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Ishoramari Leta iri gushyira mu nganda rihatse iki?

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 29 Werurwe 2021 saa 01:41
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Ku wa 25 Werurwe, Minisitiri w’intebe, Dr. Ngirente Edouard, yasobanuriye Inteko Ishinga Amategeko imitwe yombi, ibikorwa bya Guverinoma bigamije kuzahura ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwazahajwe n’icyorezo cya Covid-19, ariko hibandwa ku guteza imbere inganda.

Dr Ngirente yavuze ko iyo gahunda yitwa ‘Manufacture and Build to Recover Program (MBRP)’ igamije guteza imbere inganda ziri mu gihugu kugira ngo zirusheho gutanga umusaruro no kugira uruhare mu kuzahura ubukungu.

MBRP ni gahunda ngari ikubiye mu byiciro bine, ikazibanda ku mishinga yose igamije gushyigikira abashoramari bifuza gushora imari mu bijyanye n’inganda ndetse n’ibijyanye n’ubwubatsi bwazo mu Rwanda.

Icyiciro cya mbere kizungukira muri iyi gahunda ni icy’ubwubatsi muri rusange. Ku mushinga wose ufite ishoramari ringana na miliyoni 10$ (arenga miliyari 9,8 Frw) cyangwa zirenga, uzajya usonerwa umusoro ku nyongeragaciro ku bikoresho by’ubwubatsi byakorewe mu Rwanda no ku bikoresho by’ubwubatsi bitumizwa mu mahanga bitaboneka mu Karere ka Afurika y’Iburasirazuba.

Iyi mishinga inasonerwa kandi amahoro ku bikoresho by’ubwubatsi bitumizwa mu mahanga bitaboneka mu Rwanda cyangwa mu Karere ariko iri sonerwa rizajya ryemezwa nyuma yo gusuzuma umushinga ukwawo.

Icyiciro cya kabiri ni icy’imishinga y’ibitunganyirizwa mu nganda. Muri iki cyiciro, inganda zizoroherezwa mu gusonerwa umusoro ku nyongeragaciro ku mashini n’ibikoresho by’ibanze bikoreshwa mu nganda byakorewe imbere mu gihugu.

Ikindi cyiciro cya gatatu kijyanye n’ubwubatsi bw’inganda, aho umushinga ugomba kuba ugamije gushora imari itari munsi ya miliyoni 1$ (arenga miliyoni 990Frw) yo kubaka inganda nshya.

Ku mishinga yari isanzwe ihari, imari ikenerwa ni itari munsi ya miliyoni 1$ cyangwa 20% by’ishoramari ryari risanzwe. Ku mishinga mishya y’ubwubatsi bw’inganda zitunganya umusaruro ukomoka ku buhinzi n’ubworozi, umushinga ugomba gushora imari itari munsi y’ibihumbi 100$ (arenga miliyoni 98 Frw).

Iyi mishinga izoroherezwa mu gusonerwa umusoro ku nyongeragaciro ku bikoresho by’ubwubatsi bikorewe mu Rwanda n’ibitumizwa mu mahanga bitaboneka mu Karere ka Afurika y’Iburasirazuba. Izanasonerwa kandi amahoro ku bikoresho by’ubwubatsi bitumizwa mu mahanga bitaboneka mu Rwanda cyangwa mu Karere ka Afurika y’Iburasirazuba ariko hasuzumwa umushinga ukwawo.

Icyiciro cya kane kireba imikorere myiza y’inganda aho izikirimo zoroherezwa mu kugabanyirizwa umusoro ku bihembo by’abakozi mu mwaka wa 2021, ndetse no mu kwishyura umusoro ku nyungu z’amasosiyete.

Izi nganda kandi zizagabanyirizwa ibihumbi 50 Frw by’umusoro kuri buri miliyoni 1 Frw yiyongereye ku byo zinjije cyangwa zohereje mu mahanga. Ku bijyanye n’imirimo, hazabaho kugabanyirizwa 10% by’umusoro ku bihembo kuri buri mukozi mushya uhawe akazi.

Mu bindi bizakorwa, harimo gushora miliyari 150 Frw mu gufasha inganda guhangana n’icyorezo cya Covid-19, avuye kuri miliyoni 955 Frw amaze guhabwa inganda kugeza ubu.

Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr Ngirente yasobanuye ko “Guverinoma yafashe uyu mwanzuro nyuma yo kubona ko hakenewe izindi ngamba zo kugabanya ikiguzi cyo gutangiza imishinga mishya no kwagura iyari isanzweho mu rwego rwo kuzahura ubukungu. Ibi bijyana no gushishikariza ababishaka bose gushora imari mu bukungu, cyane cyane mu rwego rw’inganda.”

Icyizere ku rwego rw’inganda rumaze imyaka mu ruhuri rw’ibibazo

N’ubwo hari byinshi byagezweho mu guteza imbere urwego rw’inganda, umusaruro uturuka muri uru rwego uracyari muke ugereranyije n’isoko ry’u Rwanda, ahanini bigashingira ku bibazo bimaze imyaka muri uru rwego bitarabonerwa ibisubizo.

Bimwe mu bibazo bikomeye byakomeje kugarukwaho cyane, ni ikibazo cy’ibikorerwa mu nganda zo mu Rwanda bihenze kurusha ibikorerwa hanze, akenshi bigaterwa n’igiciro kiri hejuru gikoreshwa mu gutanga umusaruro w’uruganda, birimo umuriro n’amazi biboneka bihenze.

Mu bindi bibazo kandi harimo kuba inganda, cyane cyane izitunganya umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku buhinzi n’ubworozi, zinagize 59% by’inganda 962 ziri mu Rwanda, zikunze gutunganya umusaruro uri munsi cyane n’uwo zakagombye kuba zikoreraho, bitewe n’ibibazo birimo kubura ibikoresho by’ibanze bikurwamo umusaruro, kutagira ibikoresho bihagije ndetse n’ibindi bitandukanye.

Nk’ubu mu nganda 596 zitunganya umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku buhinzi n’ubworozi, impuzandengo igaragaza ko inyinshi muri zo zitanga umusaruro uri hagati ya 30% na 50%, kandi nyamara umusaruro w’ibyo izo nganda zikora ugakomeza guturuka hanze y’igihugu, ukaza uhenze cyane.

Nk’urugero, turebye nko ku muceri, inganda zo mu Rwanda zitunganya gusa umusaruro ungana na 45% by’ukenewe mu gihugu, nyamara hari inganda z’umuceri 25 mu gihugu hose zikorera ku bushobozi buri munsi ya 25% by’ubwo zagenewe gukoreraho.

Iki kibazo kandi kiri no mu musaruro w’ibigori, aho inganda zibitunganya zikora gusa umusaruro ungana na 35% by’ukenewe wose mu gihugu.

Ku rundi ruhande, inganda zikora isukari zitunganya 11% by’umusaruro ukenewe mu gihugu, izikora imbaho zigatunganya 4%, imyenda bikaba 10%, mu gihe ku bikoresho bya pulasitiki ari 11%.

Inganda inzira yizewe mu kuzahura ubukungu bw’u Rwanda

Covid-19 yateye u Rwanda rwari rumaze imyaka rushora bifatika mu bikorwa byo kureshya ba mukerarugendo no kwakira inama kandi ibimenyetso byose byerekana ko uyu murongo igihugu cyihaye warimo gutanga umusaruro mu mpande zose, ku buryo n’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwari bushingiye kuri uru rwego mu buryo bufatika.

Ikibazo gikomeye ariko ni uko ntawe uzi igihe iki cyorezo kizacogorera kugira ngo ubuzima busubira uko bwari bumeze, kandi n’ubwo byagenda gutyo, ntibizwi neza ko ibintu bizasubira ku rwego byariho, ku buryo umubare w’inama n’abantu u Rwanda rwakira wasubira ku rwego wari ugezeho mu 2019.

Nk’ubu byitezwe ko u Rwanda ruzaba rwamaze gukingira nibura 60% by’abaturage barwo mu mwaka utaha, kandi ikingira ni kimwe mu bikorwa by’ingenzi bizatanga icyizere kuri ba mukerarugendo ku bushobozi bw’igihugu bwo kongera kwakira abantu mu bwisanzure, bagakora ingendo nyinshi batikandagira.

Gusa kuba u Rwanda rwagera kuri iyi ntego, ntibihagije kuko uburyo icyorezo cya Covid-19 cyahungabanyije ubukungu bw’Isi, bica amarenga ko ubukerarugendo butazaba buri mu by’ibanze bizakorwa n’abantu nyuma gato ya Covid-19.

Muri rusange, Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye rishinzwe guteza imbere Ubukerarugendo (UNWTO) rivuga ko bizatwara imyaka ine kugira ngo ubukerarugendo busubire ku rwego bwahozeho mbere ya Covid-19.

Ibi byose rero bituma ubukungu bw’u Rwanda budashobora gukomeza gushingira ku rwego rw’ubukerarugendo kandi kugira ngo bukomeze bukure neza, birasaba ko igihugu gishaka uko gisimbuza urwo rwego bwangu ku buryo amadevize, imisoro n’imirimo rwatangaga ikomeza kuboneka.

Ukurikije imiterere y’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda rero, urwego rw’inganda ni rwo rufite ubushobozi bwo gusimbura ubukerarugendo bityo icyuho cyatewe n’icyorezo cya Covid-19 ku bukungu bw’u Rwanda kikaba gito.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Impuguke mu by’Ubukungu, Teddy Kaberuka, yavuze ko “Urwego rw’inganda ni yo nzira nziza yo kuzahura ubukungu mu buryo bwihuse, ugatanga n’imirimo ku bantu benshi kuko ruzwiho gukenera abakozi benshi.”

Kugeza ubu uru rwego rutanga akazi ku bantu 708.796, bangana na 20% by’abakozi bose mu Rwanda, rukurikira urwego rw’ubucuruzi rutanga akazi ku bantu 24,5% mu bakozi bose bari mu Rwanda.

Uru rwego kandi rwinjije umusoro ungana na miliyari 235 Frw mu mwaka ushize, uvuye kuri miliyari 195 Frw mu mwaka wari wabanje, ndetse umusoro w’urwego rw’inganda ukaba wari 16,5% by’umusoro wose wakusanyijwe muri uwo mwaka.

Kaberuka yavuze ko kuba inganda zagizwe iz’ibanze mu rugamba rwo kuzahura ubukungu bw’u Rwanda, bizanajyana no gukuraho izindi mbogamizi zatumaga urwo rwego rudindira.

Yagize ati “Kuba bahaye urwego rw’inganda agaciro kanini, bazanafata umwanya bashake ibisubizo ku bibazo bishobora gukemuka, nk’amashanyarazi n’amazi kuko ari bimwe mu bintu bihenda cyane inganda, Leta igomba kugira icyo ibikoraho kuko inganda ntizatera imbere zidafite ibizifasha gutanga umusaruro."

Kaberuka yavuze ko gushora mu rwego rw’inganda bizagira ingaruka nziza ku zindi nzego zirimo ubuhinzi n’ubworozi.

Yakomeje ati “Iyo umuhinzi azi ko umusaruro we uzagurwa n’uruganda ruri hafi ye, na we agira ishyaka ryo kongera umusaruro ku giti cye kuko aba azi neza ko uko akora cyane ari ko azakuramo agatubutse, rero ibyo bizatuma n’ubuhinzi buzamukiraho kuko ni urwego rukenera inganda cyane mu Rwanda.”

Isoko Rusange rya Afurika rihanzwe amaso

Kuva muri Mutarama uyu mwaka, Isoko Rusange rya Afurika (AfCFTA) ryatangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa. Iri soko riracyari rito ndetse umusaruro waryo wa nyawo witezwe mu myaka 10 iri imbere.

Kaberuka avuga kuba u Rwanda ruri gushyira imbaraga mu guteza imbere inganda, binagamije kwitegura kuzungukira kuri iri soko, umunsi rizatangira gutanga umusaruro.

Yagize ati "Ririya soko ni amahirwe ku nganda zo mu Rwanda, kandi tubyitwayemo neza tukitegura hakiri kare, ryazajya gufata umurongo natwe tumaze kumenyera ku buryo twaba mu ba mbere baryungukiramo. Ibyo ni ibintu bishoboka ushingiye ku muvuduko urwego rw’inganda ruriho mu Rwanda ndetse n’uburyo Leta igiye kurushoramo imari itubutse."

Umuvuduko w’inganda zo mu Rwanda ugaragarira mu bwiyongere bwazo mu myaka itatu ishize, kuko mu nganda 962 ziri mu Rwanda, 283 zatangiye kuva mu mwaka wa 2017.

Leta yahagurukiye kuzahura ibibazo biri mu nganda zo mu Rwanda

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