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Irengero nyakuri ry’amabuye y’agaciro ya Congo

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 20 Mutarama 2023 saa 07:25
Yasuwe :

Biragoye kumva aho abantu baganira ‘umutungo kamere w’amabuye y’agaciro’ ngo bamare amasegonda batagarutse kuri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo (RDC) kubera uko ari kimwe mu bihugu bikungahaye cyane kuri uyu mutungo, ku buryo hari n’abatebya ko iyo imvura ihise abaturage bajya mu muhanda bakayora zahabu.

Nta gushidikanya ku bwinshi bw’amabuye y’agaciro ya Congo. Ngizo zahabu, Diamant, Cobalt, Copper, Nickel, Uranium, Coltan, Lithium, n’andi menshi tutibagiwe ibikomoka kuri Peteroli n’imbaho ziteye amabengeza.

Twifashishije imibare, RDC ifite umutungo kamere utarakorwaho ubarirwa muri miliyari ibihumbi 24$. Bituma ari cyo gihugu cya mbere gikize ku Isi hagendewe ku mutungo kamere wacyo mu gihe wose waba utunganyijwe.

Bibarwa ko 48% bya Cobalt yacurujwe ku Isi hose mu 2013 yavuye muri RDC mu gihe icyo gihe 47% by’ububiko bw’iri ku Isi, ariho yari iherereye. Imibare ya vuba yerekana ko 60% bya Cobalt iri ku Isi iri muri RDC, ni ukuvuga toni miliyoni 36.

Muri iyi minsi ikoranabuhanga rikataje, Congo ifite amahirwe menshi kuko ifite lithium na Cobalt, amabuye y’agaciro akenewe cyane ku Isi muri iki gihe kuko akoreshwa muri batiri z’imodoka zitangiza amashanyarazi.

Ni umutungo w’akataraboneka ku buryo ubyajijwe umusaruro RDC yaba kimwe mu bihugu biteye imbere ku rwego rwa za Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Bushinwa n’ibindi bihangange ku Isi. Icyakora, uyu mutungo ukomeje gukungahaza amahanga abanye-Congo bicira isazi mu maso.

Umutungo w’umuturage wavuye ku 1.372$ mu 1974 ugera kuri 518$ mu 2015. Ni mu gihe abaturage benshi ba RDC batabasha gutungwa n’idolari rimwe ku munsi, ni ukuvuga inoti ya 1000Frw.

None se uyu mutungo wa Congo urengera he? Iki ni ikibazo buri wese yibaza iyo abwiwe inkuru y’uburyo Congo ifite umutungo kamere watuma iba paradizo ariko ikaba ari kimwe mu bihugu bikennye ku Isi, bitagira ibikorwaremezo nk’imihanda, amavuriro, amashuri.

Politiki n’imiyoborere mibi ni ryo pfundo ry’ibibazo bihejeje abanye-Congo mu bukene bw’akarande. Ibi ni byo bituma amabuye y’agaciro y’iki gihugu n’indi mitungo kamere yirirwa isahurwa n’abitwa ‘abafatanyabikorwa’ ba Congo, ni ukuvuga ibigo biyacukura bikanayacuruza mu buryo bwa maguyi.

Urugero, mu masezerano afite agaciro ka miliyari 300$ igihugu cya Congo cyasinyanye na sosiyete zitandukanye zo mu mahanga zicukura cobalt, amafaranga akigarukira ku byacukuwe ni 3% andi ajya mu mifuka y’abanyamahanga batifuriza iki gihugu ineza.

Bibarwa kandi ko 40% bya diamant icukurwa mu bice bya Kasaï no muri Kivu zombi n’utundi duce nka Maniema na Katanga ijyanwa mu mahanga mu buryo bwa maguyi. Ni nako bigenda ku yandi mabuye.

Mu kiganiro umunyamakuru Alain Foka yagiranye na Albert Yuma Mulimbi, wabaye Perezida wa Gecamines [Ikigo cy’ubucukuzi n’Ubucuruzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro], yahishuye uburyo Leta ya Congo igenzurwa n’inama z’abo yita abafatanyabikorwa bayo ikabarekurira umutungo kamere wayo mu cyizere cy’uko bizayinjiriza akayabo ariko amaso agahera mu kirere.

Muri abo bafatanyabikorwa, Albert Yuma Mulimbi yakomoje ku Kigega Mpuzamahanga cy’imari (FMI) na Banki y’Isi babwira Congo ngo ‘mwebwe Leta ya Congo nta bushobozi bw’amafaranga mufite yo gutunganya no kubyaza umusaruro umutungo kamere wanyu, turabagira inama yo kubyegurira abafatanyabikorwa mpuzamahanga babizobereyemo kandi bafite ubushobozi bwo kubiteza imbere’.

Mulimbi avuga ko ikigo Gecamines cya Leta gicukura toni zirenga 500 z’amabuye y’agaciro ku mwaka kigatanga 70% y’umusaruro mu ngengo y’imari ya leta, mu gihe hari toni zirenga miliyoni zoherezwa hanze n’ibigo by’abanyamahanga ariko ntibitange nibura 17% mu isanduku ya leta, ibyo bimaze imyaka hagati ya 15 na 20.

Ati “Impamvu ni uko ibyo bigo bifata ibirombe [amabuye y’agaciro ya Congo] bikabitangaho ingwate mu mabanki yo hanze bikaguza amafaranga aho kuzana igishoro, bikazana inguzanyo ku nyungu irenze 10% kandi tuzi ko bazifashe kuri 2 cyangwa 3%”.

Bimwe mu bigo yatunze urutoki harimo TFM (Tenke Fungulume Mining), KCC (Kamoto Copper Company) n’ibindi byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi n’iby’Abashinwa.

Mulimbi ati “Dufite ubushobozi buke mu micungire y’umutungo wacu ndetse no kudashora imari mu bikorwa by’ubucukuzi ahubwo tugahora duteze amaboko abanyamahanga ngo abe ari bo babikora”.

RDC icukura toni zirenga miliyoni imwe z’umuringa [Cuivre] na toni zirenga ibihumbi 100 za Cobalt. Uruhare runini rw’ubu bucukuzi ni amasosiyete y’abanyamahanga asahura umutungo kamere w’iki gihugu nta nkomyi.

Ishami rishinzwe iby’Ubucukuzi bw’Amabuye y’Agaciro muri RDC, rivuga ko 70 % by’ibirombe by’amabuye y’agaciro muri RDC bigenzurwa na Sosiyete zo mu Bushinwa, ibisigaye bikagabanwa n’amasosiyete yo muri Amerika n’i Burayi.

Congo ni igihugu ruswa yamunze inzego zose zacyo kugeza ubwo n’umubare w’amafaranga aturuka mu bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro ku mwaka atazwi.

Raporo y’Ikigo gishinzwe Ubugenzuzi bw’Imari muri Congo, iherutse kugaragaza guhera mu 2010-2020, mu misoro y’amabuye y’agaciro isaga miliyoni 600 z’amadolari, asaga miliyoni 400$ ntiyageze mu isanduku ya Leta.

Muri iyo myaka icumi, bigaragara ko Gecamines yungutse miliyari 2 z’amadolari ariko miliyari $1.5 yakoreshejwe mu kwishyura imishahara y’abayobozi bakuru b’icyo kigo n’ingendo zabo mu mahanga.

Sosiyete mpuzamahanga zicukura amabuye muri Congo zinjije miliyari $35 mu myaka icumi uhereye 2010, ariko Gecamines ishinzwe ubucukuzi yashyikirijwe miliyoni $564 gusa, nta na kimwe cya cumi kirimo.

Akavuyo, ruswa, umutekano muke, imiyoborere mibi n’ibindi muri Congo biri mu byorohereza abanyamahanga gusahura byoroshye umutungo kamere wabo kugeza n’aho abakagombye kwishyura imisoro batabikora.

U Rwanda rukomeje kuba urwitwazo

Bimaze kuba akamenyero ko agakomye kose muri RDC, abanyapolitiki bayo babyegeka ku Rwanda. Kuba amabuye y’agaciro n’undi mutungo kamere wa Congo bitayigirira akamaro, urwitwazo ruba u Rwanda ko ruyiba.

Ni imvugo zakunze kunyuzwa mu bitangazamakuru byo muri RDC aho bivuga ko u Rwanda rushoza intambara muri iki gihugu kugira ngo rubone uko rusahura uwo mutungo kamere.

Byanashimangiwe na Raporo yakozwe kuri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo mu 2020, igashyikirizwa Perezida w’Akanama k’Umuryango w’Abibumbye gashinzwe Umutekano.
Yashyizwemo iby’uko hari amabuye y’agaciro anyura mu Rwanda agiye kugurishirizwa mu mahanga, bigakorwa n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro muri Congo. U Rwanda rwabyamaganiye kure, rugaragaza ko amabuye yose anyura mu Rwanda aba afite ibiyaranga n’aho yaturutse kandi ku buryo buzwi.

Ni ibintu Perezida Kagame aherutse gushimangira avuga ubushobozi igihugu gifite kibukoresha byinshi mu gusaranganya, ariko kidashobora kwiba.

Yagize ati "Yego, banavuga ko dushinjwa kwiba umutungo wabo, amabuye y’agaciro ya RDC, ikintu kimwe tutari cyo, ari nabyo bitugira abo navuze. Ntabwo turi abajura.”

“Dukorera kugera kubyo dufite n’ibyo tugeraho. Aho turi ubu, iterambere tumaze kugeraho, rishingiye rimwe na rimwe ku bufasha duhabwa n’aba bantu badushinja, ibi bihugu bikomeye, biduha ubufasha."

Perezida Kagame yavuze ko mu bashinja u Rwanda kwiba umutungo kamere wa RDC, harimo n’ibihugu bisanzwe birushyigikira, bizi neza ko iterambere rugezeho ryavuye mu gukora neza kandi cyane kw’Abanyarwanda.

Congo ni kimwe mu bihugu bifite ubutunzi bwinshi munsi y'ubutaka

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