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Gucikamo kabiri mu ngabo, igitutu cy’amahanga, umusanzu w’u Rwanda: Amb Dafalla wa Sudani twaganiriye

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 27 May 2024 saa 08:05
Yasuwe :

Umwaka wa 2018 ni umwe mu yabaye mibi cyane ku baturage ba Sudani. Ubushomeri, ubukene n’ubuzima buhenze byari uruhurirane kuri benshi, bikarushaho kujya habi ugiye ku isoko, kuko ibiciro muri uwo mwaka byazamutse ku kigero kirenga 62%.

Ibintu ntibyari byarigeze byoroha kuva mu 2011 ubwo Sudani yatandukanaga na Sudani
y’Epfo, igatakaza 25% by’ibirombe bicukurwamo peteroli, byahise bijya ku ruhande rwa Sudani y’Epfo.

Icyakora iri zamuka ridasanzwe ry’ibiciro siryo ryari ikibazo gikomeye muri Sudani. Ibindi bibazo byari ibijyanye n’imiyoborere yakunze kuvugwamo ruswa ihambaye, ibi bikajyana n’ingengo y’imari y’igisirikare yakomeje kwiyongera kuko yavuye kuri miliyari 2,08$ mu 2011, igera kuri miliyari 4,48$ mu 2018 ndetse na miliyari 6,35$ mu mwaka wakurikiyeho.

Uku gushyira amafaranga menshi mu gisirikare kandi aho aturuka haragabanutse, byashyize ubukungu bw’iki gihugu mu byago bikomeye, biza gutuma Leta yiga umugambi wo kugabanya nkunganire yari isanzwe itangwa mu bikorwa binyuranye.

Mu Ukuboza 2018, imigati niyo yari itahiwe mu gukurirwaho nkunganire. Icyakora ibi ntibyari burangire gutyo gusa, kuko umugati muri Sudani ari ishyiga ry’inyuma mu ngo za benshi, nubwo hagati 75% na 85% by’ingano ukorwamo ituruka mu mahanga.

Gukuraho nkunganire ku migati byatumye igiciro cyayo gihita cyikuba inshuro eshatu zose kandi mu gihe gito, abaturage bari barihanganye igihe kirekire banga gukomeza gushira bumva, biroha mu mihanda basaba Omar al Bashir kurekura ubutegetsi yari amazeho hafi imyaka 30.

Mu myigaragambyo karundura yamaze amezi atanu, Igisirikare cya Sudani cyaje kubona ko bya bintu atari uburakari busanzwe, gifata icyemezo cyo gukuraho Perezida Omar al Bashir muri Mata 2019.

Gusa gukuraho Bashir nabyo ntabwo byari bwikore gutyo gusa. Mu 2013, uyu mugabo yari yarinjije abahoze ari Aba-Janjaweed mu Ngabo z’Igihugu, ariko bagira umutwe wihariye, ufite imikorere n’ubuyobozi byihariye, uza kwitwa Rapid Support Forces (RSF).

Ibi byatumye RSF igira ubushobozi budasanzwe, ku buryo neza neza yari imeze nk’igisirikare ukwacyo, gifite abarwanyi barenga ibihumbi 150, ibirombe bacukuramo zahabu n’ibindi.

Ubwo Igisirikare cya Sudani cyashakaga kuvanga RSF mu Ngabo za Leta, Gen. Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo uzwi nka Hemedti, akaba Umuyobozi wa RSF yarabyanze, agerageza gukora coup d’état biranga, niko kwegura intwaro atangira guhangana n’Igisirikare cya Sudani, kiyobowe na Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Burhan Abdelrahman al-Burhan.

Ni ihangana rihuje ibisirikare bibiri bijya kunganya imbaraga, ku buryo ari intambara karundura imaze kwangiza ibifite agaciro karenga miliyari 200$ muri Sudani.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Ambasaderi wa Sudani mu Rwanda, Khalid Musa Dafalla Musa, yagarutse ku mpamvu muzi y’iyi ntambara, uruhare rw’amahanga, amasomo yigirwa ku Rwanda n’uburyo iyi ntambara ishobora kuzarangira.

Ambasaderi wa Sudan mu Rwanda, Khalid Musa Dafalla Musa, yavuze ko u Rwanda ari urugero rwiza rwo kwigiraho uburyo igihugu cyiyubaka nyuma y'amakimbirane

Umaze igihe gito mu Rwanda, ni gute wabonye igihugu?

