asa n’abandi

Ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973 nibwo Habyarimana Juvénal wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo yahiritse Kayibanda ariko ntiyazana impinduka mu miyoborere, ahubwo yakomereje mu gutsikamira Abatutsi mu buryo bugaragara, atandukanira na mugenzi we mu mivugire ariko imikorere n’ivanguramoko babihuje.

Rimwe mu mabwiriza ye atungwa agatoki yashyizeho ni nk’iteka yasohoye ku wa 25 Ukwakira 1973, amaze amezi atatu gusa ku butegetsi.

Ryavugaga ko “Ibintu byatawe n’Abatutsi bahunga, biba bitakigira nyirabyo. Bihinduka inkunga ya leta. Ibyo bintu bigomba gufatwa bigashyirwa mu maboko ya komini. Nta wishingiye guhunga kwabo kwatewe n’ubwoba, abategetsi bariho ubu ntibashobora na rimwe kwishingira ingaruka z’uko guhunga.”

Ibyo byari bivuze ko Abatutsi bahunze mu 1959 cyangwa bimuriwe mu Bugesera na Bumbogo, batagombaga gusubira aho bavuye kuko imitungo yabo yiswe “inkunga ya leta.” Ikindi ni uko yavuze ko bahunze kubera ubwoba kandi barameneshejwe bamwe bakicwa.

Ikindi cyaranze Habyarimana ni uko ku wa 1 Nyakanga 1992 u Rwanda rwizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 20 rwigenga, yashimagije politiki yo gukandamiza Abatutsi mu mashuri.

Ati “Leta yitaye cyane cyane ku bibazo byerekeye amashuri, tumaze kubona ubwigenge abategetsi b’u Rwanda basanze ari ngombwa gusubira muri Politiki yerekeye uburezi bw’igihugu. Politiki nshya icyo igamije mbere na mbere ni ukwigisha no kujijura rubanda nyamwinshi.”

Ijambo rubanda nyamwinshi ryakoreshwaga mu kuvuga Abahutu, bigasa n’aho kujijura Abatutsi bitamureba.

Dr Bizimana ati “Iyo rero kwigisha urwango, kwigisha amacakubiri byimakajwe, ntihagire igikorwa kugira ngo bihagarare, birangira bibyaye Jenoside, ikaza isoza ibi byose.”

Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal nta mpinduka yazanye mu miyoborere kuko yakomeje gutsikamira Abatutsi

Amategeko ya Gitera mu 1959 yagaruwe na Kangura mu 1990

Nyuma y’amategeko Gitera yatangaje mu 1959, nyuma y’imyaka 31 hasohotse andi bijya gusa, bigaragaza ko ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside yabibwe n’abanyapolitiki babi ba mbere yakomeje kugeza ubwo ibyutswa mu Ugushyingo 1990.

Dr Bizimana yakomeje ati “Nubwo Kangura tuyita iya Ngeze Hassan burya yandikwaga na Colonel Nsengiyumva Anatole na Nahimana Ferdinand na Simbikangwa, nibo bakoraga izi nyandiko bakaziha Ngeze akazisinya. Ngeze yari umuntu utarize wadodaga inkweto ku Gisenyi, ntabwo yari azi kwandika na buke.”

Hari nk’aho Gitera yateruye avuga ngo ‘guhera ubu emera kandi wizere Imana yonyine gusa hamwe n’ubushobozi bwawe, ntuzongere kwemera cyangwa kwizera Umututsi.’

Kangura yo yatangiye ivuga ngo “Guhera ubu Umuhutu wese akwiye kumenya ko Umututsikazi aho ari hose akorera inyungu z’agatsiko ke k’Abatutsi, kubera iyo mpamvu tuzafata nk’umugambanyi: Umuhutu wese uzarongora Umututsikazi, uzagira inshoreke y’Umututsikazi, uzakoresha Umututsikazi nk’umunyamabanga cyangwa akamufasha mu buryo ubwo aribwo bwose.”

