Imishinga ikomeye yitezweho gutuma u Rwanda rwihaza mu rwego rw’ingufu

Yanditswe na Evariste Nsengimana
Kuya 5 Werurwe 2020 saa 01:53
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Urwego rw’ingufu ni imwe mu nkingi ya mwamba y’iterambere rirambye ry’igihugu, aho Guverinoma y’u Rwanda igenda ishyira imbaraga mu kongera ingano y’ingufu z’amashanyarazi, yaba afatiye ku muyoboro mugari cyangwa akomoka ku zindi ngufu.

Guverinoma igaragaza ko izakomeza gukora ibishoboka mu gutunganya amashanyarazi ajyanye n’ingano y’akenewe mu gihugu, ikanasagura nibura 15% ku mashanyarazi akenewe.

Ubushakashatsi bwa Gatanu ku mibereho y’ingo mu Rwanda (EICV5) bwa 2016/17 bwerekanye ko ingo 79.9% mu Rwanda zitekesha ibikomoka ku biti. Guverinoma yihaye intego yo kongera ububiko n’ingano bya Peteroli kuri ubu ingana na Litiro miliyoni 48 nibura mu mezi atatu.

Kugira ngo Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ibashe guhigura uwo muhigo wo guhaza umubare w’abakenera amashanyarazi no kugira nibura 15% y’inyongera, bisaba by’umwihariko kongera ingano y’amashanyarazi atunganywa mu gihugu, akava kuri megawatt 224.63 atunganywa uyu munsi akagera kuri megawatt 556 bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2024.

Ibyo Guverinoma igaragaza ko izabigeraho ibifashijwemo n’imishinga yo kongera ingano yayo, binyuze mu ngomero z’amashanyazi zirimo kubakwa hirya no hino mu gihugu.

Urugomero rwa Rusumo

Umushinga wo kubaka urugomero rwa Rusumo uhuriweho n’u Rwanda, Tanzania n’u Burundi, uzatanga megawatt 80 buri gihugu kigafata MW 26.7, ufite agaciro ka miliyoni 340$.

Ni amafaranga yatanzwe na Banki y’Isi yatanzemo miliyoni 340$ na Banki Nyafurika itsura amajyambere yatanzemo miliyoni 130$. Ayatanzwe na Banki y’Isi biteganyijwe ko yifashishwa mu bikorwa byo kubaka imiyoboro y’amashanyarazi mu gihe aya Banki Nyafurika itsura amajyambere azifashishwa mu kubaka sitasiyo z’amashanyarazi muri ibyo bihugu.

Ni umushinga watangijwe muri Werurwe 2017, biteganyijwe ko uzashyirwaho akadomo muri Nyakanga 2021 ariko uyu munsi ugeze kuri 59% mu gihe kubaka imiyoboro bigeze ku gipimo cya 30%.

Urugomero rwa Rusumo rwitezweho gucanira abaturage basaga miliyoni imwe bo mu Rwanda, Tanzania n'u Burundi

Umushinga wa nyiramugengeri wa Hakan

Umushinga wa Hakan ugamije kubyaza amashanyarazi muri Nyiramugengeri uzatanga megawatt 80 ariko megawatt 70 ni zo zizongerwa ku muyoboro mugari izindi megawatt 10 zifashishwe n’uruganda.

Muri Gashyantare 2016 nibwo Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yasinyanye amasezerano n’Ikigo Hakan Madencilik Ve Elektrik Uretim San. Tic. A.S cyo muri Turikiya yo gutegura, kubaka, gutera inkunga, gucunga no gukurikirana uruganda rutunganya Nyiramugengeri mu gishanga cy’Akanyaru, mu Karere ka Gisagara, rukayibyaza amashanyarazi.

Uyu mushinga biteganyijwe ko uzatangira gutanga amashanyarazi muri Kamena 2020.

Imirimo yo kubyaza amashanyarazi nyiramugengeri mu Karere ka Gisagara iri kugera ku musozo, uyu mushinga uzatahwa muri uyu mwaka]

Shema Power Lake Kivu Ltd

Mu mishinga minini irimo kubakwa kandi hari uwa Shema Power Lake Kivu Ltd (SPLK Ltd) uzatanga megawatt 56. Mu Ukwakira 2019 nibwo SPLK Ltd yatangije umushinga wo kubyaza amashanyarazi gaz methane iri mu kiyaga cya Kivu.

Uyu mushinga uzatwara miliyoni 200$, uzashyirwa mu bikorwa ku bufatanye bwa Guverinoma y’u Rwanda n’iyi Sosiyete SPLK Ltd.

Uri mu masezerano y’imyaka 25 u Rwanda ruheruka kugirana n’ikigo Symbion. Uzarushaho guteza imbere uburyo bwo gukora ubucuruzi, kuko amashanyarazi ari kimwe mu byo abikorera ndetse n’inzego za leta bakenera mu buryo bw’ibanze.

Ugiye kwiyongera ku wa KivuWatt ubyaza gaz methane megawatt 26, wubatswe n’ikigo cy’Abanyamerika, ContourGlobal, watashywe mu 2016.

Imiterere yo kubyaza amashanyarazi angana na MW56 mu Kivu ni uku uteye

Umushinga wa Rusizi III

Mu mwaka ushize nibwo u Rwanda, u Burundi na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, byashyize umukono ku masezerano yo kubaka urugomero rwa Rusizi III, rwitezweho gutanga megawatt zigera kuri 230.

Ku ikubitiro uwo mushinga wa miliyoni zisaga 625 z’amadolari uzatanga megawatt 147. Amasezerano yemeza ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’uyu mushinga wo kubaka Urugomero rw’amashanyarazi rwa Rusizi III yemerejwe mu Mujyi wa Kinshasa ku wa 29 Nyakanga 2019.

Biteganyijwe ko uwo mushinga niwuzura, u Rwanda ruzabonaho megawatt 47. Byitezwe ko bizanarushaho guha abaturage amashanyarazi ahendutse.

Umushinga wa Nyabarongo II

Urugomero rwa Nyabarongo II, ni undi mushinga witezweho byinshi mu bijyanye n’amashanyarazi, uzatanga megawatt 43.5. Biteganyijwe ko uzatangira mu Ukwakira 2021 ugashyirwaho akadomo mu Ukwakira 2025, utwaye miliyoni zisaga 625 z’amadolari.

Muri uyu mwaka nibwo Leta y’u Rwanda n’iy’u Bushinwa bashyize umukono ku masezerano y’inguzanyo ya miliyoni 214, ni ukuvuga asanga miriyari 203 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda agenewe kubaka urugomero rw’amashanyarazi rwa Nyabarongo rwa kabiri (II).

Umushinga wa nyiramugengeri wa Gishoma

Uruganda rwa Gishoma, rwubatswe kugira ngo rutange amashanyarazi akomoka kuri nyiramugengeri angana na Megwatt 15.

Ni umushinga watangijwe ku wa 27 Gashyantare 2013 n’ikigo cyitwa Engineering Procurement and construction (EPC), wuzura muri Gicurasi 2017 ariko kuri ubu ukaba ubasha gutanga amashanyarazi mu mpeshyi gusa bitewe n’uko ari bwo haboneka nyiramugengeri.

Gishoma igiye gutangira gutanga amashanyarazi aturutse muri Nyiramugengeri

Kubyaza umusaruro amashyuza

Mu 1983 nibwo mu Ntara y’Iburengerazuba, Umurenge wa Bugarama no mu Majyaruguru muri Kinigi na Kalisimbi, havumbuwe amazi afite ubushyuhe buri hejuru ya dogere Celsius 100.

Kuva icyo gihe hakozwe inyigo zitandukanye zigamije kubyaza umusaruro uyu mutungo kamere ariko ayo kuri Kalisimbi bigaragara ko gukomeza gushaka uburyo bwo kuyabyaza umusaruro bishobora guteza ingaruka mbi bitewe n’ubushyuhe bwinshi.

Inyigo zigamije kubyaza umusaruro amashyuza ubu zikomeje gukorwa ku yagaragaye mu Murenge wa Bugarama binyuze mu nkunga y’Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’u Burayi.

Sosiyete y’Igihugu ishinzwe Ingufu, REG, igaragaza ko magingo aya amashanyarazi ageze ku baturarwanda 52.8%, bingana n’abafatabuguzi miliyoni 1.4. Barimo miliyoni imwe bakoresha amashanyarazi yo ku muyoboro mugari (38.5%), n’ibihumbi 400 (14.3%) bakoresha akomoka ku zindi ngufu.

Guverinoma ifite intego ko bitarenze 2024 izaba yagejeje amashanyarazi ku baturage bose (100%) aho nibura 52% bazaba bakoresha amashanyarazi yo ku muyoboro mugari naho 48% bakoresha akomoka ku zindi ngufu.

Guverinoma igaragaza ko izakomeza gushyira imbaraga mu bikorwa byo kongerera ubushobozi imiyoboro y’amashanyarazi hirya no hino mu gihugu.

Imwe mu iheruka kongererwa ubushobozi harimo uwa Jabana, Mont Kigali na Gahanga ufite Kilovolt 110. Uyu muyoboro wuzuye muri Werurwe 2019, ukaba ugaburira igice cy’Umujyi wa Kigali n’Akarere ka Bugesera.

Hari kandi sitasiyo ya Ndera yashyizweho akadomo muri Nzeri 2018 mu rwego rwo gukumira ibura ry’amashanyarazi mu Mujyi wa Kigali n’umushinga wo kwagura umuyoboro wa Rubavu ukava ku gutanga Kilovolt 6.6 zikagera kuri Kilovolt 30.

Iyo ugeze mu Mujyi wa Rubavu bigusaba iminota 30 ugenda n'imodoka ngo ugere ku mashyuza

Indi mishinga

U Rwanda rwiteze ku kubyaza umusaruro umushinga w’amashanyarazi azaturuka muri Ethiopia na Kenya, akanyura muri Uganda, mu Rwanda, agakomeza muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo no mu Burundi, biteganyijwe ko numara gushyirwaho akadomo ibyo bihugu byose bizabasha kugura amashanyarazi bishobora gukoresha.

Muri uyu mushinga ku gice cy’u Rwanda hazubakwa umuyoboro wa kilometero 286, uzatwara amashanyarazi angana na Kilovolt 220, na sitasiyo nshya za Rubavu, Bwishyura na Kibuye ndetse hakavugururwa iza Birembo na Karongi.

Kubaka imiyoboro y’uyu mushinga ubu yamaze kurangira ariko sitasiyo zihuza u Rwanda, RDC n’u Burundi zikaba zitarashyirwaho akadomo.

Guverinoma kandi ikomeza gukora ibishoboka mu gukemura ikibazo cy’umuriro muke mu rwego rwo guhaza umubare w’abafatabuguzi ukomeje kwiyongera. Hari kandi kuvugurura imiyoboro ishaje kugira ngo ikomeze gutanga amashanyarazi afite ingufu no guhaza ibyifuzo by’abafatabuguzi binyuze mu kubaha serivisi inoze.

Kubungabunga izindi ngufu

Imibare igaragaza ko hafi 79.9% by’abanyarwanda bakoresha inkwi n’amakara igihe bateka. Guverinoma yihaye intego yo kugabanya uwo mubare nibura ukazaba wageze kuri 42% bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2024.

Kugira ngo ibyo bigerweho Leta yashyizeho ingamba zihariye zirimo gushishikariza abantu guteka bifashishije uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga kandi buhendutse. Hari kandi igerageza Minisiteri y’Ibikorwa remezo ifatanyije n’Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’Ibihugu by’u Burayi yatangije ryo gutangiza kwifashisha uburyo bugezweho bwo guteka mu mashuri kandi butangiza ibidukikije.

Ubu buryo bugamije gusiga ibigo by’amashuri bitandukanye no gutekesha inkwi n’amakara biteganyijwe ko buzakorerwa mu bigo birenga 400 mu gihe cy’igerageza.

Abanyarwanda bakomeje gushishikarizwa gukoresha gaz aho kuba inkwi mu gucana

Ingufu za nucléaire

Kuwa 24 Ukwakira 2019 nibwo u Rwanda n’Ikigo cya Leta y’u Burusiya gishinzwe ingufu (Rosatom) byasinyanye amasezerano y’ubufatanye mu mushinga wo kubaka mu Rwanda ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi ku bumenyi bw’ingufu za nucléaire n’ikoranabuhanga (Center for Nuclear Science and Technology).

Amasezerano ateganya ko icyo kigo kizafasha u Rwanda mu bikorwa bya gisivili birimo iby’ubuvuzi nko kuvura indwara za kanseri hifashishijwe uburyo bwo kuyishiririza (radiothérapie), kwigisha no guhugura ku buryo bwo kubyaza umusaruro izo ngufu n’ibindi.

Biteganyijwe ko urwego rw’ubuzima, ingufu, ubuhinzi, umutekano, inganda, uburezi, ibidukikije n’ibindi ari zo zigomba kungukira muri ayo masezerano.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rukomeje gukora ibishoboka ngo urwego rw’ingufu rutere imbere, Urwego Ngenzuramikorere, RURA, ruheruka gukora amavugurura mu biciro by’amashanyarazi, abatishoboye bakoresha amashanyarazi make bakarushaho koroherezwa, kimwe n’ibitaro n’imishinga y’amazi.

U Rwanda ruherutse gusinyana amasezerano n'Ikigo cy'u Burusiya gishinzwe ingufu za nucléaire

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