Maze amezi atatu gusa ngeze mu Rwanda, ariko mu by’ukuri numva ndi mu rugo. Nkunda iki gihugu, nkunda abantu bacyo kandi hano hari abaturage benshi ba Sudani nabo bishimiye ubuzima babayemo. Dufite byinshi duhuriyeho nka Sudani n’u Rwanda.

Hagati aho, intambara iri guca ibintu mu gihugu cyawe, mu by’ukuri ni iyihe mpamvu muzi y’iyi ntambara?

Ni ingenzi ko tugaruka ku makuru y’ukuri kuri iyi ntambara. Icya mbere ni ingenzi kwibuka ko iyi atari intambara iri guhuza aba-General babiri. Ni intambara iri guhuza umutwe wa RSF uhanganye n’Ingabo z’igihugu ndetse n’abaturage ba Sudani.

Ni intambara yatangiye umwaka ushize (Mata, 2023), itewe mu by’ukuri no kwifuza ubutegetsi mu buryo budafite impamvu. Impamvu nyamukuru yabayeho ubwo igihugu cyarimo guca mu bihe by’ihinduka ry’ubutegetsi [byakurikiye ivanwa ku butegetsi rya Perezida Omar al-Bashir] mu 2019.

Twari twarashyizeho itegeko rizagenga ibyo bihe, hari haragiyeho Leta ihuriweho n’abasivile ndetse n’abasirikare. Gusa ubwo twinjiraga muri ibyo bihe byo guhererekanya ubutegetsi dufite igisirikare kimwe (gihuriweho n’impande zombi), nibwo ikibazo cyatangiye kuko RSF ifite abasirikare barenga ibihumbi 150, bafite amafaranga, bafite inkunga ituruka mu mahanga, bafite ubushobozi mu bya politiki ndetse no muri sosiyete ya Sudani, yabyanze.

Ubwo bushobozi buhambaye no gukora basa nk’abigenga byatumye RSF yanga kwinjira mu ngabo z’igihugu kuko bifuzaga kubaho nk’igisirikare cyigenga, batagira uwababaza inshingano kandi ibi byari ikibazo gikomeye ku busugire bwa Sudani.

Ubuyobozi bwa RSF (buyobowe Mohamed Hamdan ’Hemedti’ Dagalo) bumaze kwangirwa ibyo bwifuzaga, bwashatse gukora coup d’etat, aho bashakaga kwica Perezida Abdel Fattah al-Burhan (wayoboraga Akanama ka Gisirikare kari kayoboye igihugu)

Ibyo bibananiye nibwo batangiye intambara

Gusa ikibabaje, ni uko iyi ntambara itakomeza igihe kingana gutya nta bufasha butangwa n’ibindi bihugu. Ikizahagarika iyi ntambara ni ugushyiraho igisirikare kimwe gihuriweho mu gihugu hose.

Ni he RSF yakuye imbaraga zishobora gutuma irwana intambara ikomeye gutya?

Nyuma y’uko Bashir avuye ku butegetsi, ntabwo higeze habaho guteganya uburyo bwo kurinda ubusugire bw’igihugu. RSF yari ifite uruhare runini mu nzego z’umutekano za Sudani [mu gihe cya Perezida Omar al-Bashir] ariko yagenzurwaga n’Ingabo za Sudani.

Gusa baje guhindura iri tegeko [rivuga ko RSF igenzurwa n’Igisirikare cya Sudani] bashaka kwigenga, bubaka imikoranire n’ibihugu by’amahanga, bohereza Ingabo kurwana mu bihugu nka Libya na Yemen kandi bakagira amafaranga kuko bagenzura ibirombe bya zahabu. Ni mu gihe ubuyobozi bw’uyu mutwe bwagizwe ubwa kabiri nyuma y’ubuyobozi bukuru bw’igisirikare. (Umuyobozi wa RSF yagizwe Visi Perezida muri Guverinoma yakurikiye ihirikwa rya Omar al-Bashir)

Ibi byose rero byatumye bifuza kugira ubushobozi burenzeho. Nk’abantu bafite imbaraga z’amafaranga n’ubushobozi mu bya politiki, icyo bifuje hejuru y’ubu bubasha bwose ni ukuyobora Sudani aho gukomeza gukorera mu kwaha kw’abandi kandi bafite imbaraga mu buryo bwose.

Ibi ni amakosa yaturutse ku kugenzura nabi igihe cyakurikiye ivanwa ku butegetsi rya Omar al Bashir. Abayobozi bacu bagenzuye nabi ibihe bya nyuma y’ihinduka ry’ubutegetsi.

Ukeka ko kuvanaho Omar al-Bashir byari ikosa?