Dr Bizimana avuga ko Kangura amategeko yayo yayashingiraga cyane ku Batutsikazi kubera ko muri icyo gihe aribo bakoraga akazi ko kuba abanyamabanga ahantu henshi mu bigo bya leta n’ahandi, kwifashisha imashini bandikishaga bakaba barabyigaga amezi icyenda.

Ati “Bamara kubona ako kazi rero, Abahutu babagiraga inshoreke zabo koko. Noneho rero Kangura ibibonye iravuga iti ‘Eh, nubwo mwabagize inshoreke zanyu ariko noneho nimubihagarike.’ Ni aho icyo gitekerezo cyavuye.”

Mu gukomeza gushishikariza Abahutu kwica Abatutsi hari itegeko rya Gitera ryavugaga ngo “Uwahora Umututsi inabi yagize, nta Mututsi wasigara mu Rwanda: Guhora si byiza, ariko kwirinda umwanzi cyangwa kwirwanaho aguteye, birateganyijwe mu mategeko y’u Rwanda.”

Dr Bizimana ati “Ushishikariza abantu agira ngo bazice abandi muri ubu buryo bwa Jenoside, atangira ababwira ko wa wundi bagomba kumwica mbere kuko nibatamwica ariwe uzabica, noneho kwica bikagomba gukorwa mu buryo bwo kwirinda bwa bwicanyi buzakorwa. Niyo mpamvu hano bavuga ngo Abatutsi ni babi, bashaka kubica. Kugira ngo muticwa, mugomba kubatanga mukabica mbere.”

Ibyo ngo bisobanuye ko abantu bakigaragaza ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside muri ibi bihe “bonse aya maraso” ya Kayibanda na Gitera.

Ibyo byakurikiwe no kwandika ko nta Mututsi ugomba guhabwa umwanya ukomeye, cyangwa se kurongora Umututsikazi.

Ibyo bigahura n’itegeko rya Gitera ryavugaga ngo “Ntuzasambane n’Umututsikazi. Kubarongora ntibibujijwe, kubajajabaho niwo mwaku cyangwa kubiyomekaho nk’uburondwe.”

Gitera avuga aya magambo ngo yarebye hafi aho asanga Abahutu bamwe bafite abagore b’Abatutsikazi uhereye kuri Perezida Kayibanda, Rwasibo Jean Baptiste wari Minisitiri w’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu n’abandi, asanga atajya kwemeza ko kurongora Abatutsikazi bibujijwe kandi hari Abahutu babatunze ndetse babubakiye ingo neza.

Nyamara ingingo yo kudashakana hagati y’Abahutu n’Abatutsi yarubahirizwaga cyane, kuko umusirikare cyangwa umujandarume guhera nko kuri Liyetona, iyo yajyaga kurongora hajyagaho komisiyo ya gisirikare izakora iperereza ngo imenye uwo mukobwa aho akomoka.

Uwabirengagaho agashaka Umututsikazi ngo hari bamwe birukanwaga cyangwa kuzamurwa mu ntera bakabyibagirwa.

Dr Bizimana ati “Ni aho Jenoside izira, ujya kwica umuntu wararangije kumwica muri byose, aba ari ukumukuraho kugira ngo agende ariko uba waramurangije mbere.”

“Abavuga ngo rero Habyarimana ko Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994 yabaye yarapfuye, kuki tuyimubaza? Urugero rumwe ni uru nguru. Kuva yafata ubutegetsi, politiki ye yari ishingiye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside. Jenoside yateguwe guhera mu 1990, ni Habyarimana wari ku butegetsi, ni we wayoboye imitegurire yose.”

Ibi byose bikaba byaratewe n’umuco wo kudahana, kuko iyo ubuyobozi budashyigikira ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside bugahana abayifite, ibyabaye mu Rwanda ntibyari kuba.

Ubwo ku wa 7 Mata Abanyarwanda n'inshuti z'u Rwanda bahuriraga muri Stade Amahoro bibuka ku nshuro ya 25 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994
Nahimana Ferdinand wari Umunyamakuru wa RTLM ari mu bandikaga inkuru zibiba urwango zanyuzwaga muri Kangura ya Ngeze Hassan

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