Mu ngingo esheshatu, menya uko Centrafrique yisanze mu ruhuri rw’ibibazo bikomeje kurikoroza

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine, Philbert Girinema
Kuya 5 Mutarama 2021 saa 02:28
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Impagarara mu gihugu, ibibazo bya politiki, imvururu hagati y’abayisilamu n’abakirisitu, ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi rya hato na hato mu bihe bitandukanye ndetse n’ibibazo by’amoko; ngurwo uruhuri rw’ibibazo byaranze Centrafrique kuva yabona ubwigenge mu 1960. Kuva icyo gihe ubwo igihugu cyavaga mu maboko y’abakoloni b’Abafaransa, cyaranzwe n’ibibazo agahishyi kugeza n’uyu munsi.

Ubusanzwe Centrafrique ni igihugu kinini giherereye hagati muri Afurika nk’uko izina ryacyo ribivuga. Gikubye u Rwanda inshuro zirenga 23 mu bunini, gifite abaturage bake bangana na miliyoni 4.7, munsi ya kimwe cya kabiri cy’abatuye u Rwanda. Ururimi kavukire rwabo rwitwa ‘Sango’. Ni igihugu gikoresha Igifaransa kubera ko cyakolonijwe n’u Bufaransa.

Nubwo Centrafrique idakora ku nyanja, ifite umutungo kamere, urimo peteroli, amabuye y’agaciro nka uranium, zahabu ndetse na diamant, amazi magari akurwamo ingufu z’amashanyarazi, amabuye y’agaciro yitwa ‘cobalt’ yifashishwa mu gukora ibikoresho bitandukanye n’ibindi.

Gusa nubwo iki gihugu gikungahaye ku mutungo kamere, kiri mu bihugu icumi bya mbere ku Isi bikennye, ahanini biterwa n’imvururu z’urudaca, imiyoborere mibi n’ibindi bibazo byinshi byakiranze kuva cyabona ubwigenge kugeza magingo aya.

Ikibabaje ariko kidatangaje, iyo wanditse Centrafrique muri Google, ukajya aherekanwa amafoto, bahita bakuzanira ay’imodoka z’ingabo z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, abana bishwe n’inzara, abantu bakubitwa, insoresore zitwaje intwaro n’andi nk’ayo. Muri make ni igihugu giteye kwibaza, amafoto ubwayo ahita akwereka ishusho nyayo yacyo.

Umaze kumva ibi byose wakwibaza uti, ’ubundi Centrafrique kuki ikennye, yisanze ite muri uru ruhuri rw’ibibazo kandi ikungahaye mu mutungo kamere?’

Mu ngingo esheshatu, urasobanukirwa intandaro y’ibibazo byose iki gihugu kisanzemo, bimaze imyaka 55 ndetse kugeza n’uyu munsi hakaba hakirangwa imidugararo.

1. Ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi rya hato na hato hagati ya 1965 na 2013

Mu myaka ya mbere iki gihugu kibaye Repubulika ya Centrafrique, uwari Perezida wacyo wa mbere David Dacko, ntiyigeze abera imfura abanyagihugu, kuko yabayoboranye igitugu ndetse agenda akuraho abayobozi bamwe na bamwe bakuru, byaje guteza imvururu mu gihugu hose ndetse bituma ahirikwa ku butegetsi nyuma y’imyaka itanu ayoboye.

Ku munsi Centrafrique yaboneyeho ubwigenge mu 1960, aha Perezida Dacko yavugaga ijambo agaragiwe na Jean Bedel Bokassa waje kumuhirika

Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa niwe wahiritse Dacko ku butegetsi mu mpera za 1965, ahita afata ubutegetsi yamazeho imyaka irenga 10. Ingoma ya Bokassa yaranzwe n’igitugu, ubukene, ubwicanyi ndetse n’imvururu nyinshi byashyize igihugu mu kangaratete kikirimo n’uyu munsi.

Muri 1977, Bokassa yiyise Umwami w’Abami wa Centrafrique, umwanya yamazeho imyaka ibiri, awuvaho ku ngufu z’igisirikare cy’u Bufaransa mu 1979, Leta y’u Bufaransa ihita isubizaho uwari Perezida wa mbere, David Dacko.

Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri gusa Dacko ayoboye, yongeye guhirikwa ku butegetsi na General André Kolingba wafashe ubutegetsi ku itariki ya 1 Nzeri mu 1981, abumaraho imyaka 12 yose, nabwo abuvaho ashyizweho igitutu n’u Bufaransa ndetse na Amerika byatumye ategura amatora mu 1993.

Nibwo bwa mbere muri iki gihugu hari habaye amatora y’Umukuru w’Igihugu nyuma y’imyaka 33 kibonye ubwigenge. Amatora yaje kwegukanwa na Ange-Félix Patassé ahigitse Abel Goumba na we wari umunyapolitiki ukomeye muri icyo gihe. Ange-Félix Patassé yahise aba Perezida wa mbere wa Centrafrique watowe mu buryo bwa Demokarasi.

Kimwe n’abamubanjirije, Patassé ntiyabaye umuyobozi mwiza nk’uko byari byitezwe, ahubwo yatangiye guhinduranya Itegeko Nshinga, byaje no guteza umutekano muke muri icyo gihugu, kugeza ubwo Umuryango w’Abibumbye utangira kuzanamo ingabo zibungabunga amahoro.

Nubwo ibi byose byabaye mu 1998, Patassé yatsinze amatora y’Umukuru w’Igihugu, bikekwa ko yaba yarabayemo uburiganya bwinshi, biza gutuma abasirikare babiri bashaka kumukorera ‘coup d’état’, ariko ntibyabahira kuko byabaviriyemo urupfu.

Ange-Félix Patassé yahiritswe ku butegetsi na Bozizé ubwo yari yagiye mu ruzinduko mu mahanga

Nyuma y’uko aba basirikare bishwe, byateye umujinya bagenzi babo maze bashaka kwihorera, niko gutegura indi ‘coup d’état’, nayo itarahiriwe kuko Patasse yabimenye mbere y’uko ikorwa, ndetse anamenya ko uwari ubyihishe inyuma ari Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo, wari General François Bozizé.

Bozizé amaze kumenya ko yavumbuwe, we n’abandi basirikare bakuru bahungiye muri Tchad mbere y’uko bagabwabo ibitero ngo bicwe nk’uko byagendekeye bagenzi babo.

Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri, izi ngabo zaje zisuganyije zitungura Perezida Patassé utari uri mu gihugu muri Werurwe 2003, maze zimuhirika ku butegetsi, Bozizé afata ubugetsi atyo.

Ku ngoma ya Bozizé nibwo noneho hatangiye intambara zeruye hagati ya guverinoma n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro itaravugaga rumwe na Leta. Imvururu zatewe n’uko Perezida yashatse guhindura itegeko nshinga nyuma y’umwaka umwe gusa ayoboye, maze akavuga ko azarekura ubutegetsi ari uko hatowe irindi tegeko nshinga.

Mu myaka 10 yamaze ku buyobozi, havutse imitwe myinshi yitwaje intwaro irimo iyamenyekanye nka Anti-Balaka na Séleka.

Iki gihugu cyakomeje kurangwa n’imvururu zikabije ndetse n’intambara z’urudaca hagati ya Guverinoma n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro, kugeza ubwo ibindi bihugu ndetse n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye bije gutabara Centrafrique ariko bikaba iby’ubusa, birangira Bozizé ahunze igihugu mu 2013 nyuma yo guhirikwa ku butegetsi.

2. Uko Centrafrique yinjiye mu icuraburindi

Mu mpera za 2012, imitwe yitwaje intwaro mu majyaruguru y’iki gihugu yishyize hamwe maze irema umutwe witwa Séléka, waje gutegura ‘coup d’état’, gusa ntiwafata ubutegetsi. Habayeho amasezerano yo gusangira ubutegetsi hagati y’uyu mutwe na Guverinoma, maze Bozizé ayarengaho, bituma habaho imirwano yaje kurangira uyu mutwe ufashe Umurwa Mukuru Bangui, Perezida ahita ahunga igihugu.

Bitewe n’uko uyu mutwe wari uwa Kiyisilamu, abakirisitu biganje mu majyepfo y’icyo gihugu bashinze undi mutwe wabo wiswe Anti-Balaka.

Inyeshyamba za Anti Balaka ziri mu myitozo mu gace ka Bambari mu mwaka wa2015

Ibintu byaje gufata indi ntera, iyi mitwe yombi iteza imvururu zikomeye muri iki gihugu, habaho imirwano idasanzwe, igihugu kirasenyuka, abaturage barahunga, inzara iratera, igice kinini cy’igihugu kibamo impagarara, ibintu biradogera.

Ibi byaje gutuma habaho amasezerano y’amahoro atabarika, ariko biranga biba iby’ubusa, imvururu zirakomeza, aho muri miliyoni 4.7 z’abaturage batuye muri Centrafrique, miliyoni 2.7 muri bo bari babeshejweho n’ibikorwa by’abagiraneza, abantu 450,000 bava mu byabo abandi 68,000 bahungira mu bihugu by’ibituranyi, cyane cyane muri RDC.

3. Centrafrique yacitsemo ibice bibiri

Nubwo Centrafrique yarangwagamo ibibazo bya Politiki, n’imvururu zaterwaga n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro, iki gihugu kiganjemo abakiristu mu Majyepfo yacyo n’abayisilamu mu Majyaruguru, cyari kitararangwamo amakimbirane ashingiye ku madini. Abakiristu n’abayisilamu barashyingiranwaga, bagafashanya, mbese idini umuntu abarizwamo ntabwo ryari ikibazo.

Kuva iki gihugu cyabona ubwigenge mu 1960, cyagiye kiyoborwa kenshi n’abakirisitu, yaba muri politiki ndetse no mu bukungu, abakiristu bariganzaga cyane. Ariko ibi by’amadini ntibyitabwagaho bya cyane mbere ya 2013.

Umutwe wa Séléka [mu rurimi rwabo bisobanuye ‘ubumwe’] wiganjemo abayisilamu, ujya gushingwa mu ntego zawo ntabwo harimo idini ahubwo wavutse ugamije gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Bozizé.

Uyu mutwe umaze guhirika ubutegetsi, uwari uwukuriye Michel Djotodia, yiyise Perezida, maze abasirikare ba Séléka bakwirakwira igihugu, bagenda bakora ibikorwa bihungabanya abaturage.

Ibi byatumye hashingwa undi Mutwe witwa Anti-Balaka [Anti-machete] wiganjemo abakiristu, amakimbirane ahera ubwo, uyu mutwe utangira kwica abaturage b’abayisilamu, Séléka nayo yica abakiristu, icyari igihugu kimwe, kigizwe n’abaturage bamwe gicikamo ibice bibiri, Abayisilamu n’abakiristu batangira gusubiranamo, igihugu kizamo impagarara.

Bamwe mu bagize Anti Balaka hano bari bafite imihoro mu 2014 ngo bahangane n'inyeshyamba za Seleka

Imiryango mpuzamahanga yahise itangira gutabaza, ivuga ko muri iki gihugu hari kubera amarorerwa ndetse umwe mu bantu bagize Umuryango Ushinzwe Guharanira Uburenganzira bwa Muntu muri icyo gihugu, Jean-Marie Fardeau, yatanze impuruza.

Yagize ati “Imitwe yitwaje intwaro iri gutsemba abantu, inzu ziri gutwikwa, abaturage bari kwicwa abandi bagahungira mu bihuru, dushobora kuganira ku bikorwa by’ubunyamaswa by’iyi mitwe, gusa mu bigaragara nta gahunda ifite yo gukorana”.

4. Ibikorwa by’abagiraneza mu by’ingenzi Centrafrique yari ikeneye

Imvururu hagati y’abashaka ubutegetsi, igihe cyose zigwamo abasivili b’inzirakarengane, abandi bagasigara mu bibazo by’urudaca by’ubuzima.

Ibi niko byagenze no muri Centrafrique, ibibazo bya politiki n’intambara byatwaye ubuzima bwa bamwe, bisiga abarenga kimwe cya kabiri cy’abaturage b’iki gihugu bakeneye ubutabazi bwihutirwa.

Abakora ibikorwa by’ubugiraneza ni bo bonyine bari kuramira abaturage b’iki gihugu, icyizere cyo kubaho ku batuye muri Centrafrique cyari kirambirije ku bagiraneza.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye binyuze mu mashami yayo atandukanye, watanze inkunga ingana na miliyoni 13.2 z’amadolari muri miliyoni 415 z’amadolari zari zikenewe ngo ubuzima bw’abantu bukire.

Iyi nkunga yakoreshejwe mu bikorwa by’ubutabazi bw’ibanze, birimo guha amazi meza abaturage, ubuvuzi, ibiribwa, uburezi, kurinda abaturage ndetse no guha amahema abari mu buhingiro mu duce dutandukanye tw’iki gihugu.

5. Ubutumwa bw’amahoro bw’ingabo z’Abafaransa muri Centrafrique

U Bufaransa bwakunze kwijandika mu bibazo bya Centrafrique kuva yabona ubwigenge. Ntibwazuyaje mu gutabara François Bozizé igihe imitwe yitwaje intwaro yamereraga nabi ubutegetsi bwe mu 2003, ndetse no mu gihe cy’imvururu mu 2013, bwihutiye gutabara bwohereza ingabo muri iki gihugu ku nshuro ya karindwi nyuma y’uko Umuryango w’Abibumbye wemeje amasezerano y’ubufatanye n’izi ngabo.

Ingabo z’u Bufaransa zatabaye Centrafrique binyuze mu butumwa bwiswe “Sangaris”, bwagombaga kohereza ingabo 1200 z’Abafaransa, izi ngabo zari kwibanda ku kubungabunga umutekano w’imijyi ndetse n’imihanda mikuru.

Icyo gihe, ku ikubitiro iki gihugu cyohereje abasirikare 600 ku butaka bwa Centrafrique, bahawe ubutumwa bwihariye bwo kurinda Ikibuga cy’Indege cya Bangui n’imihanda yanyuragamo imodoka z’abakora ibikorwa by’ubugiraneza.

Ibirindiro by’ingabo z’Abafaransa muri Tchad na Gabon byohereje abandi basirikare 350 muri Bangui banyuze ku Kibuga cy’Indege cya Cameroun mu Mujyi wa Douala.

Ubu butumwa bwiswe “Opération Sangaris”, u Bufaransa bwagiye bwongera abasirikare bari babugize, buza gusozwa mu 2016 bufitemo ingabo 2000.

Abafaransa bavuye muri iki gihugu bavuga ko ubutumwa bari bahawe bwo guhagarika imirwano muri Centrafrique bwasohojwe, n’ubwo mu by’ukuri amahoro muri iki gihugu yari akiri kure nk’ukwezi.

Yewe mu kuva muri Centrafrique, ingabo z’u Bufaransa zari zahatereye ibaba bikomeye kuko hari bamwe mu basirikare bazigize barezwe gushukisha abana bato b’abahungu ibisuguti bakabakoresha ibikorwa by’urukozasoni bifitanye isano n’imibonano mpuzabitsina.

Mu Ukwakira 2016, u Bufaransa bwakuye abasirikare babwo 2000 muri iki gihugu, gusa hasigara abandi 350 bo gufasha ingabo za Afurika Yunze Ubumwe zari zigiye gusigara zibungabunga amahoro muri icyo gihugu ku bufatanye n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye (MISCA).

6. Ubutumwa bwa Loni bwo kubungabunga amahoro muri Centrafrique

Ingabo za MISCA zahawe ubutumwa bwo kugarura amahoro no kurinda abaturage.

Umuryango w’Abibumbye wahinduye ingabo 6000 za MISCA, uzigira iza Loni zishinzwe kubungabunga amahoro muri iki gihugu (MINUSCA) nyuma y’amezi atandatu zitangiye imirimo yazo.

Mu 2016, izi ngabo zariyongereye zirenga 10 000, aho u Rwanda narwo rwoherejeyo ingabo guhera mu 2014, ziri mu butumwa bwo kugarura amahoro muri Centrafrique.

U Rwanda kandi ni kimwe mu bihugu bifite ingabo ndetse n’abapolisi benshi muri ubu butumwa, ikindi kandi guhera mu 2016 Ingabo z’u Rwanda zahawe inshingano zo kurinda Umukuru w’Igihugu.

Kugeza uyu munsi izi ngabo za Loni ziracyari muri iki gihugu kikirangwamo imvururu ndetse no mu myiteguro y’amatora aheruka kuba 27 Ukuboza 2020, Perezida Faustin-Archange Touadéra uyobora iki gihugu guhera mu 2016, yashinje François Bozizé wahoze akiyobora gucura umugambi wo guhirika ubutegetsi yifashishije inyeshyamba nubwo Bozizé yabihakanye.

Jean Bedel Bokassa ubwo yahindukaga Umwami w'Abami mu 1976
Mobutu wayoboraga Zaïre ari kumwe na Bokassa wa Centrafrique mu 1968
Mu 2004 ubwo Bozizé n'ingabo ze bizihizaga umwaka umwe bahiritse Patassé
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing wayoboye u Bufaransa yari inshuti y'akadosohoka ya Bokassa. Aha bari i Bangui mu 1975
Dacko yayoboye Centrafrique mu bihe bitandukanye ariko ashinjwa kuba yarayisize nabi kurusha uko yayisanze
Ingabo z'u Bufaransa zagiye gufasha David Dacko nyuma yo guhirika Bokassa
Mu 2015 ubwo Papa Francis yasuraga Centrafrique
Aha Papa Francis yaganiraga na Perezida Touadera mu 2018
Ingabo z'u Rwanda ziri mu butumwa bwa Minusca nizo zacungiye umutekano Papa mu ruzinduko yagiriye muri Centrafrique mu 2015
General François Bozizé ubwo yari amaze iminsi mike afashe ubutegetsi mu 2003
Uyu mugabo yari avuye gusahura mu rugo rw'uyu mugenzi we uryamye hasi w'Umuyisilamu wari wishwe na Anti Balaka
Abari bashyigikiye François Bozizé mu 2005 ubwo habaga amatora
Ifoto yafatiwe mu Mujyi wa Damara abaturage bahunga imirwa y'inyeshyamba za Seleka na Anti Balaka
Imodoka yari iri gusakwa n'inyeshyamba za Anti Balaka. Aha bigaragara ko inyuma hicayemo umwana
Imvururu zo muri iki gihugu zatumye benshi bava mu byabo
Umusirikare w'u Rwanda wari mu butumwa bwa AU acunze umutekano mu gace ka PK13 mu Majyaruguru ya Bangui
Ingabo za Bozizé mu 2003 zimaze gufata ubutegetsi. Aha zatungaga imbunda ikibumbano cya Ange-Félix Patassé wari umaze guhirikwa
Inyeshyamba ya Anti Balaka ihagaze nyuma y'imirwano yabaye mu 2014
Inyeshyamba za Anti Balaka ziri kwiba ibikoresho n'amabati ku nzu y'umwe mu bayisilamu bari bahunze
Inyeshyamba za Seleka mu 2014 zitoreza imbere y'urugo rwahoze ari urwa Bokassa mu gace ka Beringo
Ingabo z u Rwanda nizo zirinda Perezida wa Centrafrique guhera mu 2016
Ubwo Perezida Touadera yari ageze ku Ishuri rya Barthélemy Bogandaaho aho yatoreye mu matora aherutse
Ingabo za Loni zigaragara hirya no hino mu Mujyi wa Bangui
Umusirikare w'u Rwanda uri mu butumwa bwa Loni acunze umutekano ku biro by'itora mu matora ya Perezida aherutse
Imihanda ya Bangui ni nyabagendwa kubera ingabo za Loni zihacunga umutekano
Ingabo z'u Rwanda ziba zifite ibikoresho bihagije bibafasha guhangana n'umwanzi mu gihe byaba bibaye ngombwa
Kuba abaturage bagiye mu muhanda bagakesha ni ikimenyetso cy'umutekano uhari, abazi iki gihugu basobanura ko iyo ibintu bitameze neza nta muntu uba utamba
Abasirikare b'u Rwanda bari muri Centrafrique aha bari bari mu myiteguro yo kujya mu kazi kabo ka buri munsi

Nubwo hari imvururu, hari ibyiza nyaburanga...

Isumo rya Boali ryitiriwe agace riherereyemo ni rimwe mu bikurura abakerarugendo
Mu bice by'igiturage hari ahacyubakishije nyakatsi
Nubwo ari umujyi ukunze kubamo umutekano muke Bangui ifite ibice bikurura ba mukerarugendo
Nubwo ari igihugu kimaze igihe mu bibazo hari ibyiza nyaburanga bikirimo nk'inyamaswa zirimo n'inkura
Pariki ya Dzanga Ndoki nayo ifite ibyiza nyaburanga byinshi
Agace ka Lobaye kazwiho kugira ibyiza nyaburanga bitandukanye Karimo abaturage b'abasangwabutaka bibera ahanini mu mashyamba
Ibikoresho by'ubugeni bikorerwa muri Centrafrique
Agace ka Bouar ukarebeye hejuru mu kirere

Philbert Girinema i Bangui muri Centrafrique na Sylvine Muhonzire i Kigali


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