Abaturage bakuraho ubuyobozi iyo bumva ko batanyuzwe n’ibyo bubagezaho. Nyuma yo kuvaho kwa Bashir, nari kwifuza ko habaho guherekanya ububasha mu buryo bukwiriye kugira ngo twirinde ibi byago turimo.

Gusa na nyuma y’uko Bashir avuye ku butegetsi, ntabwo abayobozi bakurikiyeho babashije kumvikana ku bijyanye no guhererekanya ubutegetsi.

Igihe cyose ufite ibisirikare bibiri byifuza kuyobora igihugu, kandi hari n’ibihugu by’amahanga bishyigikiye ibyo bisirikare, kenshi ubwo buryo bw’imiyoborere buganisha ku ntambara, kereka iyo habayeho kwigengesera.

Ni iki Hemedti na Burhan bapfuye?

Barakoranaga, Burhan ari Perezida naho Hemedti ari Visi Perezida. Nkeka ko ibibazo byatangiye ubwo Hemedti yeguraga kuko atari ashoboye kuyobora igihugu. Ukutumvikana no guhanganira ubutegetsi nibyo byatumye yegura. Nyuma yaho Igisirikare cyagerageje kugenzura igihugu no gusubiza ibintu ku murongo. [mu byagombaga gukorwa harimo kuvanga RSF mu ngabo za Leta ya Sudani]

Ibyo bibaye nibwo Hemedti yifuje kuyobora igihugu kuko atifuza ko RSF yinjizwa mu gisirikare cya Leta kuko byari bumugabanyirize ubushobozi iyo igisirikare cye cyinjizwa mu Ngabo z’igihugu. Ibi nabyo byari bugire ingaruka ku ntego yari afite mu bya politiki.

RSF nta mpamvu za politiki ifite, nta gahunda yo kuyobora igihugu ifite.

Niba abaturage ba Sudani badashyigikiye RSF, ni inde ubatera inkunga?

Hari ingingo eshatu. Icya mbere ni uko bafite abacanshuro baturaka mu bihugu bituranye na Sudani, kuva muri Libya, Tchad, Ethiopia n’ahandi.

Ikindi ni uko babona intwaro zituruka mu gihugu kimwe gikomeye cyo mu Karere. Hari kandi n’ibihugu bishyigikiye RSF mu buryo bwa politiki.

Rero RSF ubwayo nta mbaraga ifite, ahubwo ni igikoresho cy’ibindi bihugu bikomeye mu Karere.

Amb Dafalla yagarutse ku buryo RSF ibonamo inkunga

Ibihugu bitera inkunga intambara muri Sudani bigamije iki?

Biragoye gusobanura impamvu… gusa Sudani ni igihugu gifite umutungo kamere uhagije, giherereye ahantu heza. Ibihugu rero bifite inyungu yo gukorana na Sudani, gusa hari uburyo ibihugu byakorana mu buryo bwiza. Niba ngufunguriye umuryango, kuki wakwifuza guca mu idirishya?

Itandukana rya Sudani na Sudani y’Epfo nta ruhare ryagize muri iki kibazo?

Gutandukana kwa Sudani na Sudani y’Epfo cyari icyifuzo cya Sudani y’Epfo kandi twubaha ubwigenge bwa Sudani y’Epfo. Habayeho gutandukana kw’imipaka ariko umuco n’imibanire ntibyahindutse.

Iri tandukana ryatumye Sudani ibura 25% by’amafaranga yakuraga mu bucukuzi bwa peteroli. Na Sudani y’Epfo hari ibyo yahombye, ubwo rero iri tandukana ryatumye ubukungu bw’ibihugu byombi buhungabana.

Nibyo twese twarahombye, ntabwo twabashije kugenzura neza ibi bihombo ndetse no gushaka uburyo bwiza bwo kugaruza ibyo twahombye, ariko hari amahirwe yo gukorana mu guhangana n’ibi bibazo.

Burhan yavuze ko atifuza kuganira na Hemidti, kuki adashaka ibiganiro kandi bishobora kuba uburyo bwiza bwo kurangiza iki kibazo?

Leta ya Sudani ntabwo yigeze ihakana ibiganiro, ariko turashaka ibiganiro bizashingira ku masezerano twagiranye na RSF, abasaba kuva mu ngo z’abaturage, guhagarika ibitero ku baturage ndetse no kwivugurura mu gihe bari kwitegura guhagarika intambara [bakinjizwa mu ngabo za leta]

Ibi biganiro bimaze amezi arenga atandatu [bibaye] kandi RSF ntabwo yifuza kubahiriza amasezerano.

Kuvuga ko Leta ya Sudani itifuza ibiganiro ntabwo ari ukuri, turashaka ibiganiro ariko turashaka ko RSF igomba gushyira mu bikorwa ibyo yasinyiye.

(Impande zombi zasinye amasezerano azwi nka ‘Jeddah Declaration of Commitment to Protect the Civilians of Sudan’, aho buri ruhande rwiyemeje kurinda abasivile muri iyi ntambara. Ni amasezerano yasinyiwe i Jeddah muri Arabie Saoudite ku itariki ya 11 Gicurasi, 2023.)

Ese urebye uko RSF yitwara, ubona Leta ya Sudani idashobora kuzigomwa bimwe mu byo yifuzaga muri aya masezerano?

Nkubwije ukuri, RSF ntishobora gutsinda iyi ntambara kuko iyi ntambara ibahanganishije n’abaturage ba Sudani, kereka baramutse babashije kwica miliyoni 40 z’abaturage ba Sudani.

Icya kabiri ni uko imbaraga za gisirikare bafite atari izabo. Aba bacanshuro babo ni abavuye mu bihugu byo hanze, imbaraga za politiki bafite zishingiye ku bufasha bw’ibihugu by’amahanga babereye igikoresho.

Ikindi ni uko badafite impamvu y’intambara. Impamvu yabo ni iyihe? Gufata ku ngufu abagore no gusenya ibikorwa by’abaturage? Nta gisirikare cyabo bafite, nta genamigambi bafite, nta mpamvu bafite yo gutsinda iyi ntambara, ariko twiteguye kuganira nabo mu gihe bubahirije amasezerano.

Kuki utekereza ko RSF idafite amahirwe na make yo gutsinda iyi ntambara kandi ikomeje kwigarurira ibice bimwe na bimwe by’igihugu?

Kubera impamvu imwe ya politiki. Ntabwo bafite imitima y’abaturage ba Sudani. Ubu bagenzura ibice bine muri Darfur kandi ibice bagenzura biracyarimo akavuyo, nta buyobozi buhari, nta biryo bihari, nta mavuriro, nta mashuri, nta kintu na kimwe gihari.

Bari gutakaza imitima y’abaturage ba Sudani bityo ntibashobora gutsinda iyi ntambara kuko badafite imitima y’abaturage ba Sudani.

Ukeka ko Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe ufite ubushobozi bwo gukemura iki kibazo?

Rimwe mu mahame akomeye y’Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe ni ugukemura ibibazo bya Afurika bigakemurwa n’Abanyafurika. Iki ni ikibazo cya Afurika kandi kigomba gukemurwa n’Abanyafurika.

Gusa uburyo Afurika Yunze Ubumwe iri gukemura iki kibazo, hari byinshi byakorwa neza kurushaho. Bafite ubushobozi, bafite abantu n’uburyo. Ndetse n’abayobozi ba Afurika bagira uruhare mu gukemura ikibazo cya Sudani.

Ntutekereza ko impamvu Afurika Yunze Ubumwe itari kugira uruhare rufatika mu gukemura iki kibazo, ari uko nta bushobozi bwo kugikemura ifite?

Birashoboka ariko mu by’ukuri ikibura ni ubushake bwa politiki, ntabwo ari ubushobozi. Bafite ubushobozi, banabona ubundi bushobozi buturutse ku rwego mpuzamahanga mu gihe baba bafite ubushake bwo gukemura iki kibazo.

Gusa urebye neza ubona ko hari ukutumvikana ku buryo bwo gukemura iki kibazo. Gusa twizeye ko Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe, mu gihe wabikora neza, bagira uruhare mu kugarura amahoro n’umutekano muri Sudani.

Icyakora ubu Sudani ubu yambuwe uburenganzira bwo kuba umunyamuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe bwa Afurika. Mu gihe Sudani itasubizwa uburenganzira bwo kuba umunyamuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe kugira ngo igire uruhare muri ibi biganiro mu buryo bufatika, birumvikana ko Afurika Yunze itagira uburyo bwiza bwo gukemura iki kibazo.

Icya mbere, bakwiriye kongera kwemera Sudani nk’Umunyamuryango wuzuye wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe.

Amb Dafalla yagarutse ku ruhare rw'Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe mu gukemura ikibazo cy'intambara muri Sudani

Hari icyo u Rwanda rwaba ruri gufasha mu gukemura ikibazo cya Sudani?

Dufitanye umubano mwiza n’u Rwanda. Abaturage ba Sudani bazi neza uruhare rw’u Rwanda mu kibazo cya Darfur mu 2003 kuko u Rwanda ruri mu bihugu bya mbere byatanze Ingabo zafashije mu kugarura amahoro muri ako gace kandi rwahasize izina ryiza cyane.

Ku mubano w’ibya politiki, hari ibintu byinshi dukorana. Hari ingendo ku nzego zakozwe hagati y’ibihugu byombi. Twasinyanye amasezerano y’ubufatanye mu nzego zitandukanye kandi twungurana ibitekerezo ku bijyanye n’umutekano w’Akarere turimo.

Dushimira cyane ubuyobozi bwa Perezida Paul Kagame ubwo yari ayoboye Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe, cyane cyane ku bijyanye n’amavugurura yayoboye. Yatanze urugero rw’uburyo kubaka igihugu byakorwa nyuma y’amakimbirane na Jenoside.

U Rwanda ni urugero rwiza rwo kubaka igihugu.

Visi Perezida wa Sudan yasuye u Rwanda mu mezi abiri ashize, kandi yagize amahirwe yo guhura na Perezida Paul Kagame bagirana ibiganiro bigaruka ku bintu uko biri kandi byubaka.

Twishimiye cyane kwakira inama z’ubuhanga za Perezida Kagame. Imwe mu nama zikomeye [Perezida Kagame yaduhaye] ni uko abaturage ba Sudani bakwiriye gukorera hamwe mu kugarura amahoro mu gihugu cyabo aho gushingira ku gisubizo giturutse hanze y’igihugu. Twizeye ko ibi bizadufasha mu rugendo rwo gushaka amahoro muri Sudani.

Twabonye mutegura inama yahuje abacuruzi bo muri Sudani n’abo mu Rwanda, ese mubona hari amahirwe yo gukora ubucuruzi mu Rwanda?

Ubu dufite abaturage hafi 3000 bakomoka muri Sudani, dufite abanyeshuri barenga 1000 biga mu mashuri makuru mu Rwanda, dufite n’imiryango y’Abanya-Sudani ituye mu Rwanda.

Abanya-Sudani ntabwo bari kuza hano nk’impunzi, ahubwo bari kuza nk’abantu bagira uruhare runini mu bukungu bw’igihugu n’imibereho rusange. Ni abantu usanga bari mu cyiciro giciriritse, bafite imyuga bakora. Bari kureba uburyo bashora imari mu Rwanda.

Dufite abakora ubucuruzi mu bwubatsi, ubucuruzi bw’ibiribwa, ubworozi, serivisi, kohereza no kuvana ibucuruzwa mu mahanga n’ibindi.

Hari n’abari kuvana igishoro muri Sudani no mu bindi bihugu bakaza gushora mu Rwanda kubera ingamba zorohereza ishoramari ziri hano ndetse n’imikorere ifatika. Ikindi ni uko bataza bonyine, ahubwo bazana n’imiryango yabo.

Kuba abacuruzi ku mpande zombi barahuye ni ikimenyetso simusiga cy’uko hari ubushake bwo gukorana ku bacuruzi bakomoka muri Sudani n’abo mu Rwanda.

Ni izihe ntego ufite nka Ambasaderi wa Sudani mu Rwanda?

Intego ya buri muyobozi uhagarariye igihugu cye mu Rwanda, ni ukuzamura imikoranire mu nzego zose, yaba iza politiki, ubukungu, umuco ndetse no guhuza abaturage b’ibihugu byombi no gushyiraho amahirwe yo gukorana.

Twakwifuje ko abanyeshuri benshi baza kwiga mu Rwanda, turifuza kugirana amasezerano menshi n’u Rwanda mu nzego zitandukanye.

Dufite intego imwe ubu, mu gihe iyi ntambara izaba irangiye, mufite uburambe buhambaye mu kubaka igihugu nyuma ya Jenoside. U Rwanda uyu munsi ni urugero rw’imiyoborere myiza, kubaka igihugu, kubaka ubumwe bw’abanyagihugu, kubaka inzego z’igihugu, mufite uburambe buhambaye kandi dukeneye ubwo burambe muri Sudani.

Ni gute twazongera kubaka igihugu cyacu nyuma y’intambara, nyuma ya Jenoside? U Rwanda ni urugero rwiza rwo kwigiraho.

Tuzakorana kugira ngo tubone ubu bumenyi ndetse no kugira ngo tubone ubumenyi n’ubunararibonye bwa Perezida Kagame.

Video y’ikiganiro IGIHE yagiranye na Ambasaderi wa Sudani mu Rwanda, Khalid Musa Dafalla Musa.

Amb Dafalla yanyuzwe n'uburyo yabonye u Rwanda